Free-market anarchism

Free-market anarchism, or market anarchism, includes several branches of anarchism that advocate an economic system based on voluntary, free-market interactions without the involvement of the state. A branch of market anarchism is left-wing market anarchism, including modern mutualists such as Kevin Carson and Gary Chartier, who consider themselves anti-capitalists and identify as part of the socialist movement.[1][2][3][4]

Samuel Edward Konkin III's agorism is a branch of free-market anarchism, specifically left-wing market anarchism,[5][6][7] with counter-economics being its means.[8] Anarcho-capitalism is another, stressing the legitimacy and priority of private property, describing it as an integral component of individual rights and a free-market economy. However, there is a strong current within anarchism which does not consider anarcho-capitalism as part of the anarchist movement because anarchism has historically been an anti-capitalist movement and for definitional reasons which see anarchism incompatible with capitalist forms.[9][10][11][12][13][14]

As a result, the term may be used to refer to diverse economic and political concepts such as those proposed by individualist anarchists and libertarian socialists like the Europeans Thomas Hodgskin and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, or the Americans Stephen Pearl Andrews, William Batchelder Greene, Lysander Spooner, Benjamin Tucker and Josiah Warren, among others;[15][16] and alternatively anarcho-capitalists like Murray Rothbard[17] and David D. Friedman,[18] or anti-capitalists like Konkin,[6][19] Carson,[20][21][22] Chartier,[23][24] Roderick T. Long,[25][26] Charles W. Johnson,[27] Brad Spangler,[28] Sheldon Richman[29][30][31] and Chris Matthew Sciabarra.[32]

History[edit]

Mutualism[edit]

Mutualism began in 18th-century English and French labour movements before taking an anarchist form associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in France and others in the United States.[33] Proudhon proposed spontaneous order, whereby organisation emerges without central authority, a "positive anarchy" where order arises when everybody does "what he wishes and only what he wishes"[34] and where "business transactions alone produce the social order".[35] It is important to recognize that Proudhon distinguished between ideal political possibilities and practical governance. For this reason, much in contrast to some of his theoretical statements concerning ultimate spontaneous self-governance, Proudhon was heavily involved in French parliamentary politics and allied himself not with anarchist, but rather with socialist factions of workers movements and in addition to advocating state-protected charters for worker-owned cooperatives he also promoted certain nationalization schemes during his life of public service.

Mutualism is concerned with reciprocity, free association, voluntary contract, federation and credit and currency reform. According to the American mutualist William Batchelder Greene, each worker in the mutualist system would receive "just and exact pay for his work; services equivalent in cost being exchangeable for services equivalent in cost, without profit or discount".[36] Mutualism has been retrospectively characterised as ideologically situated between individualist and collectivist forms of anarchism.[37][38] Proudhon first characterised his goal as a "third form of society, the synthesis of communism and property".[39]

Internal disputes[edit]

American individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker, known for his libertarian journal Liberty, abandoned the natural rights conception of property rights in free-market anarchism for a Stirnerite egoism

Murray Rothbard and other natural rights theorists cite the non-aggression axiom as the basis for their libertarian systems while other free-market anarchists such as David D. Friedman favor free-market anarchism based on consequentialist ethical theories.[40] Voluntarists, paleolibertarians and agorists are propertarian market anarchists who consider private property rights to be individual natural rights deriving from the primary right of self-ownership. Market anarchists state diverse views concerning the path to elimination of the state. Rothbard endorses the use of any tactic to bring about market anarchy so long as it does not contradict his libertarian moral principles.[41]

Views on property[edit]

Tuckerites[edit]

Benjamin Tucker originally subscribed to the idea of land ownership associated with mutualism which does not grant that this creates property in land, but rather holds that when people customarily use given land and in some versions goods other people should respect that use or possession. Unlike with property, ownership is no longer recognized when that use stops.[42] The mutualist theory holds that the stopping of use or occupying land reverts it to the commons or to an unowned condition, and makes it available for anyone that wishes to use it.[43][44] As a result, there would be no market in land that is not in use. However, Tucker later abandoned natural rights theory and said that land ownership is legitimately transferred through force unless specified otherwise by contracts: "Man's only right to land is his might over it. If his neighbor is mightier than he and takes the land from him, then the land is his neighbor's, until the latter is dispossessed by one mightier still".[45] He expected that individuals would come to the realization that the "occupancy and use" was a "generally trustworthy guiding principle of action" and that individuals would likely contract to an occupancy and use policy.[46]

Rothbardians[edit]

Murray Rothbard asserted that "capitalism is the fullest expression of anarchism, and anarchism is the fullest expression of capitalism"[47]

Classical liberal John Locke argues that as people apply their labor to unowned resources, they make those resources their property. For Locke, there are only two legitimate ways people can acquire new property, namely by mixing their labor with unowned resources or by voluntary trade for created goods. In accordance with Locke's philosophy, Rothbardian free-market anarchists believe that property may only originate by being the product of labor and that its ownership may only legitimately change as a result of exchange or gift. They derive this homestead principle from what they call the principle of self-ownership.[48][49] Locke had a proviso which says that the appropriator of resources must leave "enough and as good in common to others", but Rothbard's market anarchist followers do not agree with this proviso, believing instead that the individual may originally appropriate as much as she wishes through the application of her labor and that property thus acquired remains hers until she chooses otherwise,[48][49] terming this as neo-Lockean.[49][50]

Anarcho-capitalists see this as consistent with their opposition to initiatory coercion since only land which is not already owned can be taken without compensation. If something is unowned, there is no person against whom the original appropriator is initiating coercion. They do not think that a claim of and by itself can create ownership, but rather that the application of one's labor to the unowned object as for example beginning to farm unowned land. They accept voluntary forms of common ownership, which means property open to all individuals to access.[51] Samuel Edward Konkin III, the founder of agorism, was also a Rothbardian.[52]

Although anarcho-capitalism has been regarded by some as a form of individualist anarchism,[53][54] anarcho-capitalist author Murray Rothbard stated that individualist anarchism is different from capitalism due to the individualist anarchists retaining the labor theory of value[55] and many writers deny that anarcho-capitalism is a form of anarchism at all,[56] or that capitalism itself is compatible with anarchism.[57]

Left-wing market anarchism[edit]

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, the first self-identified anarchist, supported a left-wing market anarchism called mutualism

Another contemporary school of left-libertarianism is associated with scholars such as Kevin Carson,[58][59] Roderick T. Long,[60][61] Charles W. Johnson,[62] Samuel Edward Konkin III,[63] Sheldon Richman,[31][64][31] Chris Matthew Sciabarra[65] and Gary Chartier,[66] who stress the value of radically free markets, termed freed markets to distinguish them from the common conception which these libertarians believe to be riddled with statist and capitalist privileges.[67] Referred to as left-wing market anarchists[68] or market-oriented left-libertarians,[31] proponents of this approach strongly affirm the classical liberal ideas of self-ownership and free markets while maintaining that taken to their logical conclusions these ideas support strongly anti-capitalist, anti-corporatist, anti-hierarchical and pro-labor positions in economics; anti-imperialism in foreign policy; and thoroughly liberal or radical views regarding cultural issues as such as gender, sexuality and race. This strand of left-libertarianism tends to be rooted either in the mutualist economics conceptualized by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, American individualist anarchism, or in a left-wing interpretation or extension of the thought of Murray Rothbard. According to libertarian scholar Sheldon Richman:

Left-libertarians favor worker solidarity vis-à-vis bosses, support poor people's squatting on government or abandoned property, and prefer that corporate privileges be repealed before the regulatory restrictions on how those privileges may be exercised. They see Walmart as a symbol of corporate favoritism—supported by highway subsidies and eminent domain—view the fictive personhood of the limited-liability corporation with suspicion, and doubt that Third World sweatshops would be the "best alternative" in the absence of government manipulation. Left-libertarians tend to eschew electoral politics, having little confidence in strategies that work through the government. They prefer to develop alternative institutions and methods of working around the state.[31]

Gary Chartier has joined Kevin Carson, Charles W. Johnson and others (echoing the language of Stephen Pearl Andrews, William Batchelder Greene, Thomas Hodgskin, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Lysander Spooner, Benjamin Tucker and Josiah Warren, among others) in maintaining that because of its heritage and its emancipatory goals and potential radical market anarchism should be seen by its proponents and by others as part of the socialist tradition and that market anarchists can and should call themselves socialists.[69]

Cultural politics[edit]

Contemporary free-market left-libertarians also show markedly more sympathy than mainstream or paleolibertarians towards various cultural movements which challenge non-governmental relations of power. For instance, left-libertarians Roderick T. Long and Charles W. Johnson have called for a recovery of the 19th-century alliance with radical liberalism and feminism.[70] Forms of geolibertarianism also fit into this group, but these geoists are less likely to accept terms such as anti-capitalist or socialist. While adopting familiar libertarian views, including opposition to drug prohibition, gun control, civil liberties violations and war, left-libertarians are more likely than most self-identified libertarians to take more distinctively leftist stances on issues as diverse as feminism, gender and sexuality, class, immigration and environmentalism. Especially influential regarding these topics have been scholars including Long, Johnson, Chris Matthew Sciabarra and Arthur Silber.

History[edit]

The genealogy of contemporary market-oriented left-libertarianism, sometimes labeled left-wing market anarchism,[71] overlaps to a significant degree with that of Steiner–Vallentyne left-libertarianism as the roots of that tradition are sketched in The Origins of Left-Libertarianism. Carson–Long-style left-libertarianism is rooted in 19th-century mutualism and in the work of figures such as the British Thomas Hodgskin and the American individualist anarchists Benjamin Tucker and Lysander Spooner. While with notable exceptions market-oriented libertarians after Tucker tended to ally with the political right, relationships between such libertarians and the New Left thrived in the 1960s, laying the groundwork for modern left-wing market anarchism.[72]

Benjamin Tucker and his contemporaries[edit]

American individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker identified as a socialist[73] and argued that the elimination of what he called the four monopolies—the land monopoly, the money and banking monopoly, the monopoly powers conferred by patents and the quasi-monopolistic effects of tariffs—would undermine the power of the wealthy and big business, making possible widespread property ownership and higher incomes for ordinary people while minimizing the power of would-be bosses and achieving socialist goals without state action. Tucker influenced and interacted with anarchist contemporaries—including Lysander Spooner, Voltairine de Cleyre, Dyer D. Lum and William B. Greene—who have in various ways influenced later left-libertarian thinking.[74]

Alliance between market-oriented libertarians and the New Left[edit]

The doyen of modern American market-oriented libertarianism, Austrian School economist Murray Rothbard, was initially an enthusiastic partisan of the Old Right, particularly because of its general opposition to war and imperialism.[75] However, Rothbard had long embraced a reading of American history that emphasized the role of elite privilege in shaping legal and political institutions—one that was naturally agreeable to many on the left—and came increasingly in the 1960s to seek alliances on the left—especially with members of the New Left—in light of the Vietnam War,[76] the military draft and the emergence of the Black Power movement.[77]

Working with other radicals like Ronald Radosh[78] and Karl Hess,[79] Rothbard argued that the consensus view of American economic history, according to which a beneficent government has used its power to counter corporate predation, is fundamentally flawed. Rather, he argued, government intervention in the economy has largely benefited established players at the expense of marginalized groups, to the detriment of both liberty and equality. Moreover, the robber baron period, hailed by the right and despised by the left as a heyday of laissez-faire, was not characterized by laissez-faire at all, but it was in fact a time of massive state privilege accorded to capital.[80] In tandem with his emphasis on the intimate connection between state and corporate power, he defended the seizure of corporations dependent on state largesse by workers and others.[81]

Rothbard himself ultimately broke with the left, allying himself instead with the burgeoning paleoconservative movement.[82] Drawing on the work of Rothbard during his alliance with the left and on the thought of Karl Hess, some thinkers associated with market-oriented American libertarianism came increasingly to identify with the left on a range of issues, including opposition to war, to corporate oligopolies and to state-corporate partnerships as well as an affinity for cultural liberalism. One variety of this kind of libertarianism has been a resurgent mutualism, incorporating modern economic ideas such as marginal utility theory into mutualist theory. Kevin Carson's Studies in Mutualist Political Economy[83] helped to stimulate the growth of new-style mutualism, articulating a version of the labor theory of value incorporating ideas drawn from Austrian economics.[84] Other market-oriented left-libertarians have declined to embrace mutualist views of real property while sharing the mutualist opposition to corporate hierarchies and wealth concentration.[85] Left-libertarians have placed particular emphasis on the articulation and defense of a libertarian theory of class and class conflict, although considerable work in this area has been performed by libertarians of other persuasions.[86]

Criticism[edit]

A well-known criticism of free-market anarchism is by Robert Nozick, who argued that a competitive legal system would evolve toward a monopoly government—even without violating individuals rights in the process.[87] While free-market anarchists such as Roy Childs and Murray Rothbard have rejected Nozick's arguments,[88] John Jefferson actually advocates Nozick's argument and states that such events would best operate in laissez-faire.[89]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gary Chartier and Charles W. Johnson (eds). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Minor Compositions; 1st edition November 5, 2011.
  2. ^ Gary Chartier, "Advocates of Freed Markets Should Oppose Capitalism," "Free-Market Anti-Capitalism?" session, annual conference, Association of Private Enterprise Education (Cæsar's Palace, Las Vegas, NV, April 13, 2010)
  3. ^ Gary Chartier, "Advocates of Freed Markets Should Embrace 'Anti-Capitalism'".
  4. ^ Gary Chartier, Socialist Ends, Market Means: Five Essays. Cp. Tucker, "Socialism."
  5. ^ "Smashing the State for Fun and Profit Since 1969: An Interview With the Libertarian Icon Samuel Edward Konkin III (a.k.a. SEK3)".
  6. ^ a b D'Amato, David S. (27 November 2018). "Black-Market Activism: Samuel Edward Konkin III and Agorism".
  7. ^ Konkin III, Samuel Edward. An Agorist Primer (PDF).
  8. ^ "Counter-Economics: what it is, how it works" (PDF). Agorism.info. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009.
  9. ^ Sabatini, Peter (Fall/Winter 1994–1995). "Libertarianism: Bogus Anarchy". Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed (41). "Within Libertarianism, Rothbard represents a minority perspective that actually argues for the total elimination of the state. However Rothbard's claim as an anarchist is quickly voided when it is shown that he only wants an end to the public state. In its place he allows countless private states, with each person supplying their own police force, army, and law, or else purchasing these services from capitalist venders...so what remains is shrill anti-statism conjoined to a vacuous freedom in hackneyed defense of capitalism. In sum, the "anarchy" of Libertarianism reduces to a liberal fraud".
  10. ^ Meltzer, Albert (2000). Anarchism: Arguments For and Against. AK Press. p. 50. "The philosophy of "anarcho-capitalism" dreamed up by the "libertarian" New Right, has nothing to do with Anarchism as known by the Anarchist movement proper".
  11. ^ Goodway, David (2006). Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow: Left-Libertarian Thought and British Writers from William Morris to Colin Ward. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. 4. "'Libertarian' and 'libertarianism' are frequently employed by anarchists as synonyms for 'anarchist' and 'anarchism', largely as an attempt to distance themselves from the negative connotations of 'anarchy' and its derivatives. The situation has been vastly complicated in recent decades with the rise of anarcho-capitalism, 'minimal statism' and an extreme right-wing laissez-faire philosophy advocated by such theorists as Murray Rothbard and Robert Nozick and their adoption of the words 'libertarian' and 'libertarianism'. It has therefore now become necessary to distinguish between their right libertarianism and the left libertarianism of the anarchist tradition".
  12. ^ Marshall, Peter (2008). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. London: Harper Perennial. p. 565. "In fact, few anarchists would accept the 'anarcho-capitalists' into the anarchist camp since they do not share a concern for economic equality and social justice, Their self-interested, calculating market men would be incapable of practising voluntary co-operation and mutual aid. Anarcho-capitalists, even if they do reject the State, might therefore best be called right-wing libertarians rather than anarchists".
  13. ^ "Section F – Is "anarcho"-capitalism a type of anarchism?". An Anarchist FAQ (2008). Published in physical book form by "An Anarchist FAQ" as Volume I. Oakland/Edinburgh: AK Press. 558 pp. ISBN 9781902593906.
  14. ^ Newman, Saul (2010). The Politics of Postanarchism, Edinburgh University Press. p. 43. ISBN 0748634959. "It is important to distinguish between anarchism and certain strands of right-wing libertarianism which at times go by the same name (for example, Murray Rothbard's anarcho-capitalism)".
  15. ^ Woodcock, George (1962). Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements. Melbourne: Penguin.
  16. ^ McKay, Iain, ed. (2008). An Anarchist FAQ. Stirling: AK Press. ISBN 978-1-902593-90-6. OCLC 182529204.
  17. ^ Editor's note in "Taxation: Voluntary or Compulsory". Formulations. Free Nation Foundation. Summer 1995 "Taxation: Voluntary or Compulsory?". Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  18. ^ Gerald F. Gaus, Chandran Kukathas. 2004. Handbook of Political Theory. Sage Publications. pp. 118–119. Source refers to Friedman's philosophy as "market anarchism."
  19. ^ Broze, Derrick (13 September 2016). "Agorism is Not Anarcho-Capitalism". Center for a Stateless Society. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  20. ^ Carson, Kevin A. (2008). Organization Theory: A Libertarian Perspective. Charleston, SC: BookSurge.
  21. ^ Carson, Kevin (19 June 2009). "Socialism: A Perfectly Good Word Rehabilitated". Center for a Stateless Society. "But there has always been a market-oriented strand of libertarian socialism that emphasizes voluntary cooperation between producers. And markets, properly understood, have always been about cooperation. As a commenter at Reason magazine's Hit&Run blog, remarking on Jesse Walker's link to the Kelly article, put it: "every trade is a cooperative act." In fact, it's a fairly common observation among market anarchists that genuinely free markets have the most legitimate claim to the label "socialism."
  22. ^ Carson, Kevin (2010). The Homebrew Industrial Revolution: A Low-Overhead Manifesto. Charleston, SC: BookSurge.
  23. ^ Chartier, Gary (2009). Economic Justice and Natural Law. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  24. ^ Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. (2011). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Brooklyn, NY: Minor Compositions/Autonomedia. "It introduces an eye-opening approach to radical social thought, rooted equally in libertarian socialism and market anarchism."
  25. ^ Long, Roderick T. (2000). Reason and Value: Aristotle versus Rand. Washington, D.C.: Objectivist Center.
  26. ^ Long, Roderick T. (2008). "An Interview With Roderick Long".
  27. ^ Johnson, Charles W. (2008). "Liberty, Equality, Solidarity: Toward a Dialectical Anarchism". Anarchism/Minarchism: Is a Government Part of a Free Country?. In Long, Roderick T.; Machan, Tibor. Aldershot: Ashgate. pp. 155–188.
  28. ^ Spangler, Brad (15 September 2006). "Market Anarchism as Stigmergic Socialism". Archived 10 May 2011 at Archive.today.
  29. ^ Richman, Sheldon (23 June 2010). "Why Left-Libertarian?". The Freeman. Foundation for Economic Education.
  30. ^ Richman, Sheldon (18 December 2009). "Workers of the World Unite for a Free Market". Archived 22 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Foundation for Economic Education.
  31. ^ a b c d e Sheldon Richman (3 February 2011). "Libertarian Left: Free-market anti-capitalism, the unknown ideal". The American Conservative. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
  32. ^ Sciabarra, Chris Matthew (2000). Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
  33. ^ Wilbur, Shawn (2006). "More from the 1826 "Mutualist"?". "A member of a community". The Mutualist. This 1826 series criticised Robert Owen's proposals and has been attributed to a dissident Owenite, possibly from the Friendly Association for Mutual Interests of Valley Forge.
  34. ^ Proudhon, Solution to the Social Problem, ed. H. Cohen (New York: Vanguard Press, 1927), p. 45.
  35. ^ Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph (1979). The Principle of Federation. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-5458-7. The notion of anarchy in politics is just as rational and positive as any other. It means that once industrial functions have taken over from political functions, then business transactions alone produce the social order.
  36. ^ Greene, William Batchelder (1875). "Communism versus Mutualism". Socialistic, Communistic, Mutualistic and Financial Fragments. Boston: Lee & Shepard. "Under the mutual system, each individual will receive the just and exact pay for his work; services equivalent in cost being exchangeable for services equivalent in cost, without profit or discount; and so much as the individual laborer will then get over and above what he has earned will come to him as his share in the general prosperity of the community of which he is an individual member".
  37. ^ Avrich, Paul (1996). Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America. Princeton University Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-691-04494-5.
  38. ^ Miller, David, ed. (1991). Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought. Blackwell Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 0-631-17944-5.
  39. ^ Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph (1840). What Is Property?. Princeton, MA: Benjamin Tucker (1876). p. 281.
  40. ^ Danley, John R. (November 1991). "Polestar refined: Business ethics and political economy". Journal of Business Ethics. Springer Netherlands. 10 (12): 915–933. doi:10.1007/BF00383797. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  41. ^ Lora, Ronald; Longton, Henry (1999). The Conservative Press in Twentieth-Century America. Greenwood Press. p. 369.
  42. ^ Swartz, Clarence Lee. What Is Mutualism?. "VI. Land and Rent".
  43. ^ Carson, Kevin. Studies in Mutualist Political Economy. Chapter 5.
  44. ^ Long, Roderick T. "Land-Locked: A Critique of Carson on Property Rights". Journal of Libertarian Studies. 20 (1).
  45. ^ Tucker, Benjamin (31 December 1892). "Response to 'Rights,' by William Hansen". Liberty. 9 (18): 1.
  46. ^ Tucker, Benjamin (6 April 1895). "The Two Conceptions of Equal Freedom". Liberty. 10 (24): 4.
  47. ^ "Exclusive Interview With Murray Rothbard". The New Banner: A Fortnightly Libertarian Journal. 25 February 1972.
  48. ^ a b Long, Roderick T. (2006). "Land-locked: A Critique of Carson on Property Rights" (PDF). Journal of Libertarian Studies. 20 (1): 87–95.
  49. ^ a b c Bylund, Per. "Man and Matter: A Philosophical Inquiry into the Justification of Ownership in Land from the Basis of Self-Ownership" (PDF). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  50. ^ Verhaegh, Marcus (2006). "Rothbard as a Political Philosopher" (PDF). Journal of Libertarian Studies. 20 (4): 3.
  51. ^ Holcombe, Randall G. (2005). "Common Property in Anarcho-Capitalism" (PDF). Journal of Libertarian Studies. 19 (2): 3–29.
  52. ^ "Smashing the State for Fun and Profit Since 1969: An Interview With the Libertarian Icon Samuel Edward Konkin III (a.k.a. SEK3)".
  53. ^ Bottomore, Tom (1991). "Anarchism". A Dictionary of Marxist Thought. Oxford: Blackwell Reference. p. 21. ISBN 0-63118082-6.
  54. ^ See the following sources:
    • Alan and Trombley, Stephen (Eds.) Bullock, The Norton Dictionary of Modern Thought, W. W. Norton & Co (1999), p. 30.
    • Barry, Norman. Modern Political Theory, 2000, Palgrave, p. 70.
    • Adams, Ian. Political Ideology Today, Manchester University Press (2002) ISBN 0-7190-6020-6, p. 135.
    • Grant, Moyra. Key Ideas in Politics, Nelson Thomas 2003 ISBN 0-7487-7096-8, p. 91.
    • Heider, Ulrike. Anarchism: Left, Right, and Green, City Lights, 1994. p. 3.
    • Avrich, Paul. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America, Abridged Paperback Edition (1996), p. 282.
    • Tormey, Simon. Anti-Capitalism, One World, 2004. pp. 118–19.
    • Raico, Ralph. Authentic German Liberalism of the 19th Century, École Polytechnique, Centre de Recherche en Épistémologie Appliquée, Unité associée au CNRS, 2004.
    • Busky, Donald. Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey, Praeger/Greenwood (2000), p. 4.
    • Heywood, Andrew. Politics: Second Edition, Palgrave (2002), p. 61.
    • Offer, John. Herbert Spencer: Critical Assessments, Routledge (UK) (2000), p. 243.
  55. ^ Rothbard, Murray. Are Libertarians 'Anarchists'?. LewRockwell.com.
  56. ^ See the following sources:
    • K, David. "What is Anarchism?" Bastard Press (2005).
    • Marshall, Peter. Demanding the Impossible, London: Fontana Press, 1992 (ISBN 0-00-686245-4) Chapter 38.
    • MacSaorsa, Iain. "Is 'anarcho' capitalism against the state?" Spunk Press (archive).
    • Wells, Sam. "Anarcho-Capitalism is Not Anarchism, and Political Competition is Not Economic Competition" Frontlines 1 (January 1979).
  57. ^ See the following sources:
    • Peikoff, Leonard. 'Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand' Dutton Adult (1991) Chapter "Government".
    • Doyle, Kevin. 'Crypto Anarchy, Cyberstates, and Pirate Utopias' New York: Lexington Books, (2002) pp. 447–48.
    • Sheehan, Seán M. 'Anarchism' Reaktion Books, 2003 p. 17.
    • Kelsen, Hans. The Communist Theory of Law. Wm. S. Hein Publishing (1988) p. 110.
    • Egbert. Tellegen, Maarten. Wolsink 'Society and Its Environment: an introduction' Routledge (1998) p. 64.
    • Jones, James 'The Merry Month of May' Akashic Books (2004) pp. 37–38.
    • Sparks, Chris. Isaacs, Stuart 'Political Theorists in Context' Routledge (2004) p. 238.
    • Bookchin, Murray. 'Post-Scarcity Anarchism' AK Press (2004) p. 37.
    • Berkman, Alexander. 'Life of an Anarchist' Seven Stories Press (2005) p. 268.
  58. ^ Carson, Kevin A. (2008). Organization Theory: A Libertarian Perspective. Charleston, SC:BookSurge.
  59. ^ Carson, Kevin A. (2010). The Homebrew Industrial Revolution: A Low-Overhead Manifesto. Charleston, SC: BookSurge.
  60. ^ Long, Roderick T. (2000). Reason and Value: Aristotle versus Rand. Washington, D.C.: Objectivist Center
  61. ^ Long, Roderick T. (2008). "An Interview With Roderick Long".
  62. ^ Johnson, Charles W. (2008). "Liberty, Equality, Solidarity: Toward a Dialectical Anarchism". Anarchism/Minarchism: Is a Government Part of a Free Country?. In Long, Roderick T.; Machan, Tibor. Aldershot: Ashgate pp. 155–188.
  63. ^ Konkin III, Samuel Edward. The New Libertarian Manifesto.
  64. ^ Richman, Sheldon (18 December 2009). "Workers of the World Unite for a Free Market". Archived 22 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Foundation for Economic Education.
  65. ^ Sciabarra, Chris Matthew (2000). Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
  66. ^ Chartier, Gary (2009). Economic Justice and Natural Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  67. ^ Gillis, William (2011). "The Freed Market". In Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. Markets Not Capitalism. Brooklyn, NY: Minor Compositions/Autonomedia. pp. 19–20.
  68. ^ Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. (2011). Markets Not Capitalism. Brooklyn, NY: Minor Compositions/Autonomedia. pp. 1–16.
  69. ^ Gary Chartier, "Advocates of Freed Markets Should Oppose Capitalism," "Free-Market Anti-Capitalism?" session, annual conference, Association of Private Enterprise Education (Cæsar's Palace, Las Vegas, NV, April 13, 2010); Gary Chartier, "Advocates of Freed Markets Should Embrace 'Anti-Capitalism'"; Gary Chartier, Socialist Ends, Market Means: Five Essays. Cp. Tucker, "Socialism".
  70. ^ Long, Roderick T.; Johnson, Charles W. (1 May 2005). "Libertarian Feminism: Can this Marriage Be Saved?" Molinari Society.
  71. ^ Chris Sciabarra is the only scholar associated with this school of left-libertarianism who is skeptical about anarchism. See Sciabarra's Total Freedom.
  72. ^ Long, Roderick T. (2006). "Rothbard's 'Left and Right': Forty Years Later." Rothbard Memorial Lecture, Austrian Scholars Conference.
  73. ^ Tucker, Benjamin (1897). "State Socialism and Anarchism: How Far They Agree and Wherein They Differ." Instead of a Book: By a Man Too Busy to Write One. New York
  74. ^ On the nineteenth-century American individualist anarchists, see James J. Martin, Men against the State: The Expositors of Individualist Anarchism in America (Colorado Springs, CO: Myles 1970).
  75. ^ Raimond, Justin (2001). An Enemy of the State: The Life of Murray N. Rothbard. Amherst, NY: Prometheus.
  76. ^ Raimondo, pp. 151–209.
  77. ^ Doherty, Brian M. (2007). Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement. New York: Public Affairs. p. 338.
  78. ^ Rothbard; Murray; Radosh, Ronald, eds. (1972). A New History of Leviathan: Essays on the Rise of the American Corporate State. New York: Dutton.
  79. ^ Hess, Karl (1975). Dear America. New York: Morrow.
  80. ^ On partnerships between the state and big business and the role of big business in promoting regulation, see Kolko, Gabriel (1977). The Triumph of Conservatism: A Reinterpretation of American History, 1900–1916. New York: Free; Shaffer, Butler (2008). In Restraint of Trade: The Business Campaign Against Competition, 1918–1938. Auburn, AL: Mises Institute.
  81. ^ Rothbard, Murray (15 June 1969). "Confiscation and the Homestead Principle." Libertarian Forum. 1 (6): pp. 3–4.
  82. ^ Raimondo 277-8; Doherty 562-5.
  83. ^ Carson, Kevin. "Studies in Mutualist Political Economy". Archived 15 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Chs. 1–3.
  84. ^ See Kevin Carson's Studies in Mutualist Political Economy (Charleston, SC: BookSurge 2007). This book was the focus of a symposium in the Journal of Libertarian Studies.
  85. ^ See Long, Roderick T. (Winter 2006). "Land Locked: A Critique of Carson on Property Rights". Journal of Libertarian Studies. 20 (1): 87–95.
  86. ^ Richman, Sheldon (13 July 2007). "Class Struggle Rightly Conceived". The Goal Is Freedom. Foundation for Economic Education; Nock, Albert Jay (1935). Our Enemy, the State; Oppenheimer, Franz (1997). The State. San Francisco: Fox; Palmer, Tom G. (2009). "Classical Liberalism, Marxism, and the Conflict of Classes: The Classical Liberal Theory of Class Conflict". Realizing Freedom: Libertarian Theory, History, and Practice. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute. pp. 255–276; Conger, Wally (2006). Agorist Class Theory: A Left Libertarian Approach to Class Conflict Analysis (PDF). Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine; Kevin A. Carson, "Another Free-for-All: Libertarian Class Analysis, Organized Labor, Etc.," Mutualist Blog: Free-Market Anti-Capitalism (n.p., 26 January 2006); Walter E. Grinder and John Hagel, "Toward a Theory of State Capitalism: Ultimate Decision Making and Class Structure". Journal of Libertarian Studies 1.1 (1977): 59–79; David M. Hart, "The Radical Liberalism of Charles Comte and Charles Dunoyer" (PhD diss., U of Cambridge, 1994); Hans-Hermann Hoppe, "Marxist and Austrian Class Analysis". Journal of Libertarian Studies 9.2 (1990): 79–93; Long, Roderick T. "Toward a Libertarian Theory of Class". Social Philosophy and Policy 15.2 (Sum. 1998): 303–349.
  87. ^ Jeffrey Paul, Fred Dycus Miller. Liberalism and the economic order. Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 115.
  88. ^ See Childs's incomplete essay, "Anarchist Illusions", Liberty against Power: Essays by Roy A. Childs, Jr., ed. Joan Kennedy Taylor (San Francisco: Fox 1994) 179–183.
  89. ^ Jeffrey Paul, Fred Dycus Miller. Liberalism and the economic order. Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 118.

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