Donald Knuth  

Knuth in 2005  
Born  Donald Ervin Knuth January 10, 1938 Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S. 
Nationality  American 
Alma mater 

Known for  
Awards 

Scientific career  
Fields  
Institutions  Stanford University 
Thesis  Finite Semifields and Projective Planes (1963) 
Doctoral advisor  Marshall Hall, Jr.^{[2]} 
Doctoral students  
Website  cs 
Donald Ervin Knuth (/kəˈnuːθ/^{[3]} kəNOOTH; born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor emeritus at Stanford University. He is the 1974 recipient of the ACM Turing Award, informally considered the Nobel Prize of computer science.^{[4]}^{[5]}
He is the author of the multivolume work The Art of Computer Programming. He contributed to the development of the rigorous analysis of the computational complexity of algorithms and systematized formal mathematical techniques for it. In the process he also popularized the asymptotic notation. In addition to fundamental contributions in several branches of theoretical computer science, Knuth is the creator of the TeX computer typesetting system, the related METAFONT font definition language and rendering system, and the Computer Modern family of typefaces.
As a writer and scholar, Knuth created the WEB and CWEB computer programming systems designed to encourage and facilitate literate programming, and designed the MIX/MMIX instruction set architectures. Knuth strongly opposes granting software patents, having expressed his opinion to the United States Patent and Trademark Office and European Patent Organisation.
Contents
Biography[edit]
Early life[edit]
Knuth was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to GermanAmericans Ervin Henry Knuth and Louise Marie Bohning.^{[6]} His father had two jobs: running a small printing company and teaching bookkeeping at Milwaukee Lutheran High School.^{[7]} Donald, a student at Milwaukee Lutheran High School, received academic accolades there, especially because of the ingenious ways that he thought of solving problems.^{[7]} For example, in eighth grade, he entered a contest to find the number of words that the letters in "Ziegler's Giant Bar" could be rearranged to create. Although the judges only had 2,500 words on their list, Donald found 4,500 words, winning the contest. As prizes, the school received a new television and enough candy bars for all of his schoolmates to eat.^{[8]}^{[7]}
Education[edit]
In 1956, Knuth received a scholarship to the Case Institute of Technology (now part of Case Western Reserve University) in Cleveland, Ohio. He also joined Beta Nu Chapter of the Theta Chi fraternity. While studying physics at the Case Institute of Technology, Knuth was introduced to the IBM 650, one of the early mainframes. After reading the computer's manual, Knuth decided to rewrite the assembly and compiler code for the machine used in his school, because he believed he could do it better.^{[9]}
In 1958, Knuth created a program to help his school's basketball team win their games.^{[10]} He assigned "values" to players in order to gauge their probability of getting points, a novel approach that Newsweek and CBS Evening News later reported on.^{[9]}
Knuth was one of the founding editors of Case Institute's Engineering and Science Review, which won a national award as best technical magazine in 1959.^{[11]} He then switched from physics to mathematics, and in 1960 he received his bachelor of science degree, simultaneously being given a master of science degree by a special award of the faculty who considered his work exceptionally outstanding.^{[9]}^{[12]}
In 1963, with mathematician Marshall Hall as his adviser,^{[2]} he earned a PhD in mathematics from the California Institute of Technology.^{[13]}
Early work[edit]
After receiving his PhD, Knuth joined Caltech's faculty as an assistant professor.^{[14]}
He accepted a commission to write a book on computer programming language compilers. While working on this project, Knuth decided that he could not adequately treat the topic without first developing a fundamental theory of computer programming, which became The Art of Computer Programming. He originally planned to publish this as a single book. As Knuth developed his outline for the book, he concluded that he required six volumes, and then seven, to thoroughly cover the subject. He published the first volume in 1968.^{[15]}
Just before publishing the first volume of The Art of Computer Programming, Knuth left Caltech to accept employment with the Institute for Defense Analyses' Communications Research Division, then situated on the Princeton University campus, which was performing mathematical research in cryptography to support the National Security Agency.
Knuth then left this position to join the Stanford University faculty in 1969^{[16]}, where he is now Fletcher Jones Professor of Computer Science, Emeritus.^{[17]}^{[18]}
Writings[edit]
Knuth is a writer, as well as a computer scientist.^{[14]} Knuth has been called the "father of the analysis of algorithms".^{[19]}
The Art of Computer Programming (TAOCP)[edit]
In the 1970s, Knuth described computer science as "a totally new field with no real identity. And the standard of available publications was not that high. A lot of the papers coming out were quite simply wrong. ... So one of my motivations was to put straight a story that had been very badly told."^{[20]} By 2011, the first three volumes and part one of volume four of his series had been published.^{[21]} Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science 2nd ed., which originated with an expansion of the mathematical preliminaries section of Volume 1 of TAoCP, has also been published.
Bill Gates has praised the difficulty of the subject matter in The Art of Computer Programming, stating, "If you think you're a really good programmer ... You should definitely send me a résumé if you can read the whole thing."^{[22]}
Other works[edit]
Knuth is also the author of Surreal Numbers,^{[23]} a mathematical novelette on John Conway's set theory construction of an alternate system of numbers. Instead of simply explaining the subject, the book seeks to show the development of the mathematics. Knuth wanted the book to prepare students for doing original, creative research.
In 1995, Knuth wrote the foreword to the book A=B by Marko Petkovšek, Herbert Wilf and Doron Zeilberger.^{[24]} Knuth is also an occasional contributor of language puzzles to Word Ways: The Journal of Recreational Linguistics.^{[25]}
Knuth has also delved into recreational mathematics. He contributed articles to the Journal of Recreational Mathematics beginning in the 1960s, and was acknowledged as a major contributor in Joseph Madachy's Mathematics on Vacation.^{[26]}
Knuth has also appeared in a number of Numberphile^{[27]} and Computerphile videos on YouTube where he has discussed topics from writing Surreal Numbers^{[28]} to why he doesn't use email.^{[29]}
Works regarding Knuth's religious beliefs[edit]
In addition to his writings on computer science, Knuth, a Lutheran,^{[30]} is also the author of 3:16 Bible Texts Illuminated,^{[31]} in which he examines the Bible by a process of systematic sampling, namely an analysis of chapter 3, verse 16 of each book. Each verse is accompanied by a rendering in calligraphic art, contributed by a group of calligraphers under the leadership of Hermann Zapf. Subsequently, he was invited to give a set of lectures on his 3:16 project, resulting in another book, Things a Computer Scientist Rarely Talks About, where he published the lectures "God and Computer Science".
Opinion on software patents[edit]
As a member of the academic and scientific community, Knuth is strongly opposed to the policy of granting software patents for trivial solutions that should be obvious, but has expressed more nuanced views for nontrivial solutions such as the interiorpoint method of linear programming.^{[32]} He has expressed his disagreement directly to both the United States Patent and Trademark Office and European Patent Organisation.^{[33]}
Computer Musings[edit]
Knuth gives informal lectures a few times a year at Stanford University, which he titled "Computer Musings". He was a visiting professor at the Oxford University Department of Computer Science in the United Kingdom until 2017 and an Honorary Fellow of Magdalen College.^{[34]}^{[35]}
Programming[edit]
Digital typesetting[edit]
In the 1970s the publishers of TAOCP abandoned Monotype in favor of phototypesetting. Knuth became so frustrated with the inability of the latter system to approach the quality of the previous volumes, which were typeset using the older system, that he took time out to work on digital typesetting and created TeX and Metafont.^{[36]}
Literate programming[edit]
While developing TeX, Knuth created a new methodology of programming, which he called literate programming, because he believed that programmers should think of programs as works of literature. "Instead of imagining that our main task is to instruct a computer what to do, let us concentrate rather on explaining to human beings what we want a computer to do."^{[37]}
Knuth embodied the idea of literate programming in the WEB system. The same WEB source is used to weave a TeX file, and to tangle a Pascal source file. These in their turn produce a readable description of the program and an executable binary respectively. A later iteration of the system, CWEB, replaces Pascal with C.
Knuth used WEB to program TeX and METAFONT, and published both programs as books: The TeXbook, which is originally published in 1984, and The METAFONTbook, which is originally published in 1986.^{[38]} Around the same time, LaTeX, the nowwidelyadopted macro package based on TeX, was first developed by Leslie Lamport, who later published its first user manual in 1986.^{[39]}
Personal life[edit]
Donald Knuth married Nancy Jill Carter on 24 June 1961, while he was a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology. They have two children: John Martin Knuth and Jennifer Sierra Knuth.^{[40]}
Chinese name[edit]
Knuth's Chinese name is Gao Dena (simplified Chinese: 高德纳; traditional Chinese: 高德納; pinyin: Gāo dé nà).^{[41]}^{[3]} In 1977, he was given this name by Frances Yao, shortly before making a 3week trip to China.^{[3]}^{[42]} In his 1980 volume of The Art of Computer Programming (simplified Chinese: 计算机程序设计艺术; traditional Chinese: 電腦程式設計藝術; pinyin: Jìsuànjī chéngxù shèjì yìshù), Knuth explains that he embraced his Chinese name because he wanted to be known by the growing numbers of computer programmers in China at the time. In 1989, his Chinese name was placed atop the Journal of Computer Science and Technology's header, which Knuth says "makes me feel close to all Chinese people although I cannot speak your language".^{[42]}
Health concerns[edit]
In 2006, Knuth was diagnosed with prostate cancer. He underwent surgery in December that year and stated, "a little bit of radiation therapy ... as a precaution but the prognosis looks pretty good", as he reported in his video autobiography.^{[43]}
Humor[edit]
Knuth used to pay a finder's fee of $2.56 for any typographical errors or mistakes discovered in his books, because "256 pennies is one hexadecimal dollar", and $0.32 for "valuable suggestions". According to an article in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Technology Review, these Knuth reward checks are "among computerdom's most prized trophies". Knuth had to stop sending real checks in 2008 due to bank fraud, and instead now gives each error finder a "certificate of deposit" from a publicly listed balance in his fictitious "Bank of San Serriffe".^{[44]}
He once warned a correspondent, "Beware of bugs in the above code; I have only proved it correct, not tried it."^{[3]}
Knuth published his first "scientific" article in a school magazine in 1957 under the title "The Potrzebie System of Weights and Measures". In it, he defined the fundamental unit of length as the thickness of Mad No. 26, and named the fundamental unit of force "whatmeworry". Mad published the article in issue No. 33 (June 1957).^{[45]}^{[46]}
To demonstrate the concept of recursion, Knuth intentionally referred "Circular definition" and "Definition, circular" to each other in the index of The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 1.
The preface of Concrete Mathematics has the following paragraph:
When DEK taught Concrete Mathematics at Stanford for the first time, he explained the somewhat strange title by saying that it was his attempt to teach a math course that was hard instead of soft. He announced that, contrary to the expectations of his colleagues, he was not going to teach the Theory of Aggregates, nor Stone's Embedding Theorem, nor even the Stone–Čech compactification. (Several students from the civil engineering department got up and quietly left the room.)
At the TUG 2010 Conference, Knuth announced a satirical XMLbased successor to TeX, titled "iTeX" (pronounced [iː˨˩˦tɛks˧˥], performed with a bell ringing), which would support features such as arbitrarily scaled irrational units, 3D printing, input from seismographs and heart monitors, animation, and stereophonic sound.^{[47]}^{[48]}^{[49]}
Awards and honors[edit]
In 1971, Knuth was the recipient of the first ACM Grace Murray Hopper Award. He has received various other awards including the Turing Award, the National Medal of Science, the John von Neumann Medal, and the Kyoto Prize.
Knuth was elected a Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society (DFBCS) in 1980 in recognition of Knuth's contributions to the field of computer science.
In 1990 he was awarded the oneofakind academic title of Professor of The Art of Computer Programming, which has since been revised to Professor Emeritus of The Art of Computer Programming.
Knuth was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1975. In 1992, he became an associate of the French Academy of Sciences. Also that year, he retired from regular research and teaching at Stanford University in order to finish The Art of Computer Programming. He was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 2003.^{[1]}
Knuth was elected as a Fellow (first class of Fellows) of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics in 2009 for his outstanding contributions to mathematics.^{[50]} He is a member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.^{[51]} In 2012, he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society.^{[52]} Other awards and honors include:
 First ACM Grace Murray Hopper Award, 1971
 Turing Award, 1974
 Lester R. Ford Award, 1975^{[53]} and 1993^{[54]}
 Josiah Willard Gibbs Lecturer, 1978^{[55]}^{[56]}
 National Medal of Science, 1979
 Franklin Medal, 1988
 John von Neumann Medal, 1995
 Harvey Prize from the Technion, 1995^{[57]}
 Kyoto Prize, 1996
 Fellow of the Computer History Museum "for his fundamental early work in the history of computing algorithms, development of the TeX typesetting language, and for major contributions to mathematics and computer science." 1998^{[58]}
 Asteroid 21656 Knuth, named in his honor in May 2001^{[59]}^{[60]}
 Katayanagi Prize, 2010^{[61]}
 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the category of Information and Communication Technologies, 2010^{[62]}
 Turing Lecture, 2011
 Stanford University School of Engineering Hero Award, 2011^{[63]}
Gallery[edit]
Knuth in front of statue St. Mesrop Mashtots, Matenadaran, Yerevan, Armenia, June 9, 2006
Knuth and Steve Wozniak, CHM 2011
Publications[edit]
A short list of his publications include:^{[64]}
The Art of Computer Programming:
 ——— (1997). The Art of Computer Programming. 1: Fundamental Algorithms (3rd ed.). AddisonWesley Professional. ISBN 9780201896831.
 ——— (1997). The Art of Computer Programming. 2: Seminumerical Algorithms (3rd ed.). AddisonWesley Professional. ISBN 9780201896848.
 ——— (1998). The Art of Computer Programming. 3: Sorting and Searching (2nd ed.). AddisonWesley Professional. ISBN 9780201896855.
 ——— (2011). The Art of Computer Programming. 4A: Combinatorial Algorithms. AddisonWesley Professional. ISBN 9780201038040.
 ——— (2005). MMIX—A RISC Computer for the New Millennium. 1, Fascicle 1. ISBN 9780201853926.
 ——— (2008). The Art of Computer Programming. 4, Fascicle 0: Introduction to Combinatorial Algorithms and Boolean Functions. ISBN 9780321534965.
 ——— (2009). The Art of Computer Programming. 4, Fascicle 1: Bitwise Tricks & Techniques; Binary Decision Diagrams. ISBN 9780321580504.
 ——— (2005). The Art of Computer Programming. 4, Fascicle 2: Generating All Tuples and Permutations. ISBN 9780201853933.
 ——— (2005). The Art of Computer Programming. 4, Fascicle 3: Generating All Combinations and Partitions. ISBN 9780201853940.
 ——— (2006). The Art of Computer Programming. 4, Fascicle 4: Generating All Trees—History of Combinatorial Generation. ISBN 9780321335708.
 ——— (2018). The Art of Computer Programming. 4, Fascicle 5: Mathematical Preliminaries Redux; Backtracking; Dancing Links. ISBN 9780134671796.
 ——— (2015). The Art of Computer Programming. 4, Fascicle 6: Satisfiability. ISBN 9780134397603.
Computers and Typesetting (all books are hardcover unless otherwise noted):
 ——— (1984). Computers & Typesetting. A, The TeXbook. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley. ISBN 9780201134476., x+483pp.
 ——— (1984). Computers & Typesetting. A, The TeXbook. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley. ISBN 9780201134483. (softcover).
 ——— (1986). Computers & Typesetting. B, TeX: The Program. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley. ISBN 9780201134377., xviii+600pp.
 ——— (1986). Computers & Typesetting. C, The METAFONTbook. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley. ISBN 9780201134452., xii+361pp.
 ——— (1986). Computers & Typesetting. C, The METAFONTbook. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley. ISBN 9780201134445. (softcover).
 ——— (1986). Computers & Typesetting. D, METAFONT: The Program. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley. ISBN 9780201134384., xviii+566pp.
 ——— (1986). Computers & Typesetting. E, Computer Modern Typefaces. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley. ISBN 9780201134469., xvi+588pp.
 ——— (2000). Computers & Typesetting. AE Boxed Set. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley. ISBN 9780201734164.
Books of collected papers:
 ——— (1992). Literate Programming. Lecture Notes. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI. ISBN 9780937073803.^{[65]}
 ——— (1996). Selected Papers on Computer Science. Lecture Notes. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI. ISBN 9781881526919.^{[66]}
 ——— (1999). Digital Typography. Lecture Notes. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI. ISBN 9781575860107.^{[67]}
 ——— (2000). Selected Papers on Analysis of Algorithms. Lecture Notes. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI. ISBN 9781575862125.^{[68]}
 ——— (2003). Selected Papers on Computer Languages. Lecture Notes. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI. ISBN 9781575863818., ISBN 1575863820 (paperback)^{[69]}
 ——— (2003). Selected Papers on Discrete Mathematics. Lecture Notes. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI. ISBN 9781575862491., ISBN 1575862484 (paperback)^{[70]}
 Donald E. Knuth, Selected Papers on Design of Algorithms (Stanford, California: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI Lecture Notes, no. 191), 2010. ISBN 1575865831 (cloth), ISBN 1575865823 (paperback)^{[71]}
 Donald E. Knuth, Selected Papers on Fun and Games (Stanford, California: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI Lecture Notes, no. 192), 2011. ISBN 9781575865850 (cloth), ISBN 9781575865843 (paperback)^{[72]}
 Donald E. Knuth, Companion to the Papers of Donald Knuth (Stanford, California: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI Lecture Notes, no. 202), 2011. ISBN 9781575866352 (cloth), ISBN 9781575866345 (paperback)^{[73]}
Other books:
 Graham, Ronald L; Knuth, Donald E.; Patashnik, Oren (1994). Concrete mathematics: A foundation for computer science (Second ed.). Reading, MA: AddisonWesley. ISBN 9780201558029. MR 1397498. xiv+657 pp.
 Knuth, Donald Ervin (1974). Surreal numbers: how two exstudents turned on to pure mathematics and found total happiness: a mathematical novelette. AddisonWesley. ISBN 9780201038125.^{[23]}
 Donald E. Knuth, The Stanford GraphBase: A Platform for Combinatorial Computing (New York, ACM Press) 1993. second paperback printing 2009. ISBN 0321606329
 Donald E. Knuth, 3:16 Bible Texts Illuminated (Madison, Wisconsin: AR Editions), 1990. ISBN 0895792524
 Donald E. Knuth, Things a Computer Scientist Rarely Talks About (Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI Lecture Notes no 136), 2001. ISBN 157586326X
 Donald E. Knuth, MMIXware: A RISC Computer for the Third Millennium (Heidelberg: SpringerVerlag— Lecture Notes in Computer Science, no. 1750), 1999. viii+550pp. ISBN 9783540669388
 Donald E. Knuth and Silvio Levy, The CWEB System of Structured Documentation (Reading, Massachusetts: AddisonWesley), 1993. iv+227pp. ISBN 0201575698. Third printing 2001 with hypertext support, ii + 237 pp.
 Donald E. Knuth, Tracy L. Larrabee, and Paul M. Roberts, Mathematical Writing (Washington, D.C.: Mathematical Association of America), 1989. ii+115pp
 Daniel H. Greene and Donald E. Knuth, Mathematics for the Analysis of Algorithms (Boston: Birkhäuser), 1990. viii+132pp.
 Donald E. Knuth, Mariages Stables: et leurs relations avec d'autres problèmes combinatoires (Montréal: Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal), 1976. 106pp.
 Donald E. Knuth, Axioms and Hulls (Heidelberg: SpringerVerlag—Lecture Notes in Computer Science, no. 606), 1992. ix+109pp. ISBN 3540556117
See also[edit]
 Asymptotic notation
 Attribute grammar
 Dancing Links
 Knuth–Bendix completion algorithm
 Knuth–Morris–Pratt algorithm
 Knuth yllion
 Knuth Prize
 Knuth shuffle
 Knuth's uparrow notation
 Man or boy test
 Robinson–Schensted–Knuth correspondence
 TeX
 The Complexity of Songs
 Trabb Pardo–Knuth algorithm
 List of pioneers in computer science
 List of science and religion scholars
References[edit]
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} "Professor Donald Knuth ForMemRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on November 17, 2015.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} Donald Knuth at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} ^{d} Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Frequently Asked Questions". Home page. Stanford University. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
 ^ Steven Geringer (27 July 2007). "ACM'S Turing Award Prize Raised To $250,000". ACM press release. Archived from the original on 30 December 2008.
 ^ "ACM's Turing Award Prize Raised to $1 Million". ACM. December 2014.
On November 13, 2014, ACM announced the funding level for the ACM A.M. Turing Award is now $1 million. Google Inc. will provide all funding for this award, recognized as the highest honor in computer science and often referred to as the field's equivalent of the Nobel Prize.
 ^ "Donald E. Knuth". Retrieved October 15, 2016.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} Molly Knight Raskin (2013). No Better Time: The Brief, Remarkable Life of Danny Lewinthe Genius who Transformed the Internet. Da Capo Press, Incorporated. pp. 61–62. ISBN 9780306821660.
 ^ Shasha, Dennis Elliott; Lazere, Cathy A (1998). Out of their minds: the lives and discoveries of 15 great computer scientists. Springer. p. 90. ISBN 9780387982694.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} Koshy, Thomas (2004). Discrete mathematics with applications. Academic Press. p. 244. ISBN 9780124211803. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
 ^ Lyons, Keith (September 25, 2018). "Donald Knuth, basketball and computers in sport". Clyde Street Archive. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
 ^ "Beta Nu of Theta Chi, History of Beta Nu Chapter". CWRU. Archived from the original on September 4, 2016. Retrieved April 15, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter
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(help)  ^ "A.M. Turing Award; Donald ("Don") Erwin Knuth". ACM. 1974.
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin (1963). "Finite Semifields and Projective Planes" (PDF). CaltechPhD dissertation
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Curriculum vitae". Stanford University.
 ^ "The Art of Computer Programming". Stanford University.
 ^ "Department Timeline  Stanford Computer Science". cs.stanford.edu. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Home page". Stanford University. Retrieved March 16, 2005.
 ^ "Donald Knuth". Profiles. Stanford University. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
 ^ Karp, Richard M. (February 1986). "Combinatorics, Complexity, and Randomness". Communications of the ACM. 29 (2): 98–109. doi:10.1145/5657.5658.
 ^ "BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Awards". Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved October 15, 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter
deadurl=
(help)  ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "The Art of Computer Programming (TAOCP)". Retrieved February 6, 2018.
 ^ Weinberger, Matt (April 26, 2016). "Bill Gates once said 'definitely send me a résumé' if you finish this fiendishly difficult book'". BusinessInsider.com. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
"If you think you're a really good programmer… read (Knuth's) Art of Computer Programming… You should definitely send me a résumé if you can read the whole thing," read a quote from Bill Gates on the cover of the third edition of the first volume.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Surreal numbers". Home page.
 ^ Zeilberg. "DEK". Rutgers.
 ^ "The Linguist List  Journal Page". linguistlist.org. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
 ^ Madachy, Joseph S.,Mathematics on Vacation, Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd. 1966
 ^ "Videos about Numbers and Stuff". Numberphile. Archived from the original on November 4, 2018. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
 ^ Numberphile (June 27, 2016), Surreal Numbers (writing the first book)  Numberphile, retrieved July 19, 2019
 ^ Computerphile (August 21, 2015), Why Don Knuth Doesn't Use Email  Computerphile, retrieved July 19, 2019
 ^ Platoni 2006.
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin (1991). 3:16 : Bible texts illuminated. Madison, WI: AR Eds. ISBN 9780895792525.
 ^ "All Questions Answered" (PDF). Notices (article). March 2002.
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Against software patents" (PDF)Letter to the patent offices in the USA and Europe.
 ^ "Professor Donald Knuth". Magdalen College. Archived from the original on January 4, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
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(help)  ^ "Notices". Oxford University Gazette. October 30, 2014. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
 ^ Knuth, Donald Erwin (1997). "Digital Typography (Kyoto Prize Lecture, 1996)" (PDF).
 ^ Knuth, Donald Erwin (1984). "Literate Programming" (PDF).
 ^ "Knuth: Computers and Typesetting". wwwcsfaculty.stanford.edu. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
 ^ "The Definitive, NonTechnical Introduction to LaTeX, Professional Typesetting and Scientific Publishing". Math Vault. September 5, 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
 ^ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (2015). "Donald Ervin Knuth". University of St Andrews. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
 ^ Reutenauer, Arthur. "A brief history of TeX, volume II". TUGboat: 68–72. ISSN 08963207.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Knuth, Donald Ervin (1980). 计算机程序设计技巧 (Ji suan ji cheng xu she ji ji qiao) [The Art of Computer Programming]. Translated by Guan, JiWen; Su, Yunlin. Beijing: Defense Industry Publishing Co.
I fondly hope that many Chinese computer programmers will learn to recognize my Chinese name Gao Dena, which was given to me by Francis Yao just before I visited your country in 1977. I still have very fond memories of that threeweek visit, and I have been glad to see Gao Dena on the masthead of the Journal of Computer Science and Technology since 1989. This name makes me feel close to all Chinese people although I cannot speak your language.
 ^ "Donald Knuth: 85 – Coping with cancer". Web of Stories. April 2006. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
 ^ "Rewriting the Bible in 0s and 1s". Technology Review.
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin (June 1957). "The Potrzebie System of Weights & Measures". Mad Magazine (33).
 ^ Kidder, Tracy (2016). A Truck Full of Money. Random House. p. 68. ISBN 9780812995244.
 ^ Don Knuth (2010). "TUG". Zeeba TVconference
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin, An Earth‐shaking announcement, Zeeba TVvideo recording
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin (2010). "An Earthshaking Announcement" (PDF). TUGboat. 31 (2): 121–24. ISSN 08963207.
 ^ "Fellows". Siam. 2009.
 ^ "Gruppe 1: Matematiske fag" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved October 7, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter
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(help)  ^ List of Fellows of the American Mathematical Society, retrieved 20130127.
 ^ Knuth, D. E. (1974). "Computer science and its relation to mathematics". Amer. Math. Monthly. 81 (4): 323–343. doi:10.2307/2318994. JSTOR 2318994.
 ^ Knuth, D. E. (1992). "Two notes on notation". Amer. Math. Monthly. 99 (5): 403–422. arXiv:math/9205211. Bibcode:1992math......5211K. doi:10.2307/2325085. JSTOR 2325085.
 ^ "American Mathematical Society". Retrieved October 15, 2016.
 ^ Knuth, Donald E. (1979). "Mathematical typography". Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. (N.S.). 1 (2): 337–372. doi:10.1090/s027309791979145981. MR 0520078.
 ^ "Harvey". IL: Technion. 1995. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
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(help)  ^ "Donald Knuth: 1998 Fellow". Computer History Museum. 2015. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
 ^ "21656 Knuth (1999 PX1)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
 ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
 ^ "Katayanagi". CMU.
 ^ Galardonados (2010). "Fronteras" (in Spanish). ES: FBBVA. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter
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(help)  ^ Myers, Andrew (June 1, 2001). "Stanford's Don Knuth, a pioneering hero of computer programming". Stanford Report. Retrieved June 27, 2011.
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Books". Home page (list).
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Literate Programming". Home page.
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Selected Papers on Computer Science". Home page.
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin (1983). "Digital Typography". Home Page. 249 (2): 106. Bibcode:1983SciAm.249b.106B. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0883106.
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Selected Papers on Analysis of Algorithms". Home page.
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Selected Papers on Computer Languages". Home page.
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Selected Papers on Discrete Mathematics". Home page.
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Selected Papers on Design of Algorithms". Home page.
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Selected Papers on Fun and Games". Home page.
 ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Companion to the Papers of Donald Knuth"]". Home page.
Bibliography[edit]
 Knuth, Donald Ervin. Home page. Stanford University.
 Knuth, Donald Ervin. "The Art of Computer Programming (TAOCP)". Retrieved May 20, 2012.
 Platoni, Kara; Archibald, Timothy (May–June 2006). "Love at First Byte". Stanford Magazine. Archived from the original on September 25, 2006. Retrieved May 18, 2006. Cite uses deprecated parameter
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External links[edit]
 Donald Knuth's home page at Stanford University.
 Donald Knuth at Curlie
 Knuth, Donald Ervin (November 8, 2001). "Donald E. Knuth". Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesotaoral history interview Cite journal requires
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(help) Knuth discusses software patenting, structured programming, collaboration and his development of TeX.  Donald Knuth at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
 O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Donald Knuth", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
 Works by or about Donald Knuth in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
 List of publications from Microsoft Academic
 Donald E. Knuth at DBLP Bibliography Server
 Free scores by Donald Knuth at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
 Interview at Stanford University "Donald Knuth – All Questions Answered" on YouTube
 Biography of Donald Knuth from the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences
 Donald Ervin Knuth – Stanford Lectures (Archive)