Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without their consent or against their will. A forced marriage differs from an arranged marriage, in which both parties presumably consent to the assistance of their parents or a third party such as a matchmaker in finding and choosing a spouse. There is often a continuum of coercion used to compel a marriage, ranging from outright physical violence to subtle psychological pressure. Though now widely condemned by international opinion, forced marriages still take place in various cultures across the world, particularly in parts of South Asia and Africa. Some scholars object to use of the term "forced marriage" because it invokes the consensual legitimating language of marriage (such as husband/wife) for an experience that is precisely the opposite.[page needed] A variety of alternative terms have been proposed, including "forced conjugal association" and "conjugal slavery".
The United Nations views forced marriage as a form of human rights abuse, since it violates the principle of the freedom and autonomy of individuals. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that a person's right to choose a spouse and enter freely into marriage is central to his/her life and dignity, and his/her equality as a human being. The Roman Catholic Church deems forced marriage grounds for granting an annulment—for a marriage to be valid both parties must give their consent freely. The Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery also prohibits marriage without right to refuse of herself[discuss] out of her parents', family's and other persons' will and requires the minimum age for marriage to prevent this.
In 1969, the Special Court for Sierra Leone's (SCSL) Appeals Chamber found the abduction and confinement of women for "forced marriage" in war to be a new crime against humanity (AFRC decision). The SCSL Trial Chamber in the Charles Taylor decision found that the term 'forced marriage' should be avoided and rather described the practice in war as 'conjugal slavery' (2012).
In 2013, the first United Nations Human Rights Council resolution against child, early, and forced marriages was adopted; the resolution recognizes child, early, and forced marriage as involving violations of human rights which "prevents individuals from living their lives free from all forms of violence and that has adverse consequences on the enjoyment of human rights, such as the right to education, [and] the right to the highest attainable standard of health including sexual and reproductive health", and also states that "the elimination of child, early and forced marriage should be considered in the discussion of the post-2015 development agenda."
- 1 Historical context
- 2 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery
- 3 Istanbul Convention
- 4 Causes
- 5 Consequences
- 6 Violence
- 7 Relation to dowry and bride price
- 8 Marriage by abduction
- 9 As a way of solving disputes
- 10 Widow inheritance
- 11 In armed conflict
- 12 Forced marriage by partner
- 13 Escaping a forced marriage
- 14 Sharia law
- 15 Shotgun wedding
- 16 By country
- 16.1 Africa
- 16.2 Asia
- 16.3 Europe
- 16.4 The Americas
- 17 Statistics
- 18 See also
- 19 References
- 20 Further reading
- 21 External links
Arranged marriages were very common throughout the world until the 18th century. Typically, marriages were arranged by parents, grandparents or other relatives. The actual practices varied by culture, but usually involved the legal transfer of dependency of the woman from her father to the groom. The movement towards emancipation of women in the 19th and 20th centuries led to major changes to marriage laws, especially in regard to property and economic status. By the mid-20th century, many Western countries had enacted legislation establishing legal equality between spouses in family law. The period of 1975–1979 saw a major overhaul of family laws in countries such as Italy, Spain, Austria, West Germany, and Portugal. In 1978, the Council of Europe passed the Resolution (78) 37 on equality of spouses in civil law. Among the last European countries to establish full gender equality in marriage were Switzerland, Greece, Spain, the Netherlands, and France in the 1980s.
An arranged marriage is not the same as a forced marriage: in the former, the spouse has the possibility to reject the offer; in the latter, they do not. The line between arranged and forced marriage is however often difficult to draw, due to the implied familial and social pressure to accept the marriage and obey one's parents in all respects. The rejection of an offer to marry was sometimes seen as a humiliation of the prospective groom and his family.
In Europe, during the late 18th century and early 19th century, the literary and intellectual movement of romanticism presented new and progressive ideas about love marriage, which started to gain acceptance in society. In the 19th century, marriage practices varied across Europe, but in general, arranged marriages were more common among the upper class. Arranged marriages were the norm in Russia before early 20th century, most of which were endogamous. Child marriages were common historically, but began to be questioned in the 19th and 20th century. Child marriages are often considered to be forced marriages, because children (especially young ones) are not able to make a fully informed choice whether or not to marry, and are often influenced by their families.
In Western countries, during the past decades, the nature of marriage—especially with regard to the importance of marital procreation and the ease of divorce—has changed dramatically, which has led to less social and familial pressure to get married, providing more freedom of choice in regard to choosing a spouse.
Historically, forced marriage was also used to require a captive (slave or prisoner of war) to integrate with the host community, and accept their fate. One example is the English blacksmith John R. Jewitt, who spent three years as a captive of the Nootka people on the Pacific Northwest Coast in 1802–1805. He was ordered to marry, because the council of chiefs thought that a wife and family would reconcile him to staying with his captors for life. Jewitt was given a choice between forced marriage for himself and capital punishment for both him and his "father" (a fellow captive). "Reduced to this sad extremity, with death on the one side, and matrimony on the other, I thought proper to choose what appeared to me the least of the two evils" (p154).
Forced marriage was also practiced by authoritarian governments as a way to meet population targets. The Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia systematically forced people into marriages, in order to increase the population and continue the revolution.
These marriage ceremonies consisted of no fewer than three couples and could be as large as 160 couples. Generally, the village chief or a senior leader of the community would approach both parties and inform them that they were to be married and the time and place the marriage would occur. Often, the marriage ceremony would be the first time the future spouses would meet. Parents and other family members were not allowed to participate in selecting the spouse or to attend the marriage ceremony. The Khmer Rouge maintained that parental authority was unnecessary because it "w[as] to be everyone's 'mother and father.'"
Raptio is a Latin term referring to the large scale abduction of women, (kidnapping) either for marriage or enslavement (particularly sexual slavery). The practice is surmised to have been common since anthropological antiquity.
In the 21st century, forced marriages have come to attention in European countries, within the context of immigration from cultures in which they are common. The Istanbul Convention prohibits forced marriages (see Article 37).
Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery
The 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery defines "institutions and practices similar to slavery" to include:
c) Any institution or practice whereby:
- (i) A woman, without the right to refuse, is promised or given in marriage on payment of a consideration in money or in kind to her parents, guardian, family or any other person or group; or
- (ii) The husband of a woman, his family, or his clan, has the right to transfer her to another person for value received or otherwise; or
- (iii) A woman on the death of her husband is liable to be inherited by another person;
The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, also known as the Istanbul Convention, states:
Article 32 – Civil consequences of forced marriages
Parties shall take the necessary legislative or other measures to ensure that marriages concluded under force may be voidable, annulled or dissolved without undue financial or administrative burden placed on the victim.
Article 37 – Forced marriage
- Parties shall take the necessary legislative or other measures to ensure that the intentional conduct of forcing an adult or a child to enter into a marriage is criminalised.
- Parties shall take the necessary legislative or other measures to ensure that the intentional conduct of luring an adult or a child to the territory of a Party or State other than the one she or he resides in with the purpose of forcing this adult or child to enter into a marriage is criminalised.
There are numerous factors which can lead to a culture which accepts and encourages forced marriages. Reasons for performing forced marriages include: strengthening extended family links; controlling unwanted behavior and sexuality; preventing 'unsuitable' relationships; protecting and abiding by perceived cultural or religious norms; keeping the wealth in the extended family; dealing with the consequences of pregnancy out of wedlock; considering the contracting of a marriage as the duty of the parents; obtaining a guarantee against poverty; aiding immigration.
For victims and society
Early and forced marriages can contribute to girls being placed in a cycle of poverty and powerlessness. Most are likely to experience mistreatment such as violence, abuse and forced sexual relations. This means that women who marry younger in age are more likely to be dominated by their husbands. They also experience poor sexual and reproductive health. Young married girls are more likely to contract HIV and their health could be in jeopardy. Most people who are forced into a marriage lack education and are often illiterate. Young ones tend to drop out of school shortly before they get married.
Depending by jurisdiction, a forced marriage may or may not be void or voidable. Victims may be able to seek redress through annulment or divorce. In England and Wales, the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 stipulates that a forced marriage is voidable. In some jurisdictions, people who had coerced the victim into marriage may face criminal charges.
Forced marriages are often related to violence, both in regard to violence perpetrated inside the marriage (domestic violence), and in regard to violence inflicted in order to force an unwilling participant to accept the marriage, or to punish a refusal (in extreme cases women and girls who do not accept the marriage are subjected to honor killings).
Relation to dowry and bride price
The traditional customs of dowry and bride price contribute to the practice of forced marriage. A dowry is the property or money that a wife (or wife's family) brings to her husband upon marriage. A bride price is an amount of money or property or wealth paid by the groom (or his family) to the parents of the bride upon marriage.
Marriage by abduction
Marriage by abduction, also known as bride kidnapping, is a practice in which a man abducts the woman he wishes to marry. Marriage by abduction has been practiced throughout history around the world and continues to occur in some countries today, particularly in Central Asia, the Caucasus and parts of Africa. A girl or a woman is kidnapped by the groom-to-be, who is often helped by his friends. The victim is often raped by the groom-to-be, for her to lose her virginity, so that the man is able to negotiate a bride price with the village elders to legitimize the marriage. The future bride then has no choice in most circumstances, but to accept: if the bride goes back to her family, she (and her family) will often be ostracized by the community because the community thinks she has lost her virginity, and she is now 'impure'. A different form of marital kidnapping, groom kidnapping, occurs in some areas where payment of a dowry is generally expected.
As a way of solving disputes
A forced marriage is also often the result of a dispute between families, where the dispute is 'resolved' by giving a female from one family to the other. Vani is a cultural custom found in parts of Pakistan wherein a young girl is forcibly married as part of the punishment for a crime committed by her male relatives. Vani is a form of forced child marriage, and the result of punishment decided by a council of tribal elders named jirga.
Widow inheritance, also known as bride inheritance, is a cultural and social practice whereby a widow is required to marry a kinsman of her late husband, often his brother. It is prevalent in certain parts of Africa. The practice of wife inheritance has also been blamed for the spread of HIV/AIDS.
In armed conflict
In conflict areas, women and girls are sometimes forced to marry men on either side of the conflict. This practice has taken place recently in countries such as Syria, Sierra Leone, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Historically, this was common throughout the world, with women from the communities of the war enemy being considered "spoils of war", who could be kidnapped, raped and forced into marriage or sexual slavery. Because women were regarded as property, it seemed reasonable to see them as the chattel of the war enemy, which could now be appropriated and used by the winner.
Forced marriage by partner
Forced marriage can occur in the situation where in an unmarried couple, one partner forces (through violence or threats) the other partner to enter the marriage.
Escaping a forced marriage
Ending a forced marriage may be extremely difficult in many parts of the world. For instance, in parts of Africa, one of the main obstacles for leaving the marriage is the bride price. Once the bride price has been paid, the girl is seen as belonging to the husband and his family. If she wants to leave, the husband may demand back the bride price that he had paid to the girl's family. The girl's family often cannot or does not want to pay it back.
UK citizens escaping forced marriage abroad are forced to pay their repatriation costs or get into debt. This makes escaping a forced marriage harder.
This section uncritically uses texts from within a religion or faith system without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them. (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Abu Hurairah reported Muhammad as saying "A woman who has been previously married should not be married until her permission is asked nor should a virgin be married without her permission." They (the people) asked "What is her permission, Apostle of Allaah(ﷺ)?" He replied "it is by her keeping silence" [Sunan Abi Dawud 2092]. (To also note the context of a woman's silence here is that she is asked and she doesn't reply out of shyness; This specific case was as such the girl didn't respond because of being emotionally flabbergasted;If the women speaks up and rejects the marriage contract (which must be finalized in the presence of the bride) then the marriage is annulled) [In accordance to Sunni Islamic Sharia] As shown from this hadith https://sunnah.com/bukhari/67/73ref> "(690) Chapter: Seeking The Girl's Permission". sunnah.com. Archived from the original on 1 November 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2019. </ref>
It appears that the permission of an under-age bride is indeed necessary for her marriage to be considered valid. The above narrations seem to clearly make the approval of the bride a condition for a valid marriage contract.
The contract of an Islamic marriage is concluded (but not excluding the bride) between the guardian (wali) of the bride and bridegroom, not between bridegroom and bride but her permission is still necessary. The guardian (wali) of the bride can only be a free Muslim.
|Part of a series on |
A shotgun wedding is a form of forced marriage occasioned by an unplanned pregnancy. Some religions and cultures consider it a moral imperative to marry in such a situation, based on reasoning that premarital sex or out-of-wedlock births are sinful, not sanctioned by law, or otherwise stigmatized. Giving birth outside marriage can, in some cultures, trigger extreme reactions from the family or community, including honor killings.
The term "shotgun wedding" is an American colloquialism, though it is also used in other parts of the world. It is based on a hyperbolic scenario in which the pregnant (or sometimes only "deflowered") female's father resorts to coercion (such as threatening with a shotgun) to ensure that the male partner who caused the pregnancy goes through with it, sometimes even following the man to the altar to prevent his escape. The use of violent coercion to marry was never legal in the United States, although many anecdotal stories and folk songs record instances of such intimidation in the 18th and 19th centuries. Purposes of the wedding include recourse from the male for the act of impregnation and to ensure that the child is raised by both parents as well as to ensure that the woman has material means of support. In some cases, a major objective was the restoring of social honor to the mother.
Shotgun weddings have become less common as the stigma associated with out-of-wedlock births has gradually faded and the number of such births has increased; the increasing availability of birth control and abortion, as well as material support to unwed mothers, such as Elterngeld, child benefits, parental leave, and free kindergartens have reduced the perceived need for such measures.
Forced marriage is prevalent in Madagascar. Girls are married off by their families, and often led to believe that if they refuse the marriage they will be "cursed". In some cases, the husband is much older than his bride, and when she becomes a widow, she is discriminated and excluded by society.
According to Human Rights Watch, Malawi has "widespread child and forced marriage" and half of the girls marry before 18. The practice of bride price, known also as lobolo, is common in Malawi, and plays a major role in forced marriage. Wife inheritance is also practiced in Malawi. After marriage, wives have very limited rights and freedoms; and general preparation of young girls for marriage consists in describing their role as that of being subordinated to the husband.
Forced marriage in Mauritania takes three principal forms: forced marriage to a cousin (known as maslaha); forced marriage to a rich man for the purpose of financial gain; and forced polygamous marriage to an influential man.
In 2018 a law went into effect known as the Hakkaoui law because Bassima Hakkaoui drafted it; among other things it includes a ban on forced marriage. But it was criticized for requiring victims to file for criminal prosecution to get protection.
Forced marriage is common in Niger. Niger has the highest prevalence of child marriage in the world; and also the highest total fertility rate. Girls who attempt to leave forced marriages are most often rejected by their families and are often forced to enter prostitution in order to survive. Due to the food crisis, girls are being sold into marriage. Balkissa Chaibou is known as one of the most famous activists against forced marriage in Niger. Chaibou was 12 when she was informed by her own mother that she was to be married to her cousin, and when she was 16, she took to the courts. With little success, Chaibou was forced to a women's shelter before she was finally able to go home where she learned of her parents changed views on forced marriage, that they were now against it.
In South Africa, ukuthwala is the practice of abducting young girls and forcing them into marriage, often with the consent of their parents. The practice occurs mainly in rural parts of South Africa, in particular the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. The girls who are involved in this practice are frequently under-aged, including some as young as eight. The practice received negative publicity, with media reporting in 2009 that more than 20 Eastern Cape girls are forced to drop out of school every month because of ukuthwala.
In Tanzania, the practices of forced marriage and child marriage impacts the human rights and childhood of girls. Families sell their girls to older men for financial benefits, causing pain among young girls. Oftentimes, girls are married off as soon as they hit puberty, which can be as young as seven years old. To the older men, these young brides act as symbols of masculinity and accomplishment. Child brides endure forced sex, causing health risks and growth impediments. Primary education is usually not completed for young girls in forced marriages. Married and pregnant students are often discriminated against, and expelled and excluded from school. The Law of Marriage Act currently does not address issues with guardianship and child marriage. The issue of child marriage establishes a minimum age of 18 for the boys of Tanzania. A minimum age needs to be enforced for girls to stop these practices and provide them with equal rights and a less harmful life.
Compensation marriage, known variously as vani, swara and sang chatti, is the traditional practice of forced marriage of women and young girls to resolve tribal feuds in parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan. The practice is illegal in Pakistan, though it continues to be widely practiced in Pakistan's Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province. In Afghanistan, the practice is known as baad.
Forced marriage is very common in Afghanistan, and sometimes women resort to suicide to escape these marriages. A report by Human Rights Watch found that about 95% of girls and 50% of adult women imprisoned in Afghanistan were in jail on charges of the "moral crimes" of "running away" from home or zina. Obtaining a divorce without the consent of the husband is nearly impossible in Afghanistan, and women attempting a de facto separation risk being imprisoned for "running away". While it is not socially acceptable for women and girls to leave home without permission, "running away" is not defined as a criminal offense in the Afghan Penal Code. However, in 2010 and 2011, the Afghan Supreme Court issued instructions to courts to charge women with "running away" as a crime. This makes it nearly impossible for women to escape forced marriages. The Human Rights Watch report stated that
According to the UN, as of 2008, 70 to 80 percent of marriages in Afghanistan were forced, taking place without full and free consent or under duress. Another study found that 59 percent of women had experienced forced marriage.
Forced marriage remains common for Kurdish girls in Iran and is also one of the major reasons for self-immolation in Iran. UNICEF's 1998 report found extremely high rates of forced marriage, including at an early age, in Kordestan in Iran, although it noted that the practice appeared to be declining. Kurdish cultural norms which facilitate the practice of forced and child marriage perpetuate the fear of violence amongst Kurdish girls in Iran.
As in other parts of South Asia, girls in Nepal are often seen as an economic burden to the family, due to dowry. Parents often compel young girls to marry, because older and more educated men can demand a higher dowry. In 2009, the Nepalese government decided to offer a cash incentive (50,000 Nepali rupees – $641) to men for marrying widowed women. Because widows often lose social status in Nepalese society, this policy was meant to 'solve' their problems. However, many widows and human rights groups protested these regulations, denouncing them as humiliating and as encouraging coerced marriages.
During the Sri Lankan Civil War, a 2004 report in the journal Reproductive Health Matters found that forced marriage in Sri Lanka was taking place in the context of the armed conflict, where parents forced teenage girls into marriage in order to ensure that they do not lose their chastity (considered an increased risk due to the conflict) before marriage, which would compromise their chances of finding a husband.
In 2011 the family ministry of Germany found that 3000 people were in forced marriages, nearly all from migrant families and most (83.4%) from Muslim families by querying help bureaus. These figures exceeded the estimates of help organisation Terre des Femmes, which up until then had estimated that about 1000 migrant women sought help annually. More than half of the women had experienced physical abuse and 27% were threatened with weapons or received death threats. Of the victims, 30% were 17 years old or younger. 31.8% were from Germany, 26.4% from Asia, 22.2% from Turkey and 5.6% from Africa. In 2016 the German ministry of the interior found that 1475 children were in forced marriages. Of those 1474, 1100 were girls, 664 were from Syria, 157 were Afghans and 100 were Iraqis.
Forced marriages can be made because of family pride, the wishes of the parents, or social obligation. For example, according to Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood, many forced marriages in Britain within the British Pakistani community are aimed at providing British citizenship to a member of the family currently in Pakistan to whom the instigator of the forced marriage feels a sense of duty. In response to the problem of forced marriages among immigrants in the UK, the Forced Marriage (Civil Protection) Act 2007 (applicable in England and Wales, and in Northern Ireland) was passed, which enables the victims of forced marriage to apply for court orders for their protection. Similar legislation was passed in Scotland: the Forced Marriage etc. (Protection and Jurisdiction) (Scotland) Act 2011 gives courts the power to issue protection orders.
In 2008, it was estimated that about 3000 forced marriages took place each year.
In June 2012 the British Government, under Prime Minister David Cameron, declared that forced marriage would become a criminal offence in the United Kingdom. In November 2013 it was reported that a case was brought before the High Court in Birmingham by local authority officials, involving a then 14-year-old girl who was taken to Pakistan, forced to marry a man ten years her senior and two weeks later forced to consummate the marriage with threats, resulting in pregnancy; the court case ended with Mr Justice Holman saying he was powerless to make a "declaration of non-recognition" of the forced marriage, since he was prevented by law from granting a declaration that her marriage was "at its inception, void". Mr Justice Holman said that the girl, now 17, would have to initiate proceedings herself to have the marriage nullified. British courts can also issue civil orders to prevent forced marriage, and since 2014 refusing to obey such an order is grounds for a prison sentence of up to five years.
The Anti-Social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014 makes forcing someone to marry (including abroad) a criminal offence. The law came into effect in June 2014 in England and Wales and in October 2014 in Scotland. In Northern Ireland, the Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Criminal Justice and Support for Victims) Act (Northern Ireland) 2015 criminalises forced marriage (section 16 – Offence of forced marriage).
In July 2014, the United Kingdom hosted its first global Girl Summit; the goal of the Summit was to increase efforts to end child marriage, early, and forced marriage and female genital mutilation within a generation.
Of the cases recorded by the government's Force Marriage Unit, run jointly between the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and the Home Office, the majority involved South Asia communities, with 37% linked to Pakistan, 11% linked to Bangladesh and 7% linked to India. About 30% involved victims below the age of 18.
In July 2014, forced marriages were criminalised to protect individuals who were forced to marry against their will (Swedish: äktenskapstvång). The maximum sentence is 4 years. No court has given the maximum sentence as of January 2019.
Schools in Skåne in the southern part of Sweden report that they discover that about 25 youth are forced to marry annually due them being part of a shame society. An investigation by government organisation Ungdomsstyrelsen reported that 70,000 youth perceived they were unfree in their choice of spouse.
In July 2016 an Afghani man in Sweden was sentenced to 4 years in prison for forcing his daughter to marry someone in Afghanistan in the first Swedish conviction. He was also convicted for sexually molesting her Swedish boyfriend, assault, threats, robbery, blackmailing and false imprisonment.
In January 2019 convicted the maternal uncle and aunt of a 16-year-old girl of an Iraqi family were sentenced to 21 months in jail and to pay 12500 euro in damages for forced marriage. In December 2016 her family discovered that the girl was dating a boy and the family decided to marry her off to a cousin without her knowledge. Under the false pretense that her grandmother was mortally ill, the girl, her mother, aunt and uncle travelled to Iraq where all but the girl had return tickets. In Iraq the grandmother proved to be in good health and the girl was to marry her cousin. Despite having no contacts in Iraq and the mobile phone had been taken from her, she managed to return to Sweden eight months later.
Although forced marriage in Europe is most often associated with the immigrant population, it is also present among some local populations, especially among the Roma communities in Eastern Europe.
The UK Forced marriage consultation, published in 2011, found forcing someone to marry to be a distinct criminal offence in Austria, Belgium, Turkey, Denmark, Norway and Germany. In 2014 it became a distinct criminal offence in England and Wales.
The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence defines and criminalizes forced marriage, as well as other forms of violence against women. The Convention came into force on 1 August 2014.
In November 2014 UCL held an event, Forced Marriage: The Real Disgrace, where the award-winning documentary Honor Diaries was shown, and a panel including Jasvinder Sanghera CBE (Founder of Karma Nirvana), Seema Malhotra MP (Labour Shadow Minister for Women), and Dr Reefat Drabu (former Assistant General Secretary of the Muslim Council of Britain) discussed the concept of izzat (honour), recent changes in UK law, barriers to tackling forced marriage, and reasons to be hopeful of positive change.
Forced marriage may be practised among some immigrant communities in Canada. Until recently, forced marriage has not received very much attention in Canada. That lack of attention has protected the practice from legal intervention. In 2015, Parliament enacted two new criminal offences to address the issue. Forcing a person to marry against their will is now a criminal offence under the Criminal Code, as is assisting or aiding a child marriage, where one of the participants is under age 16. There has also been the long-standing offence of solemnizing an illegal marriage, which was also modified by the 2015 legislation.
In addition to these criminal offences, the Civil Marriage Act stipulates: Marriage requires the free and enlightened consent of two persons to be the spouse of each other, as well as setting 16 as the minimum age for marriage.
Estimates are that hundreds of Pakistani girls in New York have been flown out of the New York City area to Pakistan to undergo forced marriages; those who resist are threatened and coerced. The AHA Foundation commissioned a study by the John Jay College of Criminal Justice to research the incidence of forced marriage in New York City. The results of the study were equivocal. However, AHA Foundation for the past 11 years has operated a helpline that successfully referred numerous individuals seeking help in fleeing or avoiding a forced marriage to qualified service providers and law enforcement. According to the National Center for Victims of Crime Conference, there are "limited laws/policies directly addressing forced marriage", although more general non-specific laws may be used.[page needed] The organization Unchained at Last, an organization in the United States, assists women in forced or arranged marriages with free legal services and other resources. It was founded by Fraidy Reiss.
The Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (FLDS) has been suspected of trafficking underage women across state lines, as well as across the US–Canada and US–Mexico borders, for the purpose of sometimes involuntary plural marriage and sexual abuse. The FLDS is suspected by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police of having trafficked more than 30 under-age girls from Canada to the United States between the late 1990s and 2006 to be entered into polygamous marriages. RCMP spokesman Dan Moskaluk said of the FLDS's activities: "In essence, it's human trafficking in connection with illicit sexual activity." According to the Vancouver Sun, it's unclear whether or not Canada's anti-human trafficking statute can be effectively applied against the FLDS's pre-2005 activities, because the statute may not be able to be applied retroactively. An earlier three-year-long investigation by local authorities in British Columbia into allegations of sexual abuse, human trafficking, and forced marriages by the FLDS resulted in no charges, but did result in legislative change.
Child Marriage (2008–2014):
|Country||Married by 15||Married by 18||Source|
|Afghanistan||–||33%||Living Conditions Survey 2013-2013|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||0%||4%||MICS 2011–2012|
|Burkina Faso||10%||52%||DHS 2010|
|Cabo Verde||3%||18%||DHS 2005|
|Central African Republic||29%||68%||MICS 2010|
|Costa Rica||7%||21%||MICS 2011|
|Côte d'Ivoire||10%||33%||DHS 2011–2012|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||10%||37%||DHS 2013–2014|
|Dominican Republic||10%||37%||DHS 2013|
|El Salvador||5%||25%||FESAL 2008|
|Equatorial Guinea||9%||30%||DHS 2011|
|Eritrea||13%||41%||Population and Health Survey 2010|
|Indonesia||–||14%||National Socio-Economic Survey (SUSENAS) 2013|
|Lao People's Democratic Republic||9%||35%||MICS 2011–2012|
|Marshall Islands||6%||26%||DHS 2007|
|Panama||7%||26%||MICS 2013 KFR|
|Papua New Guinea||2%||21%||DHS 2006|
|Peru||3%||19%||Continuous DHS 2014|
|Republic of Moldova||0%||12%||MICS 2012|
|Saint Lucia||1%||8%||MICS 2012|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||5%||34%||DHS 2008–2009|
|Senegal||9%||32%||Continuous DHS 2014|
|Sierra Leone||13%||39%||DHS 2013|
|Solomon Islands||3%||22%||DHS 2007|
|South Africa||1%||6%||DHS 2003|
|South Sudan||9%||52%||SHHS 2010|
|Sri Lanka||2%||12%||DHS 2006–2007|
|State of Palestine||1%||15%||MICS 2014|
|Syrian Arab Republic||3%||13%||MICS 2006|
|Trinidad and Tobago||2%||8%||MICS 2006|
|United Republic of Tanzania||7%||37%||DHS 2010|
|Viet Nam||1%||11%||MICS 2014|
|Region||Married by 15||Married by 18||Note|
|Eastern and Southern Africa||10%||36%|
|West and Central Africa||14%||42%|
|Middle East and North Africa||3%||18%|
|East Asia and Pacific||–||15%||Excluding China|
|Latin America and Caribbean||5%||23%|
|Least developed countries||13%||41%|
- Arranged marriage
- Knobstick wedding
- Birth control sabotage
- Child marriage
- Forced pregnancy
- Marry-your-rapist law
- Shotgun wedding
- Bride kidnapping and Groom kidnapping
- Exchange of women
- Forced Marriage (Civil Protection) Act 2007 (UK legislation)
- Human trafficking
- Servile marriage
- Marriage of convenience
- United Nations 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery
Activists and women famous for refusing forced marriage
- Sharp, Nicola. "Forced Marriage in the UK: A scoping study on the experience of women from Middle Eastern and North East African Communities" (PDF). London: Refuge: 6, 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 August 2017. Cite journal requires
- Bunting, Annie. "'Forced Marriage' in Conflict Situations: Researching and Prosecuting Old Harms and New Crimes" (PDF). Winnipeg: Canadian Journal of Human Rights. Cite journal requires
- Jenni Millbank (7 February 2011). "Forced Marriage and the Exoticization of Gendered Harms in United States Asylum Law". SSRN 1757283. Cite journal requires
- Dauvergne, Catherine (2 March 2010). "Forced Marriage as a Harm in Domestic and International Law". SSRN 1563842. Cite journal requires
- "Ethics – Forced Marriages: Introduction". BBC. 1 January 1970. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Article 1, (c)
- Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Article 2
- Michael P. Scharf (19 October 2005). "Forced Marriage: Exploring the Viability of the Special Court for Sierra Leone's New Crime Against Humanity". SSRN 824291. Cite journal requires
- Valerie Oosterveld. "IntLawGrrls". intlawgrrls.com. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- Micaela Frulli (31 October 2008). "Advancing International Criminal Law: The Special Court for Sierra Leone Recognizes Forced Marriage as a 'New' Crime Against Humanity". SSRN 2014731. Cite journal requires
- Stuart, Hunter (16 October 2013). "Country With The Most Child Brides Won't Agree To End Forced Child Marriage". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 26 October 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- "UN Takes Major Action to End Child Marriage". Center for Reproductive Rights. 19 August 2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- Girls Not Brides (27 September 2013). "States adopt first-ever resolution on child, early and forced marriage at Human Rights Council". Girls Not Brides. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- Jodi O'Brien (2008), Encyclopedia of Gender and Society, Volume 1, SAGE Publications, page 40-42, ISBN 978-1412909167
- "family – kinship :: Family law". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Human Rights Council. "United Nations, General Assembly" (PDF). www.ohchr.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
- Solsten, Eric; Meditz, Sandra W., eds. (1988), "Social Values and Attitudes", Spain: A Country Study, Washington: Government Printing Office for the Library of Congress
- Contemporary Western European Feminism, by Gisela Kaplan, pp. 133
- Reconciliation Policy in Germany 1998–2008, Construing the ’Problem’ of the Incompatibility of Paid Employment and Care Work, by Cornelius Grebe; pg 92: "However, the 1977 reform of marriage and family law by Social Democrats and Liberals formally gave women the right to take up employment without their spouses' permission. This marked the legal end of the 'housewife marriage' and a transition to the ideal of 'marriage in partnership'." Archived 16 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine
- Further reforms to parental rights law in 1979 gave equal legal rights to the mother and the father. Comparative Law: Historical Development of the Civil Law Tradition in Europe, Latin America, and East Asia, by John Henry Merryman, David Scott Clark, John Owen Haley, pp. 542
- Women in Portugal, by Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General Information, pp 32
- "Document not found – Council of Europe". Archived from the original on 21 January 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
- In 1985, a referendum guaranteed women legal equality with men within marriage. Archived 17 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine The new reforms came into force in January 1988.Women's movements of the world: an international directory and reference guide, edited by Sally Shreir, p. 254
- In 1983, legislation was passed guaranteeing equality between spouses, abolishing dowry, and ending legal discrimination against illegitimate children  Archived 16 June 2012 at the Wayback MachineDemos, Vasilikie. (2007) “The Intersection of Gender, Class and Nationality and the Agency of Kytherian Greek Women.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association. 11 August.
- In 1981, Spain abolished the requirement that married women must have their husbands’ permission to initiate judicial proceedings "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets: Second Edition, by Tito Boeri, Jan van Ours, pp. 105,  Archived 5 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Although married women in France obtained the right to work without their husbands' permission in 1965,"Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) and the paternal authority of a man over his family was ended in 1970 (before that parental responsibilities belonged solely to the father who made all legal decisions concerning the children), it was only in 1985 that a legal reform abolished the stipulation that the husband had the sole power to administer the children's property.  Archived 11 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "FAQ's". Karma Nirvana. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- Leyla Çinibulak. "Partner choice, arranged and forced marriages" (PDF). www.huiselijkgeweld.nl. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
- Hutton, M. J. (2001). Russian and West European Women, 1860–1939: Dreams, Struggles, and Nightmares. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-1043-2.; see Chapter 1
- "Eradicating child marriage in Africa – FORWARD UK". FORWARD. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "marriage". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- A Narrative of the Adventures and Sufferings of John R. Jewitt, only survivor of the crew of the ship Boston, during a captivity of nearly three years among the savages of Nootka Sound: with an account of the manners, mode of living, and religious opinions of the natives.digital full text here
- Anderson, Natalae (22 September 2010). "Historical background" (PDF). Memorandum: Charging forced marriage as a crime against humanity. Documentation Center of Cambodia. pp. 1–3.
- Eisenhauer, U., Kulturwandel und Innovationsprozess: Die fünf grossen 'W' und die Verbreitung des Mittelneolithikums in Südwestdeutschland. Archäologische Informationen 22, 1999, 215–239; an alternative interpretation is the focus of abduction of children rather than women, a suggestion also made for the mass grave excavated at Thalheim. See E Biermann, Überlegungen zur Bevölkerungsgrösse in Siedlungen der Bandkeramik (2001) "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Council of Europe – Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (CETS No. 210)". coe.int. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery". Ohchr.org. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
- "BBC – Ethics – Forced Marriages: Motives and methods". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "Reasons for forced marriage – Analysis of Data Collected from Field Workers – Report on the Practice of Forced Marriage in Canada: Interviews with Frontline Workers: Exploratory Research Conducted in Montreal and Toronto in 2008". justice.gc.ca. 30 September 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2015. - French version
- @PlanUK. "Children's charity focused on girls' rights & disaster relief". Plan UK. Archived from the original on 28 September 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- "Matrimonial Causes Act 1973". legislation.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "Forced Marriage etc. (Protection and Jurisdiction) (Scotland) Act 2011". legislation.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 5 January 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "Forced marriage law sends 'powerful message'". BBC News. 16 June 2014. Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "UK makes forced marriage illegal as pursues campaign of 'British values'". Reuters UK. 16 June 2014. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 June 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "BBC – Ethics – Honour crimes". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- "BBC – Ethics – Slavery: Modern slavery". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Fiji World News" (PDF). undp.org.fj. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2011.
- "Dowry – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". merriam-webster.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
- "Ethiopia: Revenge of the abducted bride". BBC News. 18 June 1999. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "IRIN Africa – ETHIOPIA: Surviving forced marriage – Ethiopia – Children – Gender Issues". IRINnews. 23 February 2007. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Vani: Pain of child marriage in our society Archived 3 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine Momina Khan, News Pakistan (26 October 2011)
- Nasrullah, M.; Zakar, R.; Krämer, A. (2013). "Effect of child marriage on use of maternal health care services in Pakistan". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 122 (3): 517–524. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e31829b5294. PMID 23921855.
- Forced child marriage tests Pakistan law Archived 28 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine Barbara Plett, BBC News (5 December 2005)
- Bedell, J. M. (2009). Teens in Pakistan. Capstone.
- "BBC NEWS – Africa – Kenyan widows fight wife inheritance". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "Types of Forced Marriage". Forced Marriage Project – Agincourt Community Services Association. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- International Law and Sexual Violence in Armed Conflicts, by Chile Eboe-Osuji, p. 91
- "Protecting the Girl Child: Using the Law to End Child, Early and Forced Marriage and Related Human Rights Violations" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 May 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Stange, Mary Zeiss, and Carol K. Oyster, Jane E. Sloan (2011). Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World, Volume 1. SAGE. p. 496. ISBN 9781412976855.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Forced marriage victims are made to pay to go home to UK Archived 26 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian
- The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Vol. VIII, p. 27, Leiden 1995.
- "Hebrews 13:4". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "BBC – Ethics: Honour Crimes". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 19 June 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- "Wayback Machine". 1 May 2013. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013.
- "Turkey condemns 'honour killings'". BBC News. 1 March 2004. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "Malagasy Women Wounded by Child Marriage and its Aftermath". unfpa.org. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Gender Equality and Infant Mortality". Magnificent madagascar. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Children of Madagascar". humanium.org. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Malawi: End Widespread Child Marriage – Human Rights Watch". hrw.org. 6 March 2014. Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld – Mauritania: Prevalence of forced marriage; information on legal status, including state protection; ability of women to refuse a forced marriage". Refworld. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "Morocco bans forced marriage and sexual violence – BBC News". BBC News. Bbc.com. 12 September 2018. Archived from the original on 13 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
- Girls Not Brides. "Niger". Girls Not Brides. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- ANNEX. "Profiles of 10 Countries with the Highest Rates of Child Ma" (PDF). www.unfpa.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
- "The World Factbook". cia.gov. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "UNICEF helps to begin changing attitudes towards early marriage in Niger". UNICEF. 23 December 2010. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "World Vision Australia – Press releases > Children sold into marriage in Niger as food crisis worsens". worldvision.com.au. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014.
- Buckley, Sarah (19 February 2016). "The girl who said 'no' to marriage". BBC News. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Sarah Condit (28 October 2011). "Child Marriage: Ukuthwala in South Africa". Genderacrossborders.com. Archived from the original on 25 April 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
- "When 'culture' clashes with gender rights". Mail & Guardian. 2 December 2011. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
- Lea Mwambene; Julia Sloth-Nielsen. "Benign Accommodation? Ukuthwala, 'forced marriage' and the South African Children's Act" (PDF).[permanent dead link]
- "Tanzania: Child Marriage Harms Girls". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2014. Archived from the original on 5 January 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- Ezer, T; et, al. (2006). "Child marriage and guardianship in tanzania: Robbing girls of their childhood and infantilizing women". Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law (Special Issue): 357–450. Archived from the original on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2019 – via Hein.
- "- HeinOnline.org". heinonline.org. Archived from the original on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- "Gambia's leader says ban on child marriage 'as from today'". Bigstory.ap.org. Archived from the original on 10 July 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- "Gambia and Tanzania outlaw child marriage". BBC News. 16 December 2015. Archived from the original on 10 July 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- "Afghan women escape marriage through suicide". DW.DE. Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 January 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Amnesty International (2008). Iran: Human Rights Abuses against the Kurdish Minority (PDF) (Report). London: Amnesty International Publications. pp. 20–22. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "BBC NEWS – South Asia – Nepal widows dismiss marriage incentive". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld – Sri Lanka: Incidence of forced marriages and protection available to women (2004–2005)". Refworld. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Studie: Tausende Migrantinnen werden zur Ehe gezwungen". Spiegel Online. 9 November 2011. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- Hollstein, Miriam (9 November 2011). "Studie des Familienministeriums: Zwangsheirat – Jede Vierte mit dem Tod bedroht". DIE WELT. Archived from the original on 20 July 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- Ziegler, Jean-Pierre (13 October 2016). "Kinderehen in Deutschland – "Viele der Mädchen sind massiv traumatisiert"". Der Spiegel Online. Archived from the original on 16 October 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- "British Council Handout – The forced-arranged marriage abuse". karoo.net. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2007.
- Revill, Jo; Asthana, Anushka (8 March 2008). "3,000 women a year forced into marriage in UK, study finds". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 February 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
- Travis, Alan (8 June 2012). "Forced marriage to become criminal offence, David Cameron confirms". London: The Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 February 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- Saul, Heather (5 November 2013). "Girl aged 14 became pregnant after she was forced to marry man, 24". London: The Independent. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- "Muslim Girl, 14, In Forced Marriage: Judge 'Powerless' To Help". The Huffington Post. UK. 5 November 2013. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- "Marriage by Force Is Addressed in Britain". The New York Times. 17 June 2014. Archived from the original on 22 July 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- "Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014". legislation.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 1 October 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "Page not found! – The Evening Telegraph – Dundee born and read". eveningtelegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Criminal Justice and Support for Victims) Act (Northern Ireland) 2015". legislation.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- "Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Criminal Justice and Support for Victims) Act (Northern Ireland) 2015". legislation.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- "'Girl Summit' Aims to End Child Marriage". Yahoo News UK. 22 July 2014. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- "Forced marriage jail first as Cardiff man sentenced". BBC News. 10 June 2015. Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- "Forced marriage". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
- Morgan-Bentley, Paul (1 August 2018). "Girls married off, raped and abandoned to lives of misery". ISSN 0140-0460. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
- Haglund (4 April 2018). "Vad säger lagen om äktenskapstvång?" (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- "Svårt hindra att barn gifts bort". Sydsvenskan. 13 November 2009. Archived from the original on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- "Fyra års fängelse till pappan som gifte bort sin dotter". Sydsvenskan. 15 July 2016. Archived from the original on 16 July 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- Sigurjonsson, Kristjan (28 January 2019). "Ett år och nio månaders fängelse för tvångäktenskap" (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- "Gender Equality". Archived from the original on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- "FORCED MARRIAGE – A CONSULTATION". Home Office. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- "13 Countries sign new Convention in Istanbul". unric.org. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Liste complète". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- "FORCED MARRIAGE – The Real Disgrace". 12 December 2014. Archived from the original on 27 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- "Maryum Anis, Shalini Konanur, and Deepa Mattoo, "Who – If – When to Marry: The INcidence of Forced Marriage in Ontario"" (PDF).
- Zero Tolerance for Barbaric Cultural Practices Act, SC 2015, c 29, ss 9, 10.
- "Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46, s 293.1". Laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Branch, Legislative Services. "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Criminal Code". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca.
- Branch, Legislative Services. "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Criminal Code". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca.
- "Civil Marriage Act, SC 2005, c 33, ss 2.1, 2.2". Laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 25 October 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Katz, Nancie. (24 November 2007). "Parents force daughters to fly home to Pakistan for arranged marriages" Archived 9 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. The New York Daily News.
- "The AHA Foundation 2012 Annual Report" Archived 8 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine , accessed 22 March 2013
- "Marcus, Anthony, Popy Begum, Alana Henninger, Laila Alsabahi, Engy Hanna, Lisa Stathas-Robbins, and Ric Curtis. 2014. "Is Forced Marriage A Problem in the United States: Preliminary Results from a Study of Intergenerational Conflict over Marital Choice Among College Students at the City University of New York from Middle Eastern, North African, and South Asian Migrant Families"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
-  Archived 16 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine The AHA Foundation, accessed 22 March 2013
- Heiman, Heather; Bangura, Ramatu (9 September 2013). Forced Marriage in Immigrant Communities in the United States (PDF). Washington, DC: National Center for Victims of Crime. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2015. AHA Foundation was founded by Ayaan Hirsi Ali, survivor of female genital mutilation, and an attempted forced marriage.
- "Unchained at Last: Fraidy Reiss Helps Women Escape Forced and Arranged Marriages". Firstwivesworld.com. 2 July 2014. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
- "Dozens of girls may have been trafficked to U.S. to marry". CTV News. 11 August 2011.
- Moore-Emmett, Andrea (27 July 2010). "Polygamist Warren Jeffs Can Now Marry Off Underaged Girls With Impunity" Archived 2 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Ms. blog. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- Robert Matas (30 March 2009). "Where 'the handsome ones go to the leaders'". The Globe and Mail.
- Matthew Waller (25 November 2011). "FLDS may see more charges: International sex trafficking suspected". San Angelo Standard-Times.
- D Bramham (19 February 2011). "Bountiful parents delivered 12-year-old girls to arranged weddings". The Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015.
- Martha Mendoza (15 May 2008). "FLDS in Canada may face arrests soon". Deseret News. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "Child Marriage – UNICEF DATA". UNICEF. UNICEF. June 2016. Archived from the original on 8 February 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- Haenan, Iris (2014). Force & Marriage: The criminalisation of forced marriage in Dutch, English and international criminal law. Intersentia. doi:10.1017/9781780685298. ISBN 9781780685298. - Published online in November 2017.
- Journal articles
- Esthappan S; Bastomski S1; Zweig J; Dank M; Love H (19 October 2018). "Understanding Forced Marriage in the United States: Developing Measures, Examining its Nature, and Assessing Gender Disparities". J Interpers Violence. doi:10.1177/0886260518801935.
- Chantler K (July 2012). "Recognition of and intervention in forced marriage as a form of violence and abuse". Trauma Violence Abuse. pp. 176–183. doi:10.1177/1524838012448121. Epub May 29, 2012.
- Gangoli, Geetanjali; Amina Razak; Melanie McCarry (June 2006). "Forced Marriage and Domestic Violence among South Asian Communities in North East England" (PDF). School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol and Northern Rock Foundation.
- European Immigrants Continue to be Forced Into Marriage World Politics Watch 31 January 2007
- Forced Marriage, Another Perspective
- Interview with Serap Cileli World Politics Watch 1 February 2007
- Forced Marriage Among Europe's Immigrants: Hülya Kalkan's Story World Politics Watch 8 February 2007
- Freedom Charity, UK charity raising awareness of forced marriage and 'dis-honour' based violence.
- BBC News story: Forced marriage 'could be banned'
- Akhtar Amin (13 November 2006). "Swara practised with impunity in tribal areas". Daily Times. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- Declan Walsh (5 June 2008). "15 child brides used to settle Pakistan feud". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- Ashfaq Yusufzai (1 April 2006). "Blood Feuds Trap Girls in 'Compensation Marriages'". Inter Press Service. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- "Swara—A Bridge over troubled waters". Ethnomedia. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- "Virtual Slavery: The Practice of "Compensation Marriages"". United Nations Population Fund. Archived from the original on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2008. (Microsoft Word document)
- Captured Hearts: An epidemic of bride kidnappings may at last be waning in Kyrgyzstan- National Geographic, Paul Salopek