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In 1994, the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that drug addiction and the possession of small amounts of drugs for personal use were not crimes. In 2000, the law on narcotics (Betäubungsmittelgesetz) was changed to allow supervised injection rooms.
In 2002, a pilot project was started in seven German cities to evaluate the effects of heroin-assisted treatment on addicts, compared to methadone-assisted treatment. In 2009, the positive results of the study led to heroin-assisted treatment becoming included in the mandatory health insurance.