Gregory Peck

Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck Publicity Photo 1944.jpg
Gregory Peck in 1944
Born
Eldred Gregory Peck

(1916-04-05)April 5, 1916
DiedJune 12, 2003(2003-06-12) (aged 87)
Resting placeCathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, Los Angeles, California, U.S.
NationalityAmerican
Alma materSan Diego State University
University of California, Berkeley
OccupationActor
Years active1941–2000
Home townLa Jolla, California, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)
Children5, including Cecilia Peck
FamilyEthan Peck (grandson)
Websitegregorypeck.com

Eldred Gregory Peck (April 5, 1916 – June 12, 2003) was an American actor. He was one of the most popular film stars from the 1940s to the 1960s. Peck received five nominations for Academy Award for Best Actor and won once – for his performance as Atticus Finch in the 1962 drama film To Kill a Mockingbird. Peck's other Oscar-nominated roles are in the following films: The Keys of the Kingdom (1944), The Yearling (1946), Gentleman's Agreement (1947), and Twelve O'Clock High (1949).

Other notable films in which he appeared include Spellbound (1945), The Gunfighter (1950), Roman Holiday (1953), Moby Dick (1956, and its 1998 mini-series), The Big Country (1958), The Guns of Navarone (1961), Cape Fear (1962, and its 1991 remake), How the West Was Won (1962), The Omen (1976), and The Boys from Brazil (1978).

U.S. President Lyndon Johnson honored Peck with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1969 for his lifetime humanitarian efforts. In 1999, the American Film Institute named Peck among Greatest Male Stars of Classic Hollywood cinema, ranking him at No. 12.

Early life[edit]

Eldred Gregory Peck was born on April 5, 1916, in San Diego, California, to Bernice Mae "Bunny" (née Ayres; 1894–1992), and Gregory Pearl Peck (1886–1962), a Rochester, New York-born chemist and pharmacist. His father was of English (paternal) and Irish (maternal) heritage,[1][2] and his mother was of English and Scots ancestry.[3] She converted to her husband's religion, Roman Catholicism, and Peck was raised as a Catholic. Through his Irish-born paternal grandmother Catherine Ashe (1864–1926), Peck was related to Thomas Ashe (1885–1917), who participated in the Easter Rising less than three weeks after Peck's birth and died while being force-fed during his hunger strike in 1917.

Peck (right) with his father c. 1930

Peck's parents divorced when he was five, and he was brought up by his maternal grandmother, who took him to the movies every week.[4][5] At the age of 10, he was sent to a Catholic military school, St. John's Military Academy in Los Angeles. While he was a student there, his grandmother died. At 14, he moved back to San Diego to live with his father. He attended San Diego High School,[6] and after graduating, he enrolled for one year at San Diego State Teacher's College (now known as San Diego State University). While there, he joined the track team, took his first theatre and public-speaking courses, and pledged the Epsilon Eta fraternity.[7] Peck had ambitions to be a doctor, and the following year, he gained admission to the University of California, Berkeley,[8] as an English major and pre-medical student. Standing 6 ft 3 in (1.91 m), he rowed on the university crew. Although his tuition fee was only $26 per year, Peck still struggled to pay and took a job as a "hasher" (kitchen helper) for the Gamma Phi Beta sorority in exchange for meals.

At Berkeley, his deep, well-modulated voice got him attention, and after participating in a public speaking course, he decided to try acting.[9] He was encouraged by an acting coach, who saw in him perfect material for university theatre, and he became more and more interested in acting. He was recruited by Edwin Duerr, director of the university's Little Theater, and appeared in five plays during his senior year, including as Starbuck in Moby Dick.[9] Peck would later say about Berkeley that "it was a very special experience for me, and three of the greatest years of my life. It woke me up and made me a human being."[10] In 1997, Peck donated $25,000 to the Berkeley rowing crew in honor of his coach, the renowned Ky Ebright.

Stage career[edit]

Peck did not graduate with his friends because he lacked one course. His college friends were concerned for him, and wondered how he would get along without his degree. "I have all I need from the University", he told them. Peck dropped the name "Eldred" and headed to New York City to study at the Neighborhood Playhouse[9] with the legendary acting teacher Sanford Meisner. He was often broke, and sometimes slept in Central Park.[11] He worked at the 1939 World's Fair as a barker, and Rockefeller Center as a tour guide for NBC television, and at Radio City Music Hall.[9] He dabbled in modelling before, in 1940, working in exchange for food at the Barter Theatre in Abingdon, Virginia,[9][12] where he appeared in five plays, including Family Portrait and On Earth As It Is.[12]

His stage career began in 1941, when he played the secretary in a Katharine Cornell production of George Bernard Shaw's play The Doctor's Dilemma. The play opened in San Francisco just one week before the attack on Pearl Harbor.[13] He made his Broadway debut as the lead in Emlyn Williams' The Morning Star in 1942.[9] His second Broadway performance that year was in The Willow and I with Edward Pawley. Peck's acting abilities were in high demand during World War II because he was exempted from military service, owing to a back injury suffered while receiving dance and movement lessons from Martha Graham as part of his acting training. Twentieth Century Fox later claimed he had injured his back while rowing at university, but in Peck's words, "In Hollywood, they didn't think a dance class was macho enough, I guess. I've been trying to straighten out that story for years."[14]

In 1947, Peck co-founded The La Jolla Playhouse, at his birthplace, with Mel Ferrer and Dorothy McGuire.[15] This summer stock company presented productions in the La Jolla High School Auditorium from 1947 until 1964. In 1983, the La Jolla Playhouse re-opened in a new home at the University of California, San Diego, where it still thrives today. It has attracted Hollywood film stars on hiatus, both as performers and enthusiastic supporters, since its inception.

Film career[edit]

Rapid critical and commercial success (1944-1946)[edit]

Peck in Days of Glory (1944)

After about 50 plays in total, including three short-lived Broadway plays, four or five on road tours, and the rest during summer theater,[16] Peck was offered his first film role, the male lead in the war-romance Days of Glory (1944), directed by Jacques Tourneur, alongside top-billed ballerina Tamara Toumanova.[9] Peck portrayed the leader of Russian guerrillas resisting the Germans in 1941 who stumble across a beautiful Russian dancer (Toumanova), who had been sent to entertain Russian troops, and protect her by letting her join their group.[9][17] The film lost money disappearing from theatres quickly[18][19] generally receiving poor reviews that described it as verbose and slow-moving.[a]

Despite the film's lack of success, critics and audiences were in agreement that Peck had screen potential.[22] Film historian Barry Monush wrote that "Peck's star power was evident from the word go".[9] Hollywood movie producers became very interested in him but rather than signing an exclusive long-term contract with one studio, he decided to free-lance,[9] signing non-exclusive contracts with four studios,[23] including an unusual dual contract with 20th Century Fox and Gone With the Wind producer David O. Selznick.[24] This enabled him to choose only roles that interested him and resulted in him landing roles in several big-budget films over the next few years.[9]

Peck's second movie, The Keys of the Kingdom (1944), features him as an 80-year-old Roman Catholic priest looking back at his epic undertakings during over half a century spent as a determined, self-sacrificing missionary in China.[25][26] The film shows him aging from his 20s to 80 and he is in almost every scene.[9][27] At the time of release, Peck's performance was lauded by Variety and The New York Times but the movie had mixed reviews.[b] Peck received his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor and the movie had three other nominations, including for cinematography.[29] In the twenty-first century, critics' reviews of The Keys to the Kingdom continue to be mixed some citing the film's length[c] but opinions of Peck's performance are usually very positive.[d] Film critic Greg Orypeck says Peck renders "a sincere, believable performance ranging from soft-spoken compassion to almost retaliatory loathing."[34] While The Keys of the Kingdom is not viewed by many movie watchers today,[35] writer Patrick McGilligan says that in the mid-1940s it "catapulted him to stardom."[36]

Film historian David Thomson wrote that "from his debut, Peck was always a star and rarely less than a box office success."[37] From 1945 to 1951, Peck was among the most successful Hollywood Stars as The Valley of Decision was the highest-grossing movie of North American in 1945; Spellbound was the third highest-grossing movie of 1946; Duel in the Sun and The Yearling were second and ninth, respectively, for 1947; and, Gentlemen's Agreement was eighth for 1948. Then he was back in the top ten in 1950 with Twelve O'Clock High placing tenth that year and, in 1951, David and Bathsheba was the top-grossing film of the year, while Captain Horation Hornblower was seventh.[38][39][40] His rapid success was further shown by him being nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor four times in the first six years of film career, those being for: The Keys of the Kingdom (1944), The Yearling (1946), Gentleman's Agreement (1947), and Twelve O'Clock High (1949).[9]

In The Valley of Decision (1944), an extravagant, sprawling romantic drama about intermingling social classes, Peck plays the eldest son of a wealthy steel mill owner in 1870s Pittsburgh who has a romance with one of his family's maids, who is played by Greer Garson.[40][9] Garson plays the protagonist who tries to smooth relations between her friends and family and Peck's, which get especially tense when the mill workers strike,[41] and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress.[42] Upon release, reviews were somewhat positive with Peck's performance described as commanding.[e] In recent years, reviews are fair[f] but many summaries of Peck's career and comprehensive movie review books or websites do not review the movie[g] and the movie is not viewed much today,[48] despite the fact it was North America's biggest grossing movie of 1945.[39]

Peck and Ingrid Bergman in Spellbound

Peck's next film was the suspense-romance Spellbound (1945), the first of two movies he would do with Alfred Hitchcock. Peck starred opposite the Ingrid Bergman, who had won the Academy Award for Best Actress the year before, as a man who has amnesia and is mistaken as being the new director of the psychiatric facility where the elegant Bergman works as a psychoanalyst.[49] Released at the tail end of 1945, Spellbound was a huge hit that ranked as the third most successful film of 1946.[39][40] Frank Miller of Turner Classic Movies has written that the movie continued the rise of Peck into a Hollywood star and even "a major sex symbol."[50] Producer David O. Selznick noted that during preview tests of the movie, the women in the audiences had big reactions to the appearance of Peck's name on the screen and that during the first few scenes he appeared in they had to be shushed to quiet down.[50] It was nominated for six Academy Awards including Best Picture,[29] although it was not in the National Board of Review's top ten films of the year.[51]

Peck and Hitchcock were described as having a cordial but cool relationship.[52] The Master of Suspense had hoped that Cary Grant would accept the male lead role in Spellbound and was disappointed when he did not. He accepted Peck in the role, but perceived him as a bit of a country boy, even though Peck had lived in urban California since his preteen years; Hitchcock tried to socialize with him by offering him friendly advice on things, such as on what color suits to wear and about fine wines and spirits.[53] Hitchcock was not as forthcoming on advice for Peck's acting, saying "I couldn't care less what your character is thinking. Just let your face drain of all expression" even though Peck was a relatively inexperienced romantic leading man hungering for direction.[54] Peck later said he thought he was too young when he first worked with Hitchcock and that Hitchcock's indifference to a character's motivation, which Peck was big on, shook his confidence.[24] Peck clicked romantically with his screen and overnight partner Bergman, so their screen romance was convincing.[55]

Spellbound was very well received by critics at the time as was Peck's performance[h] with the New York Herald Tribune writing that it was a "masterful psychiatric thriller....with compelling performances by Bergman and Peck."[59] Critical opinion of Spellbound has been mixed in recent decades with some critics calling it fascinating,[i] but others questioning its realism.[j] Some critics assert Peck's performance is sub-par with writers Paul Condon and Jim Sangster saying Peck "fails to elicit sympathy in the way he does so often in other films."[k]

In Peck's next film he played a pristine,[37] kind-hearted father, opposite wife Jane Wyman, whose son finds and insists on raising a three-day-old fawn in 1870s Florida, in The Yearling (1946).[49] Reviews upon release were very positive[l] with Bosley Crowthers evaluating it as a film that "provides a wealth of satisfaction that few films ever attain."[67] The Yearling was a box office success and landed six Academy Award nominations, including for Best Picture, Best Actor and Best Actress, and Peck won the Golden Globe for Best Actor for his good-humored and affectionate performance.[68] In recent decades, it has continued to receive critical praise[m] with Barry Monush writing it is "one of the best-made and most-loved family films of its day."[9]

Then Peck took his first "against type" role, as a cruel, amoral cowboy in the extravagant western soap opera Duel in the Sun (1946) with top-billed Jennifer Jones as the provocative, temptress object of Peck's love, anger and uncontrollable sexual desire.[71][72] Their interactions are described by film historian David Thomson as "a constant knife fight of sensuality."[73] Also starring Joseph Cotton as Peck's righteous half brother and competitor for the affections of the Jones, the movie was resoundingly criticized, and even banned in some cities, due to its lurid, sexual nature,[74][75] even after some of the most sizzling scenes between Peck and Jones had been cut.[76] The publicity around the eroticism of Duel in the Sun,[77] one of the biggest movie advertising campaigns in history (focused on promoting the film's unbridled sexuality),[74][72] and a new tactic of opening the movie in hundreds of theaters across the U.S. at once[78] (including saturating the cities it was opening in),[79][n] resulted in the movie being the second highest-grossing movie of both 1947 and the 1940s overall.[81]

Jones landed a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress for Duel in the Sun and some audiences are amazed at the passion in her performance,[82] even though in TV Guide's review of the movie they describe it as "Jones' failing entry into the Jane Russell sex goddess sweepstakes."[72][o] Nicknamed "Lust in the Dust, the film received mostly negative reviews,[p] such as Bosley Crowthers writing that "performances are strangely uneven" and due to "the ultimate banality of the story and juvenile slobbering over sex" it "is a spectacularly disappointing job" which "has some flashes of brilliance in it" such as "eye-dazzling scenes of wide-open ranching and frontiering"[80] In recent decades most reviews cite significant weaknesses but some acknowledge a certain entertainment value,[q] with Leonard Maltin describing it as "big, brawling, engrossing, often stupid sex-western....with memorable scenes."[20] Opinions of Peck's performance have been polarized.[r]

Critical successes and commercial lows (1947-1949)[edit]

Peck's next release was the modest-budget, serious adult drama, The Macomber Affair (1947), about a couple who go on an African hunting trip guided by Peck that is interrupted by the husband getting shot.[92] Although the performers never left the United States, African footage was cut into the story.[93] Peck was very active in the development of the film, including recommending the director, Zoltan Korda.[92] The film received positive reviews[s] but was mostly overlooked by the public upon its release and in later decades which Peck would later say disappointed him.[92]

In November 1947, Peck's next film, the landmark Gentleman's Agreement (1947), directed by Elia Kazan, was released and was immediately proclaimed as "Hollywood's first major attack on anti-Semitism."[97][98] Based on a novel, the film has Peck portraying a New York magazine writer who pretends to be Jewish so he can experience personally the hostility of bigots.[99] It was nominated for eight Academy Awards, including Peck for Best Actor, and won Best Film and Best Director, picks which the New York Film Critics Circle and the Golden Globes affirmed.[100] It was also a hit, challenging for the position of top-grossing film of 1948 with $3.9 million, $600,000 behind the top film.[100] Peck would indicate in his later years that this was one of his movies of which he was most proud.[101]

Upon release, Gentleman's Agreement was widely praised for both its courageousness and its quality,[t] with Bosley Crowthers saying "every point about prejudice....has been made with superior illustration" and its "a sizzling film".[105] Peck's performance has been described as very convincing by many critics, both upon release and in recent years.[u] In recent decades, some critics have voiced negative comments about the film,[v] such as film writer Matt Bailey writing "Gentleman's Agreement may have been an important film at one time, but was never a good film,"[108] and some assess Peck's performance as unconvincing.[w] However, Richard Gilliam of AllMovie asserts "It is a solidly-made, well-crafted film, and if it seems tame or weak by today's standards then that is because we, both as a society and as individuals, know and understand much more today than we did in 1947,"[110] and some other critics fully agree with him adding that expectations for movies are different today.[x]

Peck's next three releases were each commercial disappointments. The first of these, the Paradine Case (1947), was his second and last film collaborating with Alfred Hitchcock. When producer David O. Selznick insisted on casting Peck for the movie, Hitchcock was apprehensive, questioning whether Peck could properly portray an English lawyer, something he would say again years later.[113] The Paradine Case ended up being an unhappy production for both of them, not apparently through any actions of each other; Selznick desperately wanted a hit and ended up rewriting parts of the script after watching each days' film footage[114] and in some cases directed Hitchcock to re-shoot scenes in a less Hitchcockian manner.[115] In later years, Peck did not speak fondly of the making of the movie[114] and when he was once asked which of his films he would burn if he could, he immediately named The Paradine Case.[116]

Released at the tail end of 1947,The Paradine Case was a British-set courtroom drama about a defense lawyer fatally in love with his client.[114][73] It had an international cast including Charles Laughton, Ethel Barrymore (who received a Best Supporting Actress Oscar nomination), and Italian beauty Alida Valli, as the accused, in her American film debut.[117] The movie had good reviews complimenting Peck's performance,[y] but the public was not impressed, and The Paradine Case ended up only re-cooping half of its lavish $4.2 million cost.[114] In recent decades, the film has been described as talky and slow-moving, but with a good performance by Peck.[z] Writers Paul Condon and Jim Sangster write "a somewhat predictable plotline mars a film that boasts some superb performances. Peck is vulnerable yet believable in a role that requires significant delicacy of touch to maintain viewer's loyalty and interest."[62]

Peck was next cast sharing top billing with Anne Baxter in the western Yellow Sky (1948), that being the name of the ghost town that Peck's group of bank robbers seek refuge in, and then encounter the independent tomboy, Baxter, and her grandfather, and their gold.[120] Reviews then and since, rate the film highly most of them citing excellent black-and-white cinematography, strong direction, and an very good screenplay, [aa] with Variety writing upon its release, "the outdoor locations have been magnificently lensed. The director has put together an ace of a screenplay, given its dialogue rings true, and then proceeded with showmanly production guidance to make Sky a winner. The direction is vigorous, potently emphasizing every element of suspense and action and displaying the cast to the utmost advantage. There's never a faltering scene."[126] Critics which commented on Peck's performance felt it to be solid.[ab] Some critics who rated the film highly do cite the ending involving Peck's character's conversion (critic A.E. Wilson wrote he's "one of those agreeable bandits who need only a shave and the influence of a good woman to turn them into thoroughly decent citizens")[130] as being slightly unbelievable,[120][131] or the romance as partly contrived,[132] but Craig Butler of AllMovie asserts the "beautifully detailed direction....even makes the love angle work."[133] The public wasn't as receptive as the movie was only moderately commercial successful.[134]

The year after, Peck was paired with Ava Gardner for their first of three movies together in The Great Sinner (1949), an opulent period drama-romance where a Russian writer, Peck, becomes addicted to the vice (gambling) he is researching.[135] Peck originally rejected his assignment to this film, which was to be his last under his contract to M-G-M, and only eventually agreed to do it as a favor to the studio's production head.[136] Peck ended up becoming great friends with Gardner and would later declare her his favorite co-star.[9] Peck always said he thought she was a very good actress even though he said she often spoke poorly of her acting abilities.[137] The film received unfavorable reviews usually describing it as dull[ac] and the public was not interested rendering it a commercial disappointment.[9][137] In modern times, reviews are contradictory as Leonard Maltin labels it "murky and talky,"[20] but TV Guide says "this often gripping film" has strong performances, that "Peck is powerful", and that "the art and set direction are excellent."[141]

Publicity shot of Gregory Peck in Twelve O'Clock High (1949)

Later in 1949, Twelve O'Clock High (1949), the first of many successful war films in which Peck embodied the brave, effective, yet human, fighting man, was released. Based on real characters and events, Peck portrays the new commander of a U.S. World War II bomber squadron who is tasked with whipping the squadron into shape, but then breaks down emotionally because of the stress of the job.[99] The National Board of Review ranked it in their top ten films of the year[142] and it received four Academy Awards nominations, including for Best Picture and Best Actor in a leading role (Peck,)[143] with Peck winning that title from the New York Film Critics Circle.[68] Twelve O'Clock High was a commercial success finishing tenth in the 1950 box office rankings.[144]

Twelve O'Clock High received very strong reviews upon release,[ad] with Bosley Crowthers describing it as a "top-flight drama" and as "tremendously vivid", and saying that it "has conspicuous dramatic integrity, genuine emotional appeal and a sense of the moods of an air base that absorb and amuse the mind. And it is beautifully played by a male cast, directed by Henry King, and produced by Darryl F. Zanuck for Twentieth Century-Fox."[146] Variety said the movie "deals soundly and interestingly with its situations" and unveils its plot "from a flashback angle so expertly presented that the emotional pull is sharpened."[147] Film critics of the 1990s and since still hold a high opinion of it[ae] with TimeOut writing "One of Peck's best performances....A superb first half....King's control, the electric tension and the performances all hold firm (to its end)."[151] Evaluations of Peck's performance, both in 1949 and in recent years, are glowing,[af] including Bosley Crowthers writing "High and particular praise for Gregory Peck....Mr. Peck does an extraordinarily able job in revealing the hardness and the softness of a general exposed to peril."[154] Film historian Peter von Bagh considers Peck's performance "as Brigadier General Frank Savage to be the most enduring of his life."[155]

Worldwide fame (1950-1953)[edit]

As the decade turned, Peck was back in a couple of westerns, the first being The Gunfighter (1950), directed by Henry King, who had directed Twelve O'Clock High. Peck is the aging "Top Gun of the West" who is now weary of killing and wishes to retire with his wife and child that he has not seen for many years.[156][157] Peck and King did a lot of photographical research about the Wild West Era and had discovered that most cowboys had mustaches, or even beards, and wore relatively beat-up clothing, so Peck decided to wear a mustache in a film role for the first time to give his character greater authenticity.[158][159][75] The Gunfighter did only fair but disappointing business at the box office,[160][161] and the studio chief blamed Peck's mustache for turning potential female film-goers off, because most women wanted to see usual handsome, clean-shaven Peck, not the authentic-cowboy Peck.[159] Peck later said when the studio chief saw the mustache two weeks into the shoot, he wanted to re-shoot everything, but balked when he was told the cost, which was actually double the real cost as the production manager had been persuaded by Peck and King to inflate the amount.[159][162] A second reason for the disappointing box office is probably that audiences did not expect to see, and did not want to see, the handsome, big star Peck in such a grim, sparse, understated film.[159]

The Gunfighter, which is a psychological western, a character study with little action,[75][163] received solid reviews upon release,[164] as did Peck's performance, with one critic describing his character as fascinating.[165][166][164] The movie has gained in critical appreciation over the years being admired for its superb production, gritty suspense and melancholy realism,[75][167][168] plus its compelling story (which was Oscar nominated).[157] It is often rated as a seminal movie in the western's move towards more psychological depth,[168][169][20][164] with Peck's performance being evaluated as impressive, dazzling and deeply felt.[168][9][75][170][20]

The other western which Peck was cast in, against his will, was Only the Valiant (1951), a low-budget movie with obvious artificial production design.[171] Peck disliked the script and later labeled the movie as the low point of his career.[171][9] Peck had eventually signed a contract with producer David O. Selznick, and Selznick sold his services to Warner Bros for this movie after he ran into financial difficulties.[171] The plot of the movie is a very common one: "an unpopular, strict leader gathers together a rag-tag group of men and leads them on an extremely dangerous mission, turning them into a well-oiled fighting machine by the end and earning respect along the way."[172] In this case, Peck is a U.S. army captain and the mission is to protect an undermanned army fort against the warring Apache.[173][171] The romantic interest of Peck in the movie, and after hours as well, was less-known, troubled Barbara Payton.[174][175] While reviews were moderate at the time,[176] this little remembered picture,[177] that is not included in most film guides,[46][99] is assessed today as disappointing with a routine plot[171] or having a poor sceenplay made watchable by good performances, especially Peck's.[172][178]

Also released in spring 1951 in the United Kingdom (fall in North America), was Peck's first movie of four in eight years portraying a commander at sea. Based on a popular British novel, Captain Horatio Hornblower features Peck as the commander of a war ship in the British fleet during naval battles against the French and Spanish in the Napoleonic Wars, a commander who also finds romance in-between the swashbuckling.[179] Peck was attracted to the character, saying “I thought Hornblower was an interesting character. I never believe in heroes who are unmitigated and unadulterated heroes, who never know the meaning of fear.”[180] The role had been originally intended for Errol Flynn, but he was felt to be too old by the time the project came to fruition.[179] Captain Horation Hornblower was a box office success finishing ninth for the year in the U.K.[181] and seventh in the North America.[38]

Some reviews of Captain Horatio Hornblowerin 1951 lauded Peck's performance as providing “the proper dash and authenticity to the role”[182] and as accurately conveying both a ruthless captain at war and a tender man nursing a woman through yellow fever.[183] In the twenty-first century, reviews of Peck with one critic asserting that Peck would be nobody's first choice for the role, but conceded he was able to “deliver a combination of warmth and solemn earnestness.”[184] Another critic assesses Peck as "a little restrained for the character,"[185] while another argues Peck is excellent, bringing his “customary aura of intelligence and moral authority to the role.”[186] The same reviewers (then and recent) all rate the action scenes in the film as strong, realistic and well-filmed, although one cites the dialogue as being "stilted at times”.[182]

An even bigger budget movie featuring Peck, his third directed by Henry King, was released in North America a month before Captain Horatio Hornblower. David and Bathsheba, a lavish Biblical epic, was top-grossing movie of 1951.[40] The two-hit-movie punch elevated Peck to the status of Hollywood mega-star.[187] David and Bathsheba tells the story of David (Peck), who slayed Goliath as a teenager, and, later, as beloved King, becomes infatuated with the luscious Bathsheba, played by Susan Hayward, and then, after much soul-searching, sends her soldier husband into a certain-death battle. This enables David to romance Bathsheda, after which God devastates the kingdom.[188][189]

Peck's performance in David and Bathsheba was evaluated upon release as authoritative,[190] commanding and expertly shaded,[189] and credible.[191] In recent years critics have described it as "a trifle stilted", but supplying the "requisite power and charisma",[192] forceful,[193] or fair.[20] In 1951, the movie was described by one reviewer as providing “a reverential and sometimes majestic treatment” of the story, that "avoids pageantry and overwhelming concocted spectacle”, and makes it points with “feeling and respect”, despite being verbose.[190] Another critic said the story was a satisfying work “performed with dignity and restraint” with some dull spots while lacking excitement,[194] while another said it was a big picture in every respect with excellent casting.[189] By contrast, in recent decades one critic has described the movie as “filled with the kind of bombast and stilted melodrama that is to be expected” by Biblical epics and as “ultimately sterile”,[192] whereas another critic describes it as a “character-driven” film.[9] Other critics have praised the strong production values,[20] such as excellent cinematography, sets and costumes[192] (the film received Academy Award nominations for all three),[42] but question the direction,[73] and assess the screenplay as slightly long-winded,[188] boring,[20] or overblown,[193][192][73] even though it was also Oscar-nominated. Another assessment is that it “paled in comparison to other large-scale melodramas," [195] which could be the reasons for its low level of viewing in recent decades.[196]

Peck was back in a seafaring adventure-romance in his next movie, The World in His Arms (1952). He portrays a seal-hunting ship captain in 1850 San Francisco who romances a Russian countess played by Ann Blyth and ends up engaging a rival sealer played by Anthony Quinn in a sailing race to Alaska.[197][198] In 1952, critics called it lively and engrossing,[199] exciting and colourful,[200] and as having hearty, salty action with a good cast.[201] In the twenty-first century, two reviewers trumpet its thrilling, realistic, sailing race centerpiece[202] with one adding “superb sea footage, lots of action and a robust relationship between Peck and Quinn combine to make (it) highly enjoyable,”[203] while another critic describes it as entertaining.[20] One twenty-first century critic also commented that Peck is "a superb actor, who brings enormous skill to the part but who simply lacks the overt derring-do and danger that is part of the role."[202] The film was moderately successful.[204][205]

About a year after David and Bathsheba was released, Peck was on theater screens with Susan Hayward again, with Henry King as the director, again, in an adventure-romance, again, in a top-grossing movie, again (ranking fourth for 1952).[39] The Snows of Kilimanjaro, based on an Ernest Hemingway short story, stars Peck as a self-concerned writer looking back on his life, particularly his romance with his first wife played by Ava Gardner, while he slowly dies from an accidental wound while on an African hunting expedition and his current wife, Hayward, nurses him.[206] While reviews at the time were mixed,[207][208] they said the techni-colour cinematography and art direction/sets (which were both Oscar-nominated) that enabled the characters to have convincing scenes in several European and African locales, including with wild animals, were stunning, exquisite and magnificent, a view with which most modern critics agree.[209][206][210][211] The same reviewers often cite the dialogue as unnatural or rambling while some cite the story as unconvincing, but most praise Peck's performance, although one writer feels Peck was mis-cast and his facial expressions were too bland to portray the writer, therefore, overall, not recommending the movie.[87] One writer says The Snows of Kilimanjaro “is less a compelling film than a piece of film history”.[208]

Peck's next movie was his “first real foray into comedy”[9] and he was working with director William Wyler, who had not made a comedy since 1935,[45] and co-starring with Audrey Hepburn, a twenty-four year-old newcomer in her first significant film role;[212] yet it turned out as a “genuinely magical romance that worked beyond all expectations.”[9] Roman Holiday (1953) has Peck playing a reporter who ends up escorting a young princess on a whirlwind 24-hour tour of Rome after she sneaks out of her high-security hotel while on a tour of European capitals.[45][213] Roman Holiday was a commercial success finishing 22nd in the box office in 1953, its first calendar year of release,[40] but continuing to earn money into 1955 with “modern sources noting it earned $10 million total at the box office”.[214] It was nominated for 8 Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Director and Screenplay, with Hepburn winning for Best Actress, a pick which the Golden Globes, New York Film Critics Circle and the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTAs) echoed, a rare occurrence; Peck was nominated for a BAFTA for Foreign Actor.[215] At the Golden Globe awards held in early 1955, Peck and Hepburn were named the World Film Favorite Award winners for their respective genders; Peck had also won the award in 1950.[39]

As had been the case with several movies before, Peck's role in Roman Holiday had originally been offered to Cary Grant, who turned it down because the part appeared to be more of a supporting role to the princess.[212] Peck had the same concern, but was persuaded by Wyler that the on-site filming in Rome would be an exceptional experience, and accepted the part, even eventually insisting that Hepburn's name be above the title of the film (just beneath his) in the opening credits.[212] Peck later said he wasn't just being nice when he insisted on that saying he had told his agent "I’m smart enough to know this girl’s going to win the Oscar in her first picture, and I’m going to look like a damned fool if her name is not up there on top with mine.”[162]

Upon release of Roman Holiday, film critics said “Peck makes a stalwart and manly escort...whose eyes belie his restrained exterior”[213] and that Peck was excellent as he played the role with “intelligence and good-humored conviction.”[216] One critic assessed the movie as a “charming, laugh-provoking affair that often explodes into hilarity” and as having a “delightful screenplay that sparkles with wit and outrageous humour.”[217] Other critics said it contained “laughs that leaves the spirits soaring”[213] with a smart script and poignant scenes so it “zips along engrossingly” with “chuckles timed with a never-flagging pace”.[218] In recent decades, one writer has written that Roman Holiday looks old-fashioned, ponderous and too much like a travelogue, but in the 1950s it seemed fresh and enchanting”, stating that today it is modestly entertaining, but concedes that Peck "is less tree-like than usual” putting in a charming performance.[46] Other critics have praised the movie, making comments such as: "utterly charming”,[20][219] a “charming love story” with “marvelous performances”;[220] magical with both stars giving excellent performance;[221] and, “an enormously enjoyable romp” that is one of films’ “most enduring romances” with "Peck at his most charismatic".[222]

Overseas and New York (1954-1957)[edit]

Peck based himself out of the U.K. for about eighteen months between 1953 and 1955. This was because new US tax laws had drastically raised the tax rate on high income earners, but the tax amount due would be reduced if you worked outside the country for extended periods.[223] As a result, in addition to Roman Holiday filmed in Rome, his three following films were shot and set in London, Germany and Southeast Asia.

The film shot in London was another comedy, The Million Pound Note (1954), one where Peck plays the clear central character. It was based on a Mark Twain satirical short story.[224] Peck later said he have loved making the film because “no expense was spared on the best and sometimes ornate interior sets” and “he was given probably the most elegant wardrobe he had ever worn in film.”[224] Peck plays a penniless American seaman in 1903 London who is given a $1 million pound bank note by two rich, eccentric brothers who wish to ascertain if he can survive for one month without spending any of it.[225] Two reviewers said the production is delicious, but one of them said the dialogue and performance lacks a certain bounce to make it “spark with humor or glow with warmth and charm”,[225] while the other wrote the movie is unsure if it is "breezy satire" or a "fancy period romance" and that “Peck’s touch with comedy is light, but guarded, almost suspicious.”[226] Another reviewer wrote the movie “suffers from the protracted exploitation” of the basic premise which is only amusing for so long.[227] Overall, reviews were mixed and the film performed only modestly at the box office.[224]

Berlin and Munich were the filming locations for Night People (1954), which had Peck portraying a US army military police colonel investigating the kidnapping of a young American soldier.[228] Peck later stated that the role of was one of his favorites, because his lines were "tough and crisp and full of wisecracks, and more aggressive than other roles" he'd had.[229] Two critics described it as a first-rate drama with exciting, well-filmed action, although one assessed the screenplay as strong (it was Oscar-nominated),[230] while the other felt the screenplay had no complexity and had one-dimensional characters.[231] Despite decent reviews overall, the film did poorly at the box office.[232]

Next, Peck was in Sri Lanka and then back in the UK for the shooting of his second movie as a North American bomber commander who has strong emotional problems during WWII, The Purple Plain (1954).[223] Peck's role is as a Canadian squadron leader whose wife had been killed in a Luftwaffe bombing raid on London in 1941 and four years later in Burma he has become a killing machine with no regard for his own life, although a love affair with an alluring, young Burmese beauty was helping him regain the will to live.[233][234] When his bomber is shot down by the Japanese and crash lands in a desert with purple-hued soils (the "Purple Plain"), he and his crew have an long, arduous journey back to British territory.[235][223] The Purple Plain was hit in the U.K. where it was tenth in box office grosses for the year[236] and was nominated for a BAFTA for Best British Film;[39] however, it was a box office flop in the U.S.[223][237]

The Purple Plain opened to solid reviews with one reviewer evaluating it as a “fine dramatic vehicle”,[238] while another wrote “the extent of Peck’s agony is impressively transmitted....in vivid and unrelenting scenes.”[239] In recent years, the movie "has become one of Peck’s most respected works,”[223] with writers assessing it as absorbing[20] and impressively shot,[233] with another rating Peck's performance as excellent.[37] Another reviewer describes The Purple Plain as a “feature-length character study revealing character subtly” through “evocative and stirring visuals” that advance “both the story and our understanding of the lead character,” adding that “Peck is astonishing, giving the layered, intense yet nuanced performance that deserves major awards."[240]

Peck's popularity seemed to be on the wane in the U.S.[9] That was not the case in the U.K. though, where a poll named him the third most popular non-British movie star.[241] Peck did not have a film released in 1955.

Peck bounced back in the U.S. with a movie set in Downtown New York, The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit (1956),[9] in which he portrays a married, ex-soldier father of three who mulls over how to proceed with his life after he starts a lucrative speech-writing job, has some other complications arise in his life, and is increasingly haunted by his deeds in Italy during WWII.[242][243] Peck's wife was played by Jennifer Jones, a reunion from Duel in the Sun, and during the filming of a scene where the spouses argue Jones clawed his face with her fingernails, prompting Peck to say to the director “I don’t call that acting. I call it personal.”[244] The movie was successful finishing eighth in box office gross for the year[245] despite contemporary reviews being mixed. [246]

Some reviewers described The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit as extremely well-acted and very absorbing despite its 2½ hour length,[247] one saying “every minute is profitably used”, and in particular citing scenes between Peck and his boss, played by Fredric March, as very "eloquent and touching".[248] Other reviewers said it is simply too long,[249] and also impersonal, to be enjoyable.[250] Another review said it is overlong and that Peck is not always convincing, but that the Peck-March scenes are so powerful it makes the film better than average.[251] In recent years, critics have had similar, but somewhat more moderated comments about The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit,[252] although Peck's performance is usually rated as excellent with some saying the part was tailor-made for him.[253][254] One reviewer said the spousal relationship between Peck and Jones' characters seemed fake,[255] while another observed that Jones' character seemed hysteria-prone.[256]

Peck next starred in a role that he was unsure he was right for, but was persuaded by director John Huston to take on,[257] that of Captain Ahab in Moby Dick (1956), a film adaptation of “Herman Melville’s famous story of a man’s dark obsession to kill a whale" off the northeastern U.S. Coast.[258] The movie had the ninth highest box office of the year in North America,[39] but cost $4.5 million to make (more than double the original budget) so it lost money, and was considered a commercial disappointment.[259] Peck also almost drowned twice during filming in stormy weather off the sea coasts of Ireland and the Canary Islands.[260] John Huston was named best director of the year by the New York Film Critics Circle and the National Board of Review for Moby Dick, but did not receive a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Director.

"There was, and continues to be, controversy over his casting as Ahab in Moby Dick."[9] Upon opening, one review said “Peck often seems understated and much too gentlemanly for a man supposedly consumed by insane fury.”[261] Another review said Peck “holds the character’s burning passions behind a usually mask-like face. We could do with a little more tempest, a little more Joshua in the role. Mr. Peck spouts fire from his nostrils only when he has at the whale.”[262] However, another argued “Peck plays it....in a brooding, smoldering vein, but none the less intensely and dynamically.”[263] In modern times, critics have said Peck is: “often mesmerizing";[9] “more than adequate;”[264] good and “lending a deranged dignity” to the part;[20] “not half as bad as some alledged, and actually suggesting the ingrained, heroic misanthropy”;[37] a “lightweight Ahab”;[265] "neither pitiable or indomitable"; and never "vengeance incarnate" which are the things Ahab is in the novel;[87] “mis-cast” and “lacking the required demonic presence;”[266] and, mis-cast.[267] Huston always said he thought “Peck conveyed the exact quality he had wanted for the obsessed seaman.”[268] Peck himself later said "I wasn't mad enough, not crazy enough, not obsessive enough - I should have done more. At the time, I didn't have more in me."[269] He also noted he thought he "played it too much for the richness of Melville's prose, too vocal a performance" and should have played it with a cracked voice as if his vocal cords were gone.[24]

Assessments of Moby Dick have been similarly polarized with one critic in 1956 saying it is a “rolling and thundering film” with numerous things brilliantly done and is one of the great movies of the 1950s.[270] Another said the movie is "more interesting than exciting" and "does not escape the repetitiousness that often dulls chase movies."[271] In recent years, it has been assessed as: “one of most historically authentic, visually stunning and powerful adventures ever made;"[272] having some marvelous scenes and often being “staggeringly good”;[265] "the most accurate and probably the quintessential movie version of Melville's book;"[273] an “under-rated attempt to film the un-filmable;”[9] having good direction and a good screenplay;[274] having fine scenes throughout;[20] and, as having “some wonderful scenes" despite which it must be "counted as a noble failure” as the whale looks unrealistic.[275]

Peck turned to a romantic comedy next, and being allowed to choose his leading lady, chose Lauren Bacall.[276] Designing Woman (1957) is about a fashion designer and a sports writer, who meet in California on vacation, and, although each already has a romantic partner back home in New York, have a brief torrid affair and hastily get married, only to find out when they are back home that they have wildly different lifestyles, outlooks, interests and friends.[277] While the movie was mildly successful in North America and elsewhere, it did not cover its cost.[278][279][280] Upon release, one reviewer asserted that Designing Woman's good dialogue enables the comedy to succeed in stretches, but that the ending is poor,[281] while another argued the movie was clever with all eight key actors/actresses giving top-notch performances.[282] In recent years, reviewers generally say it is very funny,[280][20] (it won a Best Screenplay Oscar) with one exclaiming the director and supporting cast “have done the impossible; they’ve made....the famous stoneface....Peck, somewhat funny,” calling the film "pure entertainment" with no underlying message.[283] By contrast, another critic writes that the movie is “amazingly obscure” considering its two big stars, and feels the comedy is really just subtext for discussing issues about masculinity.[284]

Reflections on violence (1958-1959)[edit]

Peck's next movie, the western The Bravados (1958), reunited him with 72-year-old director Henry King after a six-year gap.[161] In their six films together, King was able to draw out some of Peck's best performances,[161][16] most often in characters who appeared strong and authoritative, but in reality had inner demons and character flaws that could destroy them; only one character Peck played under for King's direction could be considered, on balance, a good person, that of Bomber Commander Frank Savage in Twelve O'Clock High.[285] Some frequent collaborations yield routine results, but Finnish film writer Peter von Bagh asserts that with Peck and King the collaboration "was primed to an ever greater creative pitch and turned out to be mutually rewarding."[286] Only their last film together, the succeeding years’ Beloved Infidel (1959), was not either a critical or commercial success. Peck once said “King was like an older brother, even a father figure. We communicated without talking anything to death. It was direction by osmosis.”[162] Peck also said "he provided me with a one-man audience, in whom I had complete trust....If I played to him and he liked it, then I was fairly confident I was on the right track."[287]

In The Bravados, Peck's character spends weeks pursuing four outlaws who he believes raped and then murdered his wife.[288] He succeeds in tracking them down and kills three of them in vengeance, but a climatic twist leaves his character agonizing over whether he is any better a person than the fugitives.[289] Upon its opening, A.H. Weiler of The New York Times wrote that the movie "is executed intelligently in fine, brooding style against eye-filling, authentic backgrounds" with "a tightly written script" so the "cast and story move at an unflagging pace" and that "the producers have given their essentially grim "chase" equally colorful and arresting treatment."[290] The film was a moderate success, finishing in the top 20 of the box office for 1959.[291][39]

In recent years, The Bravados has received very mixed comments, being labeled as acclaimed,[161] or compelling,[20] with Timeout saying it has "good performances and excellent 'scope camerawork", that "the action sequences are fine" but that Peck's “crisis of conscience....is worked out in perfunctory religious terms."[292] Film writer Peter Von Bagh asserts Peck's performance conveys an "ethical and charismatic radiance",[286] but Adrian Turner of the RadioTimes argues that the movie "isn't imbued with the emotional conviction it needs from Peck," [293] which TV Guide's review also says, although it does say the background scenery is gorgeous and that the climatic twist is very powerful.[294] This film is not included in some comprehensive movie guides.[49][46]

Peck decided to follow some other actors into the movie-production business, organizing Melville Productions in 1956, and later, Brentwood Productions.[295] These companies would produce five movies over the following seven years, all starring Peck,[295] including Pork Chop Hill, for which Peck served as the executive producer.[296] These and other films Peck starred in were observed by some as becoming more political, sometimes containing a pacifist message, with some people calling them preachy,[24] although Peck said he tried to avoid any overt preachiness.[162]

In 1958, Peck and his good friend William Wyler co-produced the western epic The Big Country (1958), although it was not under Peck's production company.[297] The project had numerous problems, starting with the script, as even after seven writers had worked on it, Wyler and Peck were dissatisfied.[298] Peck and the screenwriters to rewrote the script after each days' shooting, causing stress for the performers, who would arrive the next day and find their lines and even entire scenes different than what they had prepared for.[299] There were strong disagreements between Wyler as the director, and many of the performers, including with Peck, as Peck and Wyler had different views about the need for 10,000 cattle for a certain scene and re-shooting one of Peck's close-ups; when Wyler refused to do another take of the close-up, Peck left the set and had to be forced to return.[300] Peck and Wyler did not speak again for the rest of the shoot and for almost three years afterward, but then patched things up.[301][299] Peck would say in 1974 that he had tried outright producing and acting at the same time and felt "either it can't be done or it's just that I don't do it well," adding that he did not have the desire to direct.[287]

The story for The Big Country involves Peck, a peaceful city slicker, coming west to live with his fiancée and getting in the middle of a violent feud between two cattle-ranching families over access to water on a third party's property, with Peck eventually being forced to physically fight back.[9][302] Peck has two romantic interests in the movie, one being Jean Simmons, and Charlton Heston is one opponent he must deal with.[303] The movie was big hit finishing fourth at the box office in North America for 1958[304] and second in the U.K.[305]

Reviews for The Big Country upon release ranged from negative to somewhat positive to very positive. Bosley Crowthers opined that "it does not not get far beneath the skin of its conventional Western situation and its stock Western characters. It skims across standard complications and ends on a platitude” even if "the verbal construction and pictorial development of incidents enumerated above (violent action) are measured, meticulous, robust and ringing with organ tones."[306] Monthly Film Bulletin agreed saying the film's efforts to convey a peace message were "superficial and pedestrian" adding that Peck's pivotal character, "played on a monotonously self-righteous note by Peck, never comes alive." [307] 'Variety review assessed the film as "a serviceable, adult western yarn" " with very good acting and said that the broad landscapes "have been recorded with almost three-dimensional effect."[308] Harrison Reports declared it "a first-rate super western, beautifully photographed" and perhaps too long, but with "never a dull moment".[309] In recent decades, critical opinion of The Big Country has generally risen although there is still disagreement, as Michael Betzold of Allmovie asserts “staggering vistas and grandiose story make this an emblematic Western,”[310] while Leonard Maltin calls it overblown.[20] Two other reviews call the script intelligent and the cinematography excellent, with one particularly citing some excellent action scenes,[75] although the other said sharper editing was necessary.[311] Another writer assesses Peck as excellent and the movie as fine.[9] Some comprehensive movie review books don’t rate the movie as warranting inclusion,[46][45] but Tony Sloman of the RadioTimes asserts that the movie is "unfairly neglected today" and is "never tiresome, despite its length" adding Peck's role was one to which he "was particularly suited - he was one of the few actors whose innate pacificism rang true."[312]

Peck next played a lieutenant during the Korean war in Pork Chop Hill (1959), which was based on a factual book about a real battle.[313] Peck portrays a lieutenant who is ordered to use his 135-man infantry company to take from the Chinese the strategically insignificant Pork Chop Hill because its capture would strengthen the U.S.’s position in the almost-complete armistice negotiations.[314] As executive producer, Peck recruited Lewis Milestone of All Quiet on the Western Front (1930) to direct, and although many critics label it as an anti-war film,[9][315] it has also been stated that “as shooting progressed it became clear Peck and Milestone had very different artistic visions.”[316] ”Peck wanted a realistic but relatively conventional war movie, whereas Milestone envisioned a more thoughtful reflection on the futility of war.”[316] Peck later said the movie showed “the futility of settling political arguments by killing young men. We tried not to preach; we let it speak for itself.”[162] Despite solid reviews, the film did only fair business at the box office.[317]

Most critics, both upon Pork Chop Hill's opening [ag] and in recent years,[ah] agree that it is a gritty, grim and realistic rendering of battle action.TV Guide's modern review says it “depicts the heroic battle in such stark detail that the viewer can almost smell the acrd fumes of cordite and taste the dust blown from the dead ridge” labeling it as “an authentic and memorable cinematic experience.”[324] All three critics which comment on Peck's performance are laudatory,[ai] with Variety saying Peck's performance is "completely believable. He comes through as a born leader, and yet it is quite clear that he has moments of doubt and of uncertainty.”[327]

Peck's second release of 1959 had him opposite Deborah Kerr in Beloved Infidel which, based on the memoirs of film columnist Sheilah Graham, portrays the romance between Graham (Kerr) and author F. Scott Fitzgerald (Peck), towards the end of which Fitzgerald was often drunk and became verbally and physically abusive.[328] It was not well received by audiences or critics, being assessed by Bosley Crowthers as “generally flat and uninteresting” with a "postured performance of Gregory Peck....his grim-faced, monotonony as a washout is relieved in a couple of critical scenes by some staggering and bawling as a drunkard, but that is hardly enough."[329] Variety said "the characters go mostly unexplained and this makes for superficiality which deprives them of sympathy. What's more, the acting, while excellent and persuasive in parts, is shallow and artificial in others."[330] Reviews in recent decades are similar and many scribes feel Peck was “blatantly miscast”, usually due his appearing too youthful and cleancut compared to the Fitzgerald,[9][331] with David Thomson writing the role left Peck “hopelessly adrift”,[37] although TV Guide says his effort was noble.[332] The movie is little known today.[333]

Peck next starred in Hollywood's first major movie about the implications of nuclear warfare, On the Beach (1959), which was filmed in Australia and co-starred Ava Gardner in their third and final film together.[334] Directed by Stanley Kramer and based on a best-selling book, the movie shows the last weeks of several people as they await the onset of radio-active fallout from nuclear bombs.[335] Peck portrays a U.S. submarine commander stationed in Australia who has trouble accepting that his wife and children back in the U.S. are dead, but becomes close to Gardner and then travels in the submarine northward to see if any people have survived or if Alaska is uncontaminated.[336] The film was named to the top ten lists of the National Board of Review and the New York Film Critics Circle.[39] It was successful at the North American box office finishing eighth for the year,[39] but due to its high production cost it lost $700,000.[337]

Upon opening, many reviews of On the Beach were very positive describing it as extraordinary,[338] deeply moving with good direction and “some vivid and trenchant images,”[339] or as “solid film of considerable emotional, as well as cerebral, content” with strong acting, but with a " final impact (that) is as heavy as a leaden shroud.”[340] Another review assessed it as “brilliantly executed”,[341] but questioned its realism as the characters were sedate despite facing certain death,[342] a factor a number of other critics were reported as citing.[343] In recent decades, critical opinion of On the Beach is mixed with two critics giving negative reviews citing a numbing and cliché-ridden story,[46] with one adding that, aside from Peck, it is poor acted, but does have strong cinematography.[344] Another critic assesses it as thoughtful with good performances by all.[20] Two other critics agree on assessing it as intensely powerful but flawed with some sections being too melodramatic, but one adds it is well-acted and deftly cinematographed,[345] while the other says the Peck-Gardner romance is soap opera-ish even though "Peck has rarely been so stalwart" and that the film has an “overwhelming, desperate sense of bleakness that perfectly captures the sense of hopelessness that is central to the story.”[346]

Second commercial and critical peak (1960-1964)[edit]

After having no movies released in 1960, Peck's first release of 1961 was the WWII adventure The Guns of Navarone, in which his six-man British and Greek commando team, which also includes David Niven and Anthony Quinn, undertakes a multi-step mission to destroy two seemingly impregnable cliff-top German artillery guns on the Greek island of Navarone.[75] The team of specialists (Peck is the mountain climbing expert) need to destroy the guns so British ships can evacuate across the Aegean Sea two-thousand trapped British soldiers.[75] Derived from a fact-based novel, subplots during the mission include finding a traitor in their midst, personal differences and bad history between characters, and debates about the morality of warfare,[347] with the latter being added to the novel's original story by producer/screenwriter Carl Foreman.[348] The movie was a huge hit becoming the top-grossing movie of 1961,[40] and became “one of the most popular adventure movies of its day.”[349] It landed seven Academy Award nominations, including for best picture, director, and screenplay, winning for best special effects, while at the Golden Globe Awards it won for Best Dramatic Movie.[29]

Most reviews of The Guns of Navarone in 1961 were positive as illustrated by it being named the best picture of the year in Film Daily’s annual poll of critics and industry reporters.[350] One review said the movie “should have patrons firmly riveted throughout its lengthy narrative” and that there are several nail-biting sequences plus “a boffo climax”.[351] Another reviewer said it was a "robust action drama" predicting it would entertain those who like action and melodrama more than character, complex human drama or credibility.[352] A third declared it was one of those movies "that are no less thrilling because they are so preposterous" adding he “was held more or less spellbound all the way through (the) many-colored rubbish.”[353] During filming, Peck had said the fact his team seems to defeat "the entire German army" approached parody, concluding the only way to make it work was for all the performers to "play their roles with complete conviction."[354] In recent decades, critics have written that the movie “boasts strong human drama and emotional involvement,” with realistic tension;[355] is a classic which maintains tension despite its length;[356] is spectacularly filmed and one of the best of its type;[75] and, "is lavish, rich and often breathtaking” despite its “triumph-against-all-odds finale" and clichéd story.[357] Two critics have said some of the dialogue, such as that discussing morality of war, should have been cut,[358] although one of those critics still says the movie is effective.[46] The Guns of Navarone is considered to be one of the great WWII epics.[359]

Peck won the Academy Award with his fifth nomination, playing Atticus Finch, a Depression-era lawyer and widowed father, in a film adaptation of the Harper Lee novel To Kill a Mockingbird. Released in 1962, during the height of the Civil Rights Movement in the Southern United States, this film and his role were Peck's favorites. In 2003, Peck's portrayal of Atticus Finch was named the greatest film hero of the past 100 years by the American Film Institute.[360]

Mature years (1965-1979)[edit]

Peck in 1973

Peck served as the president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1967, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the American Film Institute from 1967 to 1969, Chairman of the Motion Picture and Television Relief Fund in 1971, and National Chairman of the American Cancer Society in 1966. He was a member of the National Council on the Arts from 1964 to 1966.[361]

A physically powerful man, he was known to do a majority of his own fight scenes, rarely using body or stunt doubles. In fact, Robert Mitchum, his on-screen opponent in Cape Fear, told about the time Peck once accidentally punched him for real during their final fight scene in the movie. He felt the impact for days afterward.[362] Peck's rare attempts at villainous roles were not acclaimed. Early on, he played the renegade son in the Western Duel in the Sun, and, later in his career, the infamous Nazi doctor Josef Mengele in The Boys from Brazil co-starring Laurence Olivier.[363]

Later work (1980 - 2000)[edit]

In the 1980s, Peck moved to television, where he starred in the mini-series The Blue and the Gray, playing Abraham Lincoln. He also starred with Christopher Plummer, John Gielgud, and Barbara Bouchet in the television film The Scarlet and The Black, about Monsignor Hugh O'Flaherty, a real-life Catholic priest in the Vatican who smuggled Jews and other refugees away from the Nazis during World War II.

Peck, Mitchum, and Martin Balsam all had roles in the 1991 remake of Cape Fear, directed by Martin Scorsese. All three were in the original 1962 version. In the remake, Peck played Max Cady's lawyer.

His last prominent film role also came in 1991, in Other People's Money, directed by Norman Jewison and based on the stage play of that name. Peck played a business owner trying to save his company against a hostile takeover bid by a Wall Street liquidator played by Danny DeVito.

Peck retired from active film-making at that point. Peck spent the last few years of his life touring the world doing speaking engagements in which he would show clips from his movies, reminisce, and take questions from the audience. He did come out of retirement for a 1998 mini-series version of one of his most famous films, Moby Dick, portraying Father Mapple (played by Orson Welles in the 1956 version), with Patrick Stewart as Captain Ahab, the role Peck played in the earlier film. It was his final performance, and it won him the Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actor in a Series, Miniseries, or Television Film.

Peck had been offered the role of Grandpa Joe in the 2005 film Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, but died before he could accept it. The Irish actor David Kelly was then given the part.[364]

Politics[edit]

In 1947, while many Hollywood figures were being blacklisted for similar activities, Peck signed a letter deploring a House Un-American Activities Committee investigation of alleged communists in the film industry.

A life-long Democrat, Peck was suggested in 1970 as a possible Democratic candidate to run against Ronald Reagan for the office of California Governor. Although he later admitted that he had no interest in being a candidate himself for public office, Peck encouraged one of his sons, Carey Peck, to run for political office. Carey was defeated both times by slim margins in races in 1978 and 1980 against Republican U.S. Representative Bob Dornan, another former actor.

Peck revealed that former President Lyndon Johnson had told him that, had he sought re-election in 1968, he intended to offer Peck the post of U.S. ambassador to Ireland – a post Peck, owing to his Irish ancestry, said he might well have taken, saying, "[It] would have been a great adventure".[365] The actor's biographer Michael Freedland substantiates the report, and says that Johnson indicated that his presentation of the Medal of Freedom to Peck would perhaps make up for his inability to confer the ambassadorship.[366] President Richard Nixon, though, placed Peck on his "enemies list", owing to Peck's liberal activism.[367]

Peck was outspoken against the Vietnam War, while remaining supportive of his son, Stephen, who fought there. In 1972, Peck produced the film version of Daniel Berrigan's play The Trial of the Catonsville Nine about the prosecution of a group of Vietnam protesters for civil disobedience. Despite his reservations about American general Douglas MacArthur as a man, Peck had long wanted to play him on film, and did so in MacArthur in 1976.[368]

In 1978, Peck traveled to Alabama, the setting of To Kill a Mockingbird, to campaign for Democratic U.S. Senate nominee Donald W. Stewart of Anniston, who defeated the Republican candidate, James D. Martin, a former U.S. representative from Gadsden.

In 1987, Peck undertook the voice-overs for television commercials opposing President Reagan's Supreme Court nomination of conservative judge Robert Bork.[369] Bork's nomination was defeated. Peck was also a vocal supporter of a worldwide ban of nuclear weapons, and a life-long advocate of gun control.[370][371]

Personal life[edit]

Gregory Peck's tomb at Los Angeles Cathedral

In October 1942, Peck married Finnish-born Greta Kukkonen (1911–2008), with whom he had three sons: Jonathan (1944–1975), Stephen (b. 1946), and Carey Paul (b. 1949). They were divorced on December 31, 1955.

During his marriage with Greta, Peck had a brief affair with Spellbound co-star Ingrid Bergman.[174] He confessed the affair to Brad Darrach of People in a 1987 interview, saying: "All I can say is that I had a real love for her (Bergman), and I think that's where I ought to stop... I was young. She was young. We were involved for weeks in close and intense work."[372][373][374]

On New Year's Day in 1956, the day after his divorce was finalized, Peck married Véronique Passani (1932–2012),[375] a Paris news reporter who had interviewed him in 1952 before he went to Italy to film Roman Holiday. He asked her to lunch six months later, and they became inseparable. They had a son, Anthony Peck (b. 1956),[376] and a daughter, Cecilia Peck (b. 1958).[377] The couple remained married until Gregory Peck's death. His son Anthony is an ex-husband of supermodel Cheryl Tiegs. His daughter Cecilia lives in Los Angeles.

Peck's eldest son, Jonathan, was found dead in his home on June 26, 1975, in what authorities believed was a suicide.[378]

Peck had grandchildren from both marriages.[379] One of his grandsons from his first marriage is actor Ethan Peck.

Peck owned the thoroughbred steeplechase race horse Different Class, which raced in England.[380] The horse was favored for the 1968 Grand National, but finished third. Peck was close friends with French president Jacques Chirac.[381]

Peck was Roman Catholic, and once considered entering the priesthood. Later in his career, a journalist asked Peck if he was a practicing Catholic. Peck answered: "I am a Roman Catholic. Not a fanatic, but I practice enough to keep the franchise. I don't always agree with the Pope... There are issues that concern me, like abortion, contraception, the ordination of women ... and others."[382] His second marriage was performed by a justice of the peace, not by a priest, because the Church prohibits remarriage if a former spouse is still living, and the first marriage was not annulled. Peck was a significant fund-raiser for the missionary work of a priest friend of his (Father Albert O'Hara), and served as co-producer of a cassette recording of the "New Testament" with his son Stephen.[382]

Death[edit]

On June 12, 2003, Peck died in his sleep from bronchopneumonia at the age of 87 at his home in Los Angeles.[383] His wife, Veronique, was by his side.[384]

Gregory Peck is entombed in the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels mausoleum in Los Angeles. His eulogy was read by Brock Peters, whose character, Tom Robinson, was defended by Peck's Atticus Finch in To Kill a Mockingbird.[385][386] The celebrities who attended Peck's funeral included Lauren Bacall, Sidney Poitier, Harry Belafonte, Shari Belafonte, Harrison Ford, Calista Flockhart, Mike Farrell, Shelley Fabares, Jimmy Smits, Louis Jourdan, Dyan Cannon, Stephanie Zimbalist, Michael York, Angie Dickinson, Larry Gelbart, Michael Jackson, Anjelica Huston, Lionel Richie, Louise Fletcher, Tony Danza, and Piper Laurie.[385][387]

Legacy[edit]

The Gregory Peck Award for Cinematic Excellence was created by the Peck family in 2008 to commemorate their father by honoring a director, producer or actor's life's work. Originally presented at the Dingle International Film Festival in his ancestral home in Dingle, Ireland,[388] since 2014 it has been presented at the San Diego International Film Festival in the city where he was born and raised. Recipients include Gabriel Byrne, Jim Sheridan, Laura Dern, Alan Arkin, Annette Bening, and Patrick Stewart. On October 18, 2019, Laurence Fishburne will receive the award.

Awards and honors[edit]

Peck was nominated for five Academy Awards, winning once. He was nominated for The Keys of the Kingdom (1945), The Yearling (1946), Gentleman's Agreement (1947), and Twelve O'Clock High (1949). He won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his role as Atticus Finch in the 1962 film To Kill a Mockingbird. In 1967, he received the Academy's Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award.[389]

Peck also received many Golden Globe awards. He won in 1947 for The Yearling, in 1963 for To Kill a Mockingbird, and in 1999 for the TV mini-series Moby Dick. He was nominated in 1978 for The Boys from Brazil. He received the Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1969, and was given the Henrietta Award in 1951 and 1955 for World Film Favorite – Male.

In 1969, 36th U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson honored Peck with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor. In 1971, the Screen Actors Guild presented Peck with the SAG Life Achievement Award. In 1989, the American Film Institute gave Peck the AFI Life Achievement Award. He received the Crystal Globe award for outstanding artistic contribution to world cinema in 1996.

He received the Career Achievement Award from the U.S. National Board of Review of Motion Pictures in 1983.[390]

In 1986, Peck was honored alongside actress Gene Tierney with the first Donostia Lifetime Achievement Award at the San Sebastian Film Festival in Spain for their body of work.

In 1987, Peck was awarded the George Eastman Award, given by George Eastman House for distinguished contribution to the art of film.[391]

In 1993, Peck was awarded with an Honorary Golden Bear at the 43rd Berlin International Film Festival.[392]

In 1998, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts.[393]

In 2000, Peck was made a Doctor of Letters by the National University of Ireland. He was a founding patron of the University College Dublin School of Film, where he persuaded Martin Scorsese to become an honorary patron. Peck was also chairman of the American Cancer Society for a short time.

For his contribution to the motion picture industry, Gregory Peck has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6100 Hollywood Boulevard. In November 2005, the star was stolen, and has since been replaced.[394]

On April 28, 2011, a ceremony was held in Beverly Hills, California, celebrating the first day of issue of a U.S. postage stamp commemorating Peck. The stamp is the 17th commemorative stamp in the "Legends of Hollywood" series.[395][396]

Archives[edit]

Peck donated his personal collection of home movies and prints of his feature films to the Film Archive of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1999. The film material at the Academy Film Archive is complemented by printed materials in the Gregory Peck papers at the Academy's Margaret Herrick Library.[397]

Filmography[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Leonard Maltin described it as "sincere, but plodding",[20] while Bosley Crowthers of The New York Times faulted the screenwriter for "letting his story progress so fitfully and loading his characters with dialogue rather than stirring deeds," said "the director failed to make the best of what he had," and said "Gregory Peck comes recommended with a Gary Cooper angularity and a face somewhat like that modest gentleman's, but his acting is equally stiff."[21]
  2. ^ Variety described the movie as "a cavalcade of a priest's life, played excellently by Peck, what transcends all the cinematic action is the impact of tolerance, service, faith and godliness."[25] Bosley Crowthers wrote that "much of the dialogue that is cautiously arranged between and among these people is tedious, since it lacks real depth or point", but Peck "gives a quiet and forceful performance."[28]
  3. ^ Leonard Maltin says it is "long but generally good;"[30] Barry Monush says it is overlong;[9] Craig Butler of AllMovie says it has "some inattentive pacing (which) makes for some fairly dull patches throughout....and there's an abundance of stilted dialogue." [31] Film critic Greg Orypeck asserts "Against the current trend for quite different films, The Keys of the Kingdom is all things today's films aren't-slow-moving, patient, expository, with long scenes of dialogue and character building" noting "some viewers may think the film sentimental, which maybe it is, but this scene is most moving and it's only one of many like it in an inspiring film".[32]
  4. ^ TV Guide describes Peck's performance as excellent[33] while Craig Butler says "he gives a commanding performance, full of his usual quiet dignity and intelligence, and spiked with stubbornness and an inner fire that make the character truly come alive."[31]
  5. ^ Bosley Crowthers wrote "the early phases of the picture are rather studiously on the "cute" side" and "the middle phases are also somewhat artificially contrived....but the final phase....does have authority and depth;" Peck's performance is "quietly commanding."[41] Variety said the tale "is movingly dealt with" and that "Peck has the personality and ability to command attention in any scene."[43]
  6. ^ Leonard Malton says it is polished[20] TV Guide says it is "huge (and) sprawling....the realism of the sets is a tribute to the art directors and set decorators....three out of five stars."[44]
  7. ^ no reviews in the linked books or websites[45][46][47]
  8. ^ Newsweek's review evaluated the film as "a superior and suspenseful melodrama;"[56] Bosley Crowthers of the New York Times said it is a "moving love story", that "the quality of story-telling is extraordinarily fine,” and that Peck's performance "restrained and refined, is precisely the proper counter to Miss Bergman's exquisite role;"[57] and Variety said "Alfred Hitchcock handles his players and action in a suspenseful manner, and except for a few episodes of much scientific dialogue, maintains a steady pace in keeping the camera moving."[58]
  9. ^ Leonard Maltin assesses it as absorbing and unique;[20] TV Guide says it is intriguing and "although heavy on dialogue, it is not without some brilliant visual touches";[49] Barry Monush calls it decent;[9] and, Christoper Tookey describes it as "a fascinating psychological thriller....with a plot which never quite delivers the killer punch" although "the cinematography is extraordinary."[46] Patrick Legar of AllMovie writes "the film's thriller elements combined with a series of outstanding visuals bring Spellbound within a notch of the director's best works", but that its "psychoanalytic ideas that are simplistic and obsolete to the point of becoming comical,"[60]
  10. ^ Arthur Beach says "The hero of the film suffers from amnesia, a guilt complex, split personality and a form of paranoia....with all that the matter with him, his psychiatrist sweetheart....snaps him out of it in what appears to be little more than three days".[61] Paul Condon and Jim Sangster say "At many points during Spellbound we find ourselves watching with increasing incredulity that someone as intelligent as Constance (Bergman's character) can be so repeatedly stupid, fawning over her new boss, falling inexplicably in love with him" when "the object of her affection is so lacking in any appealing personality."[62]
  11. ^ Writers Paul Condon and Jim Sangster writing in their book "The Complete Hitchcock"[63] and Christopher Tookey says the "film suffers from the wooden Peck in the lead role."[46]
  12. ^ Jac. D. Grant of the Hollywood Reporter wrote it provides "an emotional experience seldom equaled."[64] Variety said it is a "heart-warming story", that its "underlying power is impressive," and that "the underplaying is sometimes too static, but just as interest lags, the director injects another highlight."[65] A.E. Wilson of The Star (England) wrote "the film is acted with rare perfection."[66] Bosley Crowthers also wrote "the strong bond of trust and wistful longing which exists between the boy and his "Pa" required the most sensitive tuning in order to ring sharp and true" and "the love of the lad for a pet lawn, which his father understands, had to be tenderly developed to appear wholly genuine."
  13. ^ It's been described as "a huge success" and "a remarkable film that is truly for the entire family" by TV Guide;[69] as "exquisitely filmed....with memorable performances" by Leonard Maltin;[20] and by Dan Jardine of AllMovie as "teetering on the brink of sentimentality at times" but "the honesty of the performances and the beauty of the photography procure a place for The Yearling in cinematic history."[70]
  14. ^ Bosley Cowthers wrote "There's a new sales technique in film business which has been rather cleverly evolved from scientific audience researching. It is this: If the public "want to see" for a forthcoming picture samples higher than the reactions of test audiences, you sell your picture in a hurry before the curious have a chance to get wise. That, we suspect, is one reason why David O. Selznick's "Duel in the Sun....was launched yesterday not only at the Capitol on Broadway but in thirty-eight (count 'em) houses of the Loew's circuit in and around New York."[80]
  15. ^ Her surreptitious boyfriend, and later husband, David O. Selznick, the movie's producer, "tried to present Jones in a new sexier image" in "the quest....to make Jones the screen's greatest star."[78] Jones was uneasy about her character’s brazen sexuality—as were the film censors.[83]
  16. ^ The Movie Guide says it was "universally drubbed" by the critics,[77] while Frank Miller of Turner Class Movies says it had "pretty awful reviews",[84] and Stephen Watts of The Sunday Times said it "fluctuates between the repellent and the ridiculous".[85] Variety wrote “The familiar western formula reaches its highest commercialization....(the movie) is raw, sex-laden pulp fiction....The vastness of western locale is splendidly displayed in color....too much at times considering the movie’s length” and Jones and Peck overact in some scenes. [86]
  17. ^ It is described by Christopher Tookey as "vulgar, melodramatic and overblown" but as having "a certain bizarre appeal";[74] by David Shipman as "viley acted by all";[87] by TV Guide as having an "accent on sex, heavy-handed and often repugnant," and being "undeniable hooey but also candybox entertainment;"[88] by film critic Ronald Bergen as being "demented, delirious" and "visually resplendent;"[75] and by Brendon Hanley of AllMovie as "wacky, gradiose and famous for its sexual innuendo" with "performers mostly relegated to the background."[89]
  18. ^ David Parkinson of the BFI says Peck "credibly holds his own against the scene-stealing veterans" in the movie;[90] Bosley Crowthers says Peck makes "the renegade brother a credibly vicious and lawless character;" [80] but Christopher Tookey says "Peck is as lively as the average coffee table;"[74] and Variety wrote Peck overacted in some scenes.[91]
  19. ^ Variety writing said "African footage is cut into the story with showmanship effect, and these sequences build up suspense satisfactorily", "scenes in which lions and water buffalos charge....will stir any audience." and while it has some "unreal dialogue", the film's "action is often exciting and elements of suspense frequently hop up the spectator;"[94] Bosley Crowthers wrote the movie is "a tight and absorbing study of character," and "the hunting scenes, incidentally, are visual knockouts" but, it has a "contrived conclusion....(that is) completely stupid and false;"[95] and Time Magazine said it was a "brilliantly good job-the best job yet of Hemingway to the screen."[96]
  20. ^ The New York Herald Tribune described it as a “brilliant blow against racial and religious intolerance".[102] The Daily Mirror assessed it as "the most explosive picture of the year" and "one of the most exciting and punch-laden pictures you've ever seen."[103] Variety wrote the movie “provides an almost overwhelming emotional experience”, is "memorable for numerous vivid impelling passages", has “great dramatic depth and force”, "is a credit to the screen" and that the screenplay, direction and cinematography are all excellent, but acknowledged it has "some disappointing or confusing scenes."[104]
  21. ^ Bosley Crowthers wrote "the role is crisply and agreeably played by Gregory Peck;"[105]TV Guide says Peck gives "a convincing portrayal" and refers to "the excellence of Peck;"[98][106] Richard Gilliam of AllMovie says "the performances....are quite good, especially (that) of Peck;"[107] Variety says "he is quiet, almost gentle, progressively intense and resolute, with just the right suggestion of inner vitality and turbulence."[104]
  22. ^ Christopher Tookey says "Once considered courageous and powerful, now it looks terribly slow, preachy and melodramatic. More evidence....the socially important film of today is the deserdedly forgotten film of tomorrow;"[46] Michael Gebert writes "In retrospect, rarely has so much praise been lavished on such an inconsequential film....Coming on the heels of the Holocaust, it seems almost obscene to lavish so much attention on such a minor, upper-class aspect of anti-Semitism"[100]
  23. ^ George Aachen wrote "Peck's amateurishly mannered performance with its wearisome trick of delivery and inflection, makes (the movie) seem even more unrealistic," and John Howard Reid wrote "The glum humorless Peck is in every scene bar one-though he does not hold the monopoly on strained acting."[109][108]
  24. ^ Leonard Malton says "sincere....then daring approach to subject matter is tame now."[20] Barry Monush observes it is "a film looked upon as very mild dramatic fare by modern audiences, but one that much good in its day."[9]TV Guide writes "today it looks like heart on a sleeve, but the film is a landmark film" and "remains a classic crusading film."[98] David Sterritt, author, says it "comes across as smart, incisive and engrossing drama."[111] Peter Bradshaw of The Guardian wrote in 2017 that "Gentleman’s Agreement is still a riveting movie, intriguing, a little exasperating, alternately naive and very sharp."[112]
  25. ^ Bosley Crowthers wrote the movie is “one fitfully intriguing tale, smoothly told through a cultivated camera. It isn’t a too-well-written story....it goes into Old Bailey Courtroom and stays there for most of the film. Courtroom action tends to weary....Hitchcock has made the most of a difficult script and has got as much tension in a courtroom as most directors could get in a frontier fort. Gregory Peck is impressively impassioned as the famous young London barrister who lets his heart, cruelly captured by his client, rule his head."[118] Variety wrote "high dramatics....Hitchcock's penchant for suspense and unusual atmosphere development get full play. There is a deliberateness of pace, artful pauses and other carefully calculated melodramatic hinges upon which he swings the story and players. Peck's statue as a performer of ability stands him in good stead among extremely tough competition."[117]
  26. ^ Leonard Maltin said "talk, talk, talk in complicated, stagy courtroom drama;"[20] Barry Monush labeled it "dreary,"[9] Patrick Legare of AllMovie says it is "talky, slow-moving....with a lack of any sustained action" and "Peck gives respectable performance;"[119] Jay S. Steinberg of TCM, writes it has "a rather verbose narrative that never quite builds dramatically....but with instances that reveal the director's visual flair" and as featuring "earnest and engaging performances."[114]
  27. ^ Bosley Crowthers wrote "Guns blaze, fists fly and passions tangle in the best realistic Western style. William A. Wellman has directed for steel-spring tension from the beginning to the end." The story is kept "on the surface level of action and partly contrived romance. At this popular level they have made it tough, taut and good....it's classy and exciting while it lasts" [121] TV Guide writes "The unlikely ending doesn't injure this brilliantly filmed and directed Western, which qualifies as one of the best of the genre. The high-contrast black-and-white photography is stunning....Dialogue is all the more telling for being sparse, the story is carried visually. The music is fine, beginning the action of each scene, then fading as stark realism takes hold and natural sounds are heard."[122] Craig Butler of AllMovie writes "crackling good screenplay....with memorable dialogue and clearly drawn characters....beautifully detailed direction that doesn't skimp on suspense or action and that even makes the love angle work....aided by stark, almost expressionistic cinematography, a feast of black-and-white images that carry on their own considerable emotional weight" and "a marvellous cast."[123] Christoper Tookey says "need to insert"[124]TimeOut says "a fine Western, harshly shot "screenplay develops (source story) with the Tempest in mind, the subtler analogies serving to provide resonances.....the conflict similarly resolves strangely....into a sense of conciliation. Beautifully cast and characterised."[125]
  28. ^ Variety said "Peck shines as the outlaw leader and matching dramatic stride by stride with him is Baxter."[127] TV Guide writes "Peck is thoroughly believable in a part which contrasts greatly with many of his others."[128] Craig Butler writes Peck is "a solid leading man with a villainous side."[129]
  29. ^ TCM states this;[136] the New York Herald Tribune called it “pompous and dull entertainment”,[138] while Time Magazine lamented that "the rich, exuberant flow of dialogue, incident and atmospheric characteristic (of the novel it is based on) has been chocked to a pedestrian trickle;"[139] and Bosley Crowthers labeled it "as a dreary picture" with "the actors entrapped by a weak script and fustian direction."[140]
  30. ^ Bob Thomas of the Associated Press wrote "It is one of the best treatments of WWII but not without its defects. These include its length and some old war picture cliches. But the acting (especially Peck) and direction approach greatness."[145]
  31. ^ Aubry D. Arminio of AllMovie says "The story of Peck's General Savage remains one of the most fair and celebrated accounts of leadership....Twelve O'Clock High is a sincere and realistic war film."[148]TV Guide says "Firm film, peak Peck....in addition to fine acting, Twelve O'Clock High features some gorgeous camerawork and one of the most horrifying aerial attack sequences ever put on film....the subsequent devaluation of King's work is a gross injustice."[149] Leonard Maltin says "Taut story....Peck has never been better."[20] Michael Gebert declares it the best film of 1949.[142] and Christopher Tookey writes it is "probably the best picture about the pressures which war imposes on those at the top."[150]
  32. ^ see also modern reviews; Variety wrote "Peck gives the character much credence as he suffers and sweats with his men."[152]David Thomson says Peck is "quite riveting".[73]TV Guide says "Peck gives a flawless performance."[153] Barry Monush says "Peck does his best work yet to date."[9]
  33. ^ Bosley Crowthers wrote the battle scenes "as directed by Lewis Milestone, an old war-film hand, are realistic and effective" and "all represented expertly....but the awesome and lasting impressive feature is that enemy "voice" (from battle speakers) articulating all the resentments and misgivings of the American troops" and "the audacity to produce such a grim and rugged film, which tacitly points to the obsoleteness of ground warfare, merits applause."[318] Variety wrote "Pork Chop Hill is a grim, utterly realistic story that drives home both the irony of war and the courage men can summon to die in a cause they don't understand for and an objective which they know to be totally irrelevant. The accent on the combat is such that....the other men barely emerge as people. They look real, they sound real."[319]
  34. ^ Leonard Maltin writes "gritty...with an impressive cast."[320] Scott McGee of TCM says the film is "told with a hard-nosed style of harsh realism and fluid action" and "it was the sure-handed direction of veteran Lewis Milestone that determined the impact of Pork Chop Hill."[321] Tony Sloman of RadioTimes writes "This is the definitive Korean War movie....Bleak and glum, it boasts a superb all-male cast headed by Gregory Peck at his glummest....the action sequences are terrific."[322] TimeOut writes "It details (quite brilliantly) the bloody assault on a hill of no particular value....impressive with fine performances."[323] Barry Monush writes it "emphasizes gritty action over characterization."[9]
  35. ^ TV Guide writes "Peck is outstanding as the resolute but compassionate commander."[325] Bosley Crowthers wrote "Gregory Peck is convincingly stalwart...." [326]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Freedland, Michael. Gregory Peck: A Biography. New York: William Morrow and Company. 1980. ISBN 0-688-03619-8 p. 10
  2. ^ United States Census records for La Jolla, California 1910
  3. ^ United States Census records for St. Louis, Missouri – 1860, 1870, 1880, 1900, 1910
  4. ^ Ronald Bergan (June 13, 2003). "Gregory Peck obituary". The Guardian.
  5. ^ Freedland, pp. 12–18
  6. ^ Freedland, pp. 16–19
  7. ^ Fishgall, Barry (2002). Gregory Peck: A Biography. New York City: Simon and Schuster. pp. 36–37. ISBN 0-684-85290-X.
  8. ^ Thomas, Tony. Gregory Peck. Pyramid Publications, 1977, p. 16
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Monush, Barry (New York, 2003), "The Encyclopedia of Hollywood Film Actors", Applause Theatre and Cinema Books, pg.589.
  10. ^ ""Gregory Peck comes home", ''Berkeley Magazine'', Summer 1996". Berkeley.edu. July 4, 2000.
  11. ^ Freedland, p. 35
  12. ^ a b "Gregory Peck Returns to Theatre Roots in Virginia Mountains", Playbill, June 29, 1998
  13. ^ Tad Mosel, Leading Lady: The World and Theatre of Katharine Cornell, Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 1978[page needed]
  14. ^ Welton Jones. "Gregory Peck," San Diego Union-Tribune, April 5, 1998
  15. ^ "Playhouse Highlights". La Jolla Playhouse. Archived from the original on November 15, 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
  16. ^ a b "Circle of Concentration: Gregory Peck in an Interview with Gordon Gow" in Films and Filming, September 1974. https://www.theactorswork.com/2013/04/films-and-filming-gregory-peck.html
  17. ^ Thompson, David (London, 1994) "A Biographical Dictionary of Film", Martin Secker and Warburg Ltd., pg. 576.
  18. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/days-of-glory/review/112333/
  19. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/days-of-glory-v12658
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Maltin, Leonard. “Leonard Maltin’s Classic Movie Guide”, 2005.
  21. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1944/06/17/archives/days-of-glory-starring-tamara-toumanova-and-gregory-peck-at-palace.html?rref=collection%2Fcollection%2Fmovie-guide
  22. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/days-of-glory-v12658 Hal Wilson of Allmovie says "critics and audiences alike were in agreement that Gregory Peck had some potential as a screen presence."
  23. ^ https://www.cbsnews.com/news/gregory-peck-dead-at-87/
  24. ^ a b c d https://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/gregory-peck-36623.html
  25. ^ a b "The Keys of the Kingdom". Variety.com. December 31, 1944.
  26. ^ Thomson, David (London, 1994) "A Biographical Dictionary of Fim", Martin Secker and Warburg Ltd., pg. 576.
  27. ^ Greg Orypeck (May 31, 2018). "The Keys of the Kingdom (1947) starring Gregory Peck and Thomas Mitchell". Classic Film Freak. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  28. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1944/12/30/archives/keys-of-the-kingdom-from-novel-by-aj-cronin-opens-at-rivoli-rkos.html
  29. ^ a b c Kinn, Gail, and Jim Plazza (New York, 2000) "The Academy Awards: The Complete History of Oscar", Black Dog and Leventhal Publishers, pg. 92.
  30. ^ Maltin, Leonard. “Leonard Maltin’s Classic Movie Guide”, 2005
  31. ^ a b https://www.allmovie.com/movie/the-keys-of-the-kingdom-v27139/review Craig Butler, author.
  32. ^ {{cite web|author=Greg Orypeck |url=https://www.classicfilmfreak.com/2018/05/31/the-keys-of-the-kingdom-1947-starring-gregory-peck-and-thomas-mitchell/ |title=The Keys of the Kingdom (1947) starring Gregory Peck and Thomas Mitchell |work=Classic Film Freak |date=May 31, 2018 |accessdate=October 8, 2019
  33. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/the-keys-of-the-kingdom/review/103109/
  34. ^ Greg Orypeck (May 31, 2018). "The Keys of the Kingdom (1947) starring Gregory Peck and Thomas Mitchell". Classic Film Freak. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  35. ^ https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0036983/ (only 2200 votes on website)
  36. ^ McGilligan, Patrick (New York: 2004), "Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light", HarperCollins Publishers Inc., pg. 357.
  37. ^ a b c d e Thomson, David (London, 1994) "A Biographical Dictionary of Film", Martin Secker and Warburg Ltd., pg. 576.
  38. ^ a b https://www.the-numbers.com/market/1951/top-grossing-movies
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gebert, Michael (New York, 1996) “The Encyclopedia of Movie Awards”, St. Martin’s Press.
  40. ^ a b c d e f Kay, Eddie Dorman (New York, 1990). "Box Office Champs: The Most Popular Movies from the Last 50 Years", M & M Books.
  41. ^ a b Crowther, Bosley (May 4, 1945). "THE SCREEN IN REVIEW; 'The Valley of Decision,' With Greer Carson and Gregory Peck, Makes Its Appearance at the Radio City Music Hall Judy Garland Seen in 'The Clock' at Capitol--Other New Films Are Offered at the Palace and at Loew's State Theatre At the Capitol At the Palace At Loew's State" – via NYTimes.com.
  42. ^ a b Kinn, Gail, and Jim Plazza (New York, 2000) “The Academy Awards: The Complete History of Oscar”, Black Dog and Leventhal Publishers.
  43. ^ https://variety.com/1944/film/reviews/the-valley-of-decision-1200414422/
  44. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/the-valley-of-decision/review/121965/
  45. ^ a b c d Andrew Joseph and Maitland McDonaugh, Eds. (New York, 1998) "The Movie Guide", Berkley Publishing Group.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Tookey, Christopher (London, 1994), "The Film Critics' Film Guide", Boxtree Limited.
  47. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/the-valley-of-decision-v115370
  48. ^ https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0038213/ only 1600 votes
  49. ^ a b c d Fox, Ken, Ed Grant, Jo Imeson, Andrew Joseph and Maitland McDonaugh, Eds. (New York, 1998) "The Movie Guide", Berkley Publishing Group, pg. 645.
  50. ^ a b http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/91049/Spellbound/articles.html#00
  51. ^ Gebert, Michael (New York, 1996) "The Encyclopedia of Movie Awards", St. Martin’s Press, pg. 143.
  52. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/86212/The-Paradine-Case/articles.html
  53. ^ McGilligan, Patrick (New York: 2004), "Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light", HarperCollins Publishers Inc., pgs. 357-358
  54. ^ McGilligan, Patrick (New York: 2004), "Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light", HarperCollins Publishers Inc., pgs. 360.
  55. ^ Haney, Lynn (2009). Gregory Peck: A Charmed Life. De Capo Press. ISBN 9780786737819.
  56. ^ McGilligan, Patrick (New York: 2004), "Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light", HarperCollins Publishers Inc., pg. 379. quoting Newsweek
  57. ^ Crowther, Bosley, New York Times, November 2, 1945. https://www.nytimes.com/1945/11/02/archives/tide-screen-in-review-spellbound-a-psychological-hit-starring.html.
  58. ^ https://variety.com/1944/film/reviews/spellbound-1200414466/
  59. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/91049/Spellbound/articles.html quoting New York Herald Tribune
  60. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/spellbound-v46054/review Patrick Legare, author.
  61. ^ Tookey, Christopher (London, 1994), "The Film Critics' Film Guide", Boxtree Limited. pg. 794. quoting Arthur Beach, New Movies.
  62. ^ a b Condon, Paul, and Jim Sangster (London, 1999), "The Complete Hitchcock", Virgin Publishing Ltd. Pg.136.
  63. ^ Condon, Paul, and Jim Sangster (London, 1999), "The Complete Hitchcock", Virgin Publishing Ltd. Pg.136.
  64. ^ Tookey, Christopher (London, 1994), "The Film Critics' Film Guide", Boxtree Limited. pg. 950. quoting Jac. D. Grant, Hollywood Reporter.
  65. ^ Staff, Variety; Staff, Variety (January 1, 1946). "The Yearling".
  66. ^ Tookey, Christopher (London, 1994), "The Film Critics' Film Guide", Boxtree Limited. pg. 950. quoting A.E. Wilson, The Star, England.
  67. ^ Crowther, Bosley (January 24, 1947). "'The Yearling,' Based on Novel by Marjorie Rawlings, Opens at Radio City, with Claude Jarman Jr. in Role of Jody" – via NYTimes.com.
  68. ^ a b Gebert, Michael (New York, 1996), "The Encyclopedia of Movie Awards", St. Martin's Press, pg. 143.
  69. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/the-yearling/review/110003/
  70. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/the-yearling-v55729/review Dan Jardine, author.
  71. ^ "Duel in the Sun (1947) - Articles - TCM.com". Turner Classic Movies.
  72. ^ a b c https://www.tvguide.com/movies/duel-in-the-sun/review/113631/
  73. ^ a b c d e Thomson, David (London, 1994) "A Biographical Dictionary of Film", Martin Secker and Warburg Ltd., pg. 577.
  74. ^ a b c d Tookey, Christopher (London, 1994), "The Film Critics' Film Guide", Boxtree Limited. pg. 214.
  75. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bergen, Ronald (London: 2004) in "501 Must-See Movies", Bounty Books.
  76. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/13/movies/gregory-peck-is-dead-at-87-film-roles-had-moral-fiber.html William Grimes, author.
  77. ^ a b Fox, Ken, Ed Grant, Jo Imeson, Andrew Joseph and Maitland McDonaugh, Eds. (New York, 1998) "The Movie Guide", Berkley Publishing Group, pg. 183.
  78. ^ a b http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/73733/Duel-in-the-Sun/articles.html
  79. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/73733/Duel-in-the-Sun/notes.html
  80. ^ a b c https://www.nytimes.com/1947/05/08/archives/duel-in-the-sun-selznicks-lavish-western-that-stars-jennifer-jones.html
  81. ^ Kay, Eddie Dorman (New York, 1990). "Box Office Champs: The Most Popular Movies from the Last 50 Years", M & M Books, pg. 39.
  82. ^ "Duel in the Sun (1947) - Articles - TCM.com". Turner Classic Movies.
  83. ^ https://www.moma.org/calendar/film/3844
  84. ^ "Duel in the Sun (1947) - Articles - TCM.com". Turner Classic Movies.
  85. ^ Tookey, Christopher (London, 1994), "The Film Critics' Film Guide", Boxtree Limited. pg. 215. quoting Stephen Watts, Sunday Times.
  86. ^ https://variety.com/1945/film/reviews/duel-in-the-sun-1117790601/
  87. ^ a b c Shipman, David (London, 1984) "The Story of Cinema: Volume Two - From Citizen Kane to the Present Day," Thedford Press Limited. pg. 757.
  88. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/duel-in-the-sun/review/113631/
  89. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/duel-in-the-sun-v14930/review Brendon Hanley, author.
  90. ^ https://www.bfi.org.uk/news-opinion/news-bfi/lists/gregory-peck-10-essential-films
  91. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/duel-in-the-sun/review/113631/
  92. ^ a b c "The Macomber Affair (1947) - Articles - TCM.com". Turner Classic Movies.
  93. ^ Staff, Variety; Staff, Variety (January 1, 1947). "The Macomber Affair".
  94. ^ Cite error: The named reference variety.com was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  95. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1947/04/21/archives/the-macomber-affair-a-film-with-joan-bennett-gregory-peck-and.html
  96. ^ http://www.tcm.turner.com/tcmdb/title/82250/The-Macomber-Affair/articles.html - citing Time Magazine.
  97. ^ Fox, Ken, Ed Grant, Jo Imeson, Andrew Joseph and Maitland McDonaugh, Eds. (New York, 1998) "The Movie Guide", Berkley Publishing Group. pg. 241.
  98. ^ a b c https://www.tvguide.com/movies/gentlemans-agreement/review/124290/
  99. ^ a b c Fox, Ken, Ed Grant, Jo Imeson, Andrew Joseph and Maitland McDonaugh, Eds. (New York, 1998) "The Movie Guide", Berkley Publishing Group.
  100. ^ a b c Gebert, Michael (New York, 1996), "The Encyclopedia of Movie Awards", St. Martin's Press.
  101. ^ https://www.rogerebert.com/interviews/gregory-peck-conveyed-courage-of-his-convictions-as-he-bravely-tackled-challenging-roles
  102. ^ https://archive.org/stream/motionpictureher169unse/motionpictureher169unse_djvu.txt, quoting The New York Herald Tribune
  103. ^ https://archive.org/stream/motionpictureher169unse/motionpictureher169unse_djvu.txt, quoting The Daily Mirror
  104. ^ a b https://variety.com/1947/film/reviews/gentleman-s-agreement-2-1200415194/
  105. ^ a b https://www.nytimes.com/1947/11/12/archives/gentlemans-agreement-study-of-antisemitism-is-feature-at-mayfair.html
  106. ^ Cite error: The named reference ReferenceE was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  107. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/gentlemans-agreement-v19402/review
  108. ^ a b http://www.notcoming.com/reviews/gents_agreement/ adds "Peck "is a little too earnest" and the "this film is interesting as a historical curiosity....but holds little appeal for most."
  109. ^ Tookey, Christopher (London, 1994), "The Film Critics' Film Guide", Boxtree Limited. pg. 294. quoting George Aachen and John Howard Reid.
  110. ^ http://www.allmovie.com/movie/gentlemans-agreement-v19402/review Also conceeds "most likely because it was breaking new ground with small and deliberate steps, Gentleman's Agreement does not play well today. The characters are one-dimensional and do the sorts of thing you could easily predict they would do."
  111. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/76108/Gentleman-s-Agreement/articles.html
  112. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/film/2017/feb/15/best-picture-oscar-winners-gentlemans-agreement-1947
  113. ^ McGilligan, Patrick (New York: 2004), "Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light", HarperCollins Publishers Inc., pgs. 360.
  114. ^ a b c d e "The Paradine Case (1947) - Articles - TCM.com". Turner Classic Movies.
  115. ^ McGilligan, Patrick (New York: 2004), "Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light", HarperCollins Publishers Inc., pg. 394
  116. ^ McGilligan, Patrick (New York: 2004), "Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light", HarperCollins Publishers Inc., pg. 396.
  117. ^ a b Staff, Variety; Staff, Variety (January 1, 1947). "The Paradine Case".
  118. ^ Crowther, Bosley. The New York Times, film review, "Selznick and Hitchcock Join Forces on Paradine Case", January 8, 1948.
  119. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/the-paradine-case-v37223/review
  120. ^ a b https://www.tvguide.com/movies/yellow-sky/110024/
  121. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1949/02/02/archives/peck-baxter-and-widmark-star-in-western-yellow-sky-new-bill-at-the.html
  122. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/yellow-sky/110024/
  123. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/yellow-sky-v117905/review
  124. ^ Tookey, Christopher (London, 1994), “The Film Critics’ Film Guide”, Boxtree Limited.
  125. ^ https://www.timeout.com/london/film/yellow-sky
  126. ^ https://variety.com/results/#?q=yellow%20sky
  127. ^ https://variety.com/results/#?q=yellow%20sky
  128. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/yellow-sky/110024/
  129. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/yellow-sky-v117905/review
  130. ^ Tookey, Christopher (London, 1994), “The Film Critics’ Film Guide”, Boxtree Limited. quoting A.E. Wilson
  131. ^ https://www.timeout.com/london/film/yellow-sky
  132. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1949/02/02/archives/peck-baxter-and-widmark-star-in-western-yellow-sky-new-bill-at-the.html
  133. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/yellow-sky-v117905/review
  134. ^ https://archive.org/stream/variety177-1950-01#page/n58/mode/1up gross 2.9 million 18th for year
  135. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/v93810
  136. ^ a b http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/3465/The-Great-Sinner/notes.html
  137. ^ a b http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/3465/The-Great-Sinner/articles.html
  138. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/3465/The-Great-Sinner/articles.html citing New York Herald Tribune
  139. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/3465/The-Great-Sinner/articles.html citing Time Magazine
  140. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1949/06/30/archives/the-screen-in-review-the-great-sinner-metro-film-with-gregory-peck.html
  141. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/the-great-sinner/review/125127/
  142. ^ a b Gebert, Michael (New York, 1996) “The Encyclopedia of Movie Awards”, St. Martin’s Press, pg. 143.
  143. ^ Kinn, Gail, and Jim Plazza (New York, 2000) “The Academy Awards: The Complete History of Oscar”, Black Dog and Leventhal Publishers, pg. 92.
  144. ^ Kay, Eddie Dorman (New York, 1990), "Box Office Champs: The Most Popular Movies from the Last 50 Years", M & M Books.
  145. ^ https://cdnc.ucr.edu/?a=d&d=SPNP19491227.2.24&srpos=3&e=------194-en--20--1--txt-txIN-%22capsule+review%22----1949---1
  146. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1950/01/28/archives/the-screen-in-review-twelve-oclock-high-realistic-saga-of-the.html Also lauded it for its "rugged realism and punch."
  147. ^ Staff, Variety; Staff, Variety (January 1, 1949). "Twelve O'Clock High".
  148. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/twelve-oclock-high-v51292/ Aubry D'Arminio, author.
  149. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/twelve-oclock-high/review/121383/
  150. ^ Tookey, Christopher (London, 1994), "The Film Critics’ Film Guide", Boxtree Limited.
  151. ^ https://www.timeout.com/madrid/film/twelve-oclock-high
  152. ^ Staff, Variety; Staff, Variety (January 1, 1949). "Twelve O'Clock High".
  153. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/twelve-oclock-high/review/121383/
  154. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1950/01/28/archives/the-screen-in-review-twelve-oclock-high-realistic-saga-of-the.html
  155. ^ https://mubi.com/notebook/posts/henry-king-beyond-the-american-dream
  156. ^ Tookey, Christopher (London, 1994), “The Film Critics’ Film Guide”, Boxtree Limited. pg. 337.
  157. ^ a b https://www.allmovie.com/movie/the-gunfighter-v21150
  158. ^ https://www.goldenglobes.com/articles/oral-history-gregory-peck-and-million-dollar-mustache
  159. ^ a b c d "The Gunfighter (1950) - Articles - TCM.com". Turner Classic Movies.
  160. ^ 'The Top Box Office Hits of 1950', Variety, January 3, 1951
  161. ^ a b c d https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henry-King-American-director
  162. ^ a b c d e https://ew.com/article/1998/03/20/gregory-peck-revisits-his-career-peaks/
  163. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/the-gunfighter-v21150/review Lucia Bozzola, author.
  164. ^ a b c http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/77118/The-Gunfighter/articles.html
  165. ^ Staff, Variety; Staff, Variety (January 1, 1950). "The Gunfighter".
  166. ^ Crowther, Bosley (June 24, 1950). "THE SCREEN: THREE FEATURES HAVE PREMIERES; 'The Ganfighter,' With Gregory Peck in Leading Role, New Bill at the Roxy Theatre Lex Barker Plays Tarzan at the Criterion--Swedish Import Presented at Squire At the Criterion" – via NYTimes.com.
  167. ^ film.http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/77118/The-Gunfighter/articles.html
  168. ^ a b c Andrew Joseph and Maitland McDonaugh, Eds. (New York, 1998) "The Movie Guide", Berkley Publishing Group. pg. 266.
  169. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/the-gunfighter-v21150/
  170. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/the-gunfighter-v21150/review Lucia Bozzila, author.
  171. ^ a b c d e "Only The Valiant | TV Guide". TVGuide.com.
  172. ^ a b "Only the Valiant (1951) - Gordon Douglas | Review". AllMovie.
  173. ^ "Only the Valiant (1951) - Overview - TCM.com". Turner Classic Movies.
  174. ^ a b Haney, Lynn (2009). Gregory Peck: A Charmed Life. De Capo Press. ISBN 9780786737819.
  175. ^ "Only the Valiant (1951) - Gordon Douglas | Synopsis, Characteristics, Moods, Themes and Related". AllMovie.
  176. ^ Staff, Variety; Staff, Variety (January 1, 1951). "Only the Valiant".
  177. ^ https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0043885/ only 1200 votes
  178. ^ "Only the Valiant". Time Out London.
  179. ^ a b https://www.allmovie.com/movie/captain-horatio-hornblower-v8093
  180. ^ http://www.tcm.turner.com/tcmdb/title/16657/Captain-Horatio-Hornblower/articles.html
  181. ^ https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/63397098
  182. ^ a b Thomas, Bob. Associated Press https://cdnc.ucr.edu/?a=d&d=SBS19510715.1.4&srpos=7&e=------195-en--20-SBS-1--txt-txIN-%22capsule+review%22----1951---1
  183. ^ https://variety.com/1950/film/reviews/captain-horatio-hornblower-r-n-1200416996/ The reveiw of Bosley Crothers of N.Y. Times had no evaluative comments.
  184. ^ http://www.dvdjournal.com/quickreviews/c/captainhoratiohornblow.q.shtml
  185. ^ Andrew Joseph and Maitland McDonaugh, Eds. (New York, 1998) "The Movie Guide", Berkley Publishing Group. pg. 93.
  186. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/captain-horatio-hornblower-v8093/review
  187. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/72381/David-and-Bathsheba/articles.html
  188. ^ a b https://www.allmovie.com/movie/david-and-bathsheba-v12519
  189. ^ a b c https://variety.com/1950/film/reviews/david-and-bathsheba-1200416988/
  190. ^ a b https://www.nytimes.com/1951/08/15/archives/the-screen-a-biblical-tale-is-unfolded-david-and-bathsheba-starring.html
  191. ^ Thomas, Bob, Associated Press https://cdnc.ucr.edu/?a=d&d=SBS19510819.1.4&srpos=11&e=------195-en--20-SBS-1--txt-txIN-%22capsule+review%22----1951---1
  192. ^ a b c d "https://www.allmovie.com/movie/david-and-bathsheba-v12519/review – Jerry Butler, author.
  193. ^ a b https://www.tvguide.com/movies/david-and-bathsheba/112258/
  194. ^ Thomas, Bob. Associated Press. https://cdnc.ucr.edu/?a=d&d=SBS19510819.1.4&srpos=11&e=------195-en--20-SBS-1--txt-txIN-%22capsule+review%22----1951---1
  195. ^ Cite error: The named reference Kay, Eddie Dorman 1990 pg.52 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  196. ^ https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0043455/ only 1900 votes
  197. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/the-world-in-his-arms-v117721
  198. ^ https://variety.com/1951/film/reviews/the-world-in-his-arms-1200417109/
  199. ^ https://variety.com/1951/film/reviews/the-world-in-his-arms-1200417109/,
  200. ^ Bob Thomas, AP:https://cdnc.ucr.edu/?a=d&d=SCS19520811.1.9&srpos=9&e=------195-en--20--1--txt-txIN-%22capsule+review%22----1952---1
  201. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1952/10/10/archives/the-screen-in-review-world-in-his-arms-saga-of-men-and-the-sea.html
  202. ^ a b https://www.allmovie.com/movie/the-world-in-his-arms-v117721/review review by Craig Butler.
  203. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/the-world-in-his-arms/review/123161/
  204. ^ "COMEDIAN TOPS FILM POLL". The Sunday Herald. Sydney. 28 December 1952. – 8th most popular in UK for year.
  205. ^ 'Top Box-Office Hits of 1952', Variety, January 7, 1953. – grossed $3 million
  206. ^ a b https://variety.com/1951/film/reviews/the-snows-of-kilimanjaro-2-1200417125/
  207. ^ Molyneaux, Gerard (1995). Gregory Peck: A Bio-bibliography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-313-28668-1. Retrieved 22 October 2019
  208. ^ a b Holston, Kim R. Susan Hayward: Her Films and Life. McFarland. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-7864-8088-3. Retrieved 22 October2019
  209. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1952/09/19/archives/the-screen-in-review-snow-of-kiliminjaro-based-on-hemingways-story.html
  210. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/the-snows-of-kilimanjaro-v45397/review
  211. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/the-snows-of-kilimanjaro/118177/
  212. ^ a b c http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/4096/Roman-Holiday/articles.html
  213. ^ a b c https://www.nytimes.com/1953/08/28/archives/roman-holiday-at-music-hall-is-modern-fairy-tale-starring-peck-and.html
  214. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/4096/Roman-Holiday/notes.html
  215. ^ Gebert, Michael (New York, 1996) “The Encyclopedia of Movie Awards”, St. Martin’s Press.
  216. ^ https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/review/roman-holiday-review-movie-1953-1234508 Milton Luban, June 30, 1953.
  217. ^ https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/review/roman-holiday-review-movie-1953-1234508, Milton Luban, author.
  218. ^ https://variety.com/1952/film/reviews/roman-holiday-2-1200417429/
  219. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/roman-holiday/review/116250/
  220. ^ https://www.radiotimes.com/film/zwtx/roman-holiday-%281953/ Tony Sloan, author.
  221. ^ Klein, Joshua (London: 2003),“5001 Movies You Must See Before You Die”, Quintessence Editions Limited. pg.286.
  222. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/roman-holiday-v41976/review Rebecca Flint Marx, author.
  223. ^ a b c d e http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/87388/The-Purple-Plain/articles.html
  224. ^ a b c http://www.tcm.turner.com/tcmdb/title/19290/Man-with-a-Million/articles.html
  225. ^ a b https://www.nytimes.com/1954/06/29/archives/the-screen-a-mark-twain-story-man-with-a-million-opens-at-sutton.html
  226. ^ http://www.tcm.turner.com/tcmdb/title/19290/Man-with-a-Million/articles.html quoting New York Herald Tribune.
  227. ^ https://variety.com/1953/film/reviews/the-million-pound-note-1200417595/
  228. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1954/03/13/archives/gregory-peck-stars-in-night-people-at-roxy-story-was-shot-in-berlin.html
  229. ^ Fishgall, Gary (2002). Gregory Peck: A Biography. Scribner. p. 178. ISBN 0-684-85290-X.
  230. ^ https://variety.com/1953/film/reviews/night-people-1200417658/ Wrote screenplay was strong.
  231. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1954/03/13/archives/gregory-peck-stars-in-night-people-at-roxy-story-was-shot-in-berlin.html. Said movie had no complexity
  232. ^ Fishgall, Gary (2002). Gregory Peck: A Biography. Scribner. p. 178. ISBN 0-684-85290-X.finished 52nd for the year in US.
  233. ^ a b https://www.radiotimes.com/film/f5k568/the-purple-plain/
  234. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/the-purple-plain/115152/
  235. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/the-purple-plain/115152/
  236. ^ https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/47622304
  237. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/the-purple-plain-v106909/review
  238. ^ https://variety.com/1953/film/reviews/the-purple-plain-1200417591/
  239. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1955/04/11/archives/purple-plain-and-four-other-films-bow-gregory-peck-stars-in-drama.html
  240. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/the-purple-plain-v106909/review Craig Butler, author.
  241. ^ https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/47622304,
  242. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/v31177
  243. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/the-man-in-the-gray-flannel-suit/review/105505/
  244. ^ http://www.tcm.turner.com/tcmdb/title/82643/The-Man-in-the-Gray-Flannel-Suit/articles.html
  245. ^ https://www.the-numbers.com/market/1956/top-grossing- grossed $10.8 million but rentals were below 4.8 million as by rentals it was not in the top ten according to Kay, Eddie Dorman (New York, 1990). "Box Office Champs: The Most Popular Movies from the Last 50 Years", M & M Books.
  246. ^ http://www.tcm.turner.com/tcmdb/title/82643/The-Man-in-the-Gray-Flannel-Suit/articles.html
  247. ^ 'The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit' with Gregory Peck, Jennifer Jones and Fredric March". Harrison's Reports: 50. March 31, 1956
  248. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1956/04/13/archives/screen-mature-tender-and-touching-man-in-gray-flannel-suit-is-at.html
  249. ^ McCarten, John (April 21, 1956). "The Current Cinema". The New Yorker: 75–76.
  250. ^ Man in the Grey Flannel Suit". The Monthly Film Bulletin. 23 (270): 86. July 1956.
  251. ^ https://variety.com/1955/film/reviews/the-man-in-the-gray-flannel-suit-1200417991/
  252. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/the-man-in-the-gray-flannel-suit/review/105505/
  253. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/the-man-in-the-gray-flannel-suit-v31177/review
  254. ^ https://www.radiotimes.com/film/rm97/the-man-in-the-gray-flannel-suit/
  255. ^ https://variety.com/1955/film/reviews/the-man-in-the-gray-flannel-suit-1200417991/
  256. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/the-man-in-the-gray-flannel-suit/review/105505/
  257. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/17660/Moby-Dick/articles.html
  258. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1956/07/05/archives/screen-john-huston-and-melvilles-white-whale-moby-dick-opens-at.html
  259. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/17660/Moby-Dick/notes.html
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  262. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1956/07/05/archives/screen-john-huston-and-melvilles-white-whale-moby-dick-opens-at.html
  263. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/17660/Moby-Dick/notes.html quoting Hollywood Reporter.
  264. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/moby-dick-v32987/review
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  269. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/13/movies/gregory-peck-is-dead-at-87-film-roles-had-moral-fiber.html
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  276. ^ http://www.tcm.turner.com/tcmdb/title/2105/Designing-Woman/articles.html
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  279. ^ http://www.tcm.turner.com/tcmdb/title/2105/Designing-Woman/articles.html
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  291. ^ https://www.the-numbers.com/market/1958/top-grossing-movies - gross of 4.4 million, 1.6 million behind the 11th grossing movie but 1.2 million more than Vertigo which was 22nd.
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  308. ^ https://www.variety.com/1957/film/reviews/the-big-country-1200419045/
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  317. ^ https://www.the-numbers.com/market/1959/top-grossing-movies - grossed $3.7 million whereas No. 10 film of year grossed $10 million.
  318. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1959/05/30/archives/pork-chop-hill-war-drama-directed-by-lewis-milestone.html
  319. ^ https://variety.com/1958/film/reviews/pork-chop-hill-1200419342/
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  325. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/pork-chop-hill/review/109436/
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  327. ^ https://variety.com/1958/film/reviews/pork-chop-hill-1200419342/
  328. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/beloved-infidel-v84780
  329. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1959/11/18/archives/screen-fitzgerald-on-the-way-down-beloved-infidel-opens-at-the.html
  330. ^ https://variety.com/1958/film/reviews/beloved-infidel-1200419417/
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  332. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/beloved-infidel/review/105961/
  333. ^ https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0052617/ only 900 votes.
  334. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/17688/On-the-Beach/articles.html
  335. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1959/12/18/archives/screen-on-the-beach.html
  336. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1959/12/18/archives/screen-on-the-beach.html
  337. ^ https://thebulletin.org/2015/08/the-continuing-relevance-of-on-the-beach/
  338. ^ Tookey, Christopher (London, 1994), “The Film Critics’ Film Guide”, Boxtree Limited. quoting Newsweek.
  339. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1959/12/18/archives/screen-on-the-beach.html
  340. ^ https://variety.com/1958/film/reviews/on-the-beach-1200419354/
  341. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/17688/On-the-Beach/articles.html quoting Hollywood Report.
  342. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/17688/On-the-Beach/articles.html quoting Hollywood Report.
  343. ^ https://2015.acmi.net.au/acmi-channel/2009/film-essay-on-the-beach/
  344. ^ https://www.timeout.com/london/filmon-the-beach
  345. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/on-the-beach/review/108113/
  346. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/on-the-beach-v36271/review Craig Butler, author.
  347. ^ https://www.timeout.com/london/film/the-guns-of-navarone
  348. ^ https://www.thedigitalbits.com/site_archive/articles/gunsofnavarone/thompsoninterview.html
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  350. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/21984/The-Guns-of-Navarone/articles.html
  351. ^ https://variety.com/1960/film/reviews/the-guns-of-navarone-1200419876/
  352. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1961/06/23/archives/screen-a-robust-dramaguns-of-navarone-is-at-two-theatres.html
  353. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/21984/The-Guns-of-Navarone/articles.html quoting The New Yorker
  354. ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/21984/The-Guns-of-Navarone/articles.html
  355. ^ https://www.allmovie.com/movie/the-guns-of-navarone-v21177/review Matthew Doberman, author.
  356. ^ https://www.radiotimes.com/film/fj9bq8/the-guns-of-navarone/
  357. ^ https://www.tvguide.com/movies/the-guns-of-navarone/review/125331/
  358. ^ https://www.timeout.com/london/film/the-guns-of-navarone
  359. ^ https://www.britannica.com/topic/The-Guns-of-Navarone
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  363. ^ Freedland, pp. 242–243
  364. ^ Board, Josh (May 12, 2011). "San Diego Acting Legend Gregory Peck Gets a Stamp". Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  365. ^ Haggerty, Bridget. "Gregory Peck's Irish Connections". IrishCultureAndCustoms.com
  366. ^ Freedland, p. 197
  367. ^ Corliss, Richard. "The American as Noble Man". Time. June 16, 2003
  368. ^ Freedland, pp. 231–241
  369. ^ "". "1987 Robert Bork TV ad, narrated by Gregory Peck". YouTube.com. Retrieved June 20, 2010.
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
Arthur Freed
President of Academy of Motion Pictures, Arts and Sciences
1967–1970
Succeeded by
Daniel Taradash