Demographics of Latvia

Population of Latvia (in millions) from 1920–2014

This article is about the demographic features of the population of the historical territory of Latvia, including population density, ethnic background, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Background[edit]

Latvia was settled by the Baltic tribes some three millennia ago. The territories along the eastern Baltic first came under foreign domination at the beginning of the 13th century, with the formal establishment of Riga in 1201 under the German Teutonic Knights.

Latvia, in whole or in parts, remained under foreign rule for the next eight centuries, finding itself at the cross-roads of all the regional superpowers of their day, including Denmark (the Danes held on lands around the Gulf of Riga), Sweden, and Russia, with southern (Courland) Latvia being at one time a vassal to Poland-Lithuania as well as Latgale falling directly under Poland-Lithuania rule. Through all this time, Latvia remained largely under Baltic German hegemony, with Baltic Germans comprising the largest land-owners, a situation which did not change until Latvia's independence.

Historically, Latvia has had significant German, Russian, Jewish, Polish, and Lithuanian minorities. The majority (roughly two thirds) of Latvians, under Swedish influences, adopted Lutheranism, while the minority (the remaining third) of Latvians under Poland-Lithuania, Latgale in particular, retained their Catholicism. Aglona, in Latgale, has been the site of annual Catholic pilgrimage for centuries, even through to today.

Recently introduced immigration law in Latvia provides framework for immigration through investment in various financial areas or real estate. In 2012, solely 2,435[1] applications for residence permit by investment in real estate were received by Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs. Main immigrant countries are Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Lithuania (Lithuania is in the European Union, thus no investment is needed). Moreover, Latvia receives residence permit applications from people of nationalities such as Afghans, Chinese, Libyans and people from various other distant countries.

Historical shifts[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1863 1,240,988—    
1897 1,929,387+55.5%
1914 2,552,000+32.3%
1920 1,596,131−37.5%
1925 1,844,805+15.6%
1930 1,900,045+3.0%
1935 1,950,936+2.7%
1943 1,760,162−9.8%
1950 1,943,146+10.4%
1959 2,079,948+7.0%
1970 2,351,903+13.1%
1979 2,502,816+6.4%
1989 2,666,567+6.5%
2000 2,377,383−10.8%
2011 2,070,371−12.9%
2018 1,917,400−7.4%
Source: [2] [3]

Latvia's indigenous population has been ravaged numerous times throughout history. The earliest such event occurred during the conquest of Latvia by Peter the Great in the Great Northern War with Sweden.

In 1897, the first official census in this area indicated that Latvians formed 68.3% of the total population of 1.93 million; Russians accounted for 12%, Jews for 7.4%, Germans for 6.2%, and Poles for 3.4%. The remainder were Lithuanians, Estonians, Gypsies, and various other nationalities.

The demographics shifted greatly in the 20th century due to the world wars, the expulsion of the Baltic Germans, the Holocaust, and occupation by the Soviet Union. Today, only the Russian minority, which has tripled in numbers since 1935, remains important. The share of ethnic Latvians grew from 77% (1,467,035) in 1935 to 80% (1,508,800), after human loss in World War II and human deportation and other repressive measures, fell strongly to 52% (1,387,757) in 1989.

In 2005, there were even fewer Latvians than in 1989, though their share of the population was larger - 1,357,099 (58.8% of the inhabitants). People who arrived in Latvia during the Soviet era, and their descendants born before 21 August 1991, have to pass a naturalisation process to receive Latvian citizenship. Their children born after the restoration of independence in 1991 are registered as citizens, if one of the parents requests it.

Ethnic Latvians have been one of the world's slowest-growing ethnic groups for a century.[citation needed] The number of Latvians today is actually less than it was in the 1920s.

Over 130,000 persons have been naturalized as Latvian citizens since 1995, but 290,660 persons, as of March 2011, live in Latvia with non-citizen's passports. Large numbers of Russians, as well as some Ukrainians and Belarusians remained in Latvia after the fall of the Soviet Union.

According to the provisional results of the Population and Housing Census 2011, the total population of Latvia on 1 March 2011 was 2,067,887. Since the previous census in 2000 the country's population decreased by 309,000 or 13%. The proportion of ethnic Latvians increased to 62.1% of the population.[4] Livonians are the other indigenous ethnic group, with about 100,000 of them remaining.[citation needed] Latgalians are a distinctive subgroup of Latvians inhabiting or coming from Eastern Latvia.

According to rankings provided by the United States Census Bureau—International Data Base (IDB)—Country Rankings, Latvia is estimated to have a population of 1,249,812 in the year 2050.[5]

Immigration[edit]

Illegal immigration in Latvia has traditionally been from neighboring countries such as Russia but now migrants also come from other areas such as Latin America, Southeast Asia and Africa.[6] The Latvian government have sought to work with Russia to stem the problem.[7] In 2009 the US State Department criticized Latvia for its treatment of illegal immigrants.[8]

For an immigrant not to become an illegal resident, a permit is required for a foreign national or a stateless person wishing to reside in the Republic of Latvia for more than 90 days within a 6-month period,[9] thus if the person does not acquire himself a residence permit, he will be considered an illegal immigrant.

Population[edit]

Age structure[edit]

Approximate demographic evolution in Latvia, 1920–2011. NB. the amount of time between each year in the diagramme is not the same which gives a somewhat garbled image of the evolution.
Population percentage at census according to age groups[10][11]
Census year Children Working age Pensioners
1897 41.0 52.8 6.2
1920 38.3 52.9 8.6
1935 30.4 60.3 9.2
1943 29.1 60.6 10.3
1959 30.0 63.2 6.8
1970 23.1 56.2 20.7
1979 21.8 58.3 19.9
1989 22.7 56.6 20.7
2000 18.0 58.9 23.1
2011 14.1 64.1 21.8

On 1 January 2011 the average age was 41.6 years—6 months more than the average age published earlier.

Vital statistics[edit]

[12][13][14]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Infant mortality rate (per 1000 births) Life expectancy at birth (males) Life expectancy at birth (females)
1920 1 727 000 29 434 33 891 −4 457 17.0 19.6 −2.6 128.4
1921 1 850 000 36 420 25 331 11 089 19.7 13.7 6.0 93.2
1922 1 883 000 41 146 27 553 13 593 21.9 14.6 7.2 90.8
1923 1 909 000 41 796 26 080 15 716 21.9 13.7 8.2 88.4
1924 1 845 000 41 172 28 399 12 773 22.3 15.4 6.9 100.8
1925 1 857 000 41 314 27 683 13 631 22.3 14.9 7.3 107.2
1926 1 871 000 41 073 27 557 13 516 22.0 14.7 7.2 87.9
1927 1 883 000 41 610 28 941 12 669 22.1 15.4 6.7 95.7
1928 1 895 000 39 126 27 299 11 827 20.7 14.4 6.2 96.3
1929 1 900 000 35 673 28 512 7 161 18.8 15.0 3.8 106.7
1930 1 910 000 37 835 27 110 10 725 19.8 14.2 5.6 90.0
1931 1 920 000 36 972 26 891 10 081 19.3 14.0 5.3 86.3
1932 1 931 000 37 366 26 342 11 024 19.4 13.6 5.7 89.3
1933 1 939 000 34 576 26 319 8 257 17.8 13.6 4.3 76.4
1934 1 947 000 33 383 27 065 6 318 17.2 13.9 3.2 95.1
1935 1 953 000 34 419 27 660 6 759 17.6 14.2 3.5 78.9
1936 1 961 000 35 468 27 646 7 822 18.1 14.1 4.0 80.1
1937 1 968 000 34 863 28 083 6 780 17.7 14.3 3.4 85.0
1938 1 978 000 36 386 26 703 9 683 18.4 13.5 4.9 68.1
1939 2 000 000 36 932 27 827 9 105 18.5 13.9 4.6 70.2
1940 1 940 000 37 493 30 355 7 138 19.3 15.7 3.6 73.2
1941 1 755 000 36 295 30 434 5 861 20.7 17.3 3.4 81.7
1942 1 750 000 36 370 29 940 6 430 20.7 17.1 3.6 81.1
1943 1 760 000 35 915 29 904 6 011 20.4 16.9 3.5 93.4
1944 2.30
1945 26 217 32 230 −6 013 111.1
1946 1 553 577 30 544 32 266 −1 722 18.7 19.7 −1.1 93.9
1947 1 716 773 34 832 32 435 2 397 19.5 18.2 1.3 108.7
1948 1 856 419 35 402 26 500 8 902 18.9 14.2 4.8 79.3
1949 1 886 792 35 671 25 640 10 031 18.9 13.6 5.3 83.3
1950 1 884 077 33 137 24 250 8 887 17.6 12.9 4.7 70.0
1951 1 889 974 32 764 23 898 8 866 17.3 12.6 4.7 69.6
1952 1 898 577 32 278 22 680 9 598 16.9 11.9 5.0 52.9
1953 1 912 837 30 986 22 761 8 225 16.1 11.8 4.3 46.8
1954 1 939 138 33 202 22 500 10 702 17.0 11.5 5.5 45.9
1955 1 966 567 32 968 21 330 11 638 16.6 10.8 5.9 42.0
1956 1 995 354 32 590 20 339 12 251 16.1 10.1 6.1 33.9
1957 2 040 978 33 714 21 087 12 627 16.4 10.3 6.1 32.3
1958 2 066 368 35 068 20 910 14 158 16.9 10.1 6.8 29.5
1959 2 079 948 35 028 22 601 12 427 16.7 10.8 5.9 30.8
1960 2 104 128 35 468 21 314 14 154 16.7 10.0 6.7 1.99 27.0
1961 2 137 830 35 993 21 759 14 234 16.7 10.1 6.6 2.01 24.1
1962 2 167 531 35 061 23 592 11 469 16.1 10.8 5.3 1.91 24.2
1963 2 195 640 33 843 22 703 11 140 15.3 10.3 5.0 1.85 25.9
1964 2 226 198 33 053 21 165 11 888 14.7 9.4 5.3 1.79 22.0
1965 2 255 048 31 212 22 780 8 432 13.8 10.1 3.7 1.74 18.9
1966 2 276 789 31 974 23 350 8 624 14.0 10.2 3.8 1.76 17.0
1967 2 289 645 32 232 24 362 7 870 14.0 10.6 3.4 1.80 17.3
1968 2 312 795 32 693 25 104 7 589 14.1 10.8 3.3 1.83 18.9
1969 2 334 443 32 915 26 229 6 686 14.0 11.2 2.9 1.88 17.7
1970 2 351 903 34 333 26 546 7 787 14.6 11.3 3.3 2.01 17.7
1971 2 366 424 35 239 26 275 8 964 14.8 11.1 3.8 2.04 15.9
1972 2 386 353 35 007 27 296 7 711 14.6 11.4 3.2 2.03 16.0
1973 2 404 995 34 008 28 139 5 869 14.1 11.6 2.4 1.96 15.8
1974 2 426 642 34 920 28 143 6 777 14.3 11.5 2.8 2.00 18.4
1975 2 447 730 34 810 30 042 4 768 14.2 12.2 1.9 1.96 20.3
1976 2 464 529 34 644 30 373 4 271 14.0 12.3 1.7 1.93 20.1
1977 2 477 449 34 240 30 869 3 371 13.8 12.4 1.4 1.88 18.3
1978 2 492 697 34 258 31 261 2 997 13.7 12.5 1.2 1.86 18.1
1979 2 503 145 34 683 32 162 2 521 13.8 12.8 1.0 1.87 18.3
1980 2 508 761 35 534 32 100 3 434 14.1 12.8 1.4 1.90 15.3
1981 2 514 640 35 732 32 090 3 642 14.2 12.7 1.4 1.90 16.0
1982 2 524 202 37 477 31 234 6 243 14.8 12.3 2.5 1.98 13.9
1983 2 537 958 40 572 32 330 8 242 15.9 12.7 3.2 2.13 15.9
1984 2 554 063 40 847 33 406 7 441 15.9 13.0 2.9 2.15 12.9
1985 2 570 030 39 571 34 166 5 405 15.3 13.2 2.1 2.09 13.0
1986 2 587 716 41 960 31 328 10 632 16.1 12.0 4.1 2.21 12.8
1987 2 612 068 42 135 32 150 9 985 16.0 12.2 3.8 2.21 11.3
1988 2 641 097 41 275 32 421 8 854 15.6 12.2 3.3 2.16 11.0 66.3 75.0
1989 2 665 770 38 922 32 584 6 338 14.6 12.2 2.4 2.04 11.3 65.3 75.2
1990 2 668 140 37 918 34 812 3 106 14.2 13.1 1.2 2.00 13.7 64.2 74.6
1991 2 658 161 34 633 34 749 −116 13.1 13.1 −0.0 1.85 15.7 63.8 74.8
1992 2 643 000 31 569 35 420 −3 851 12.1 13.6 −1.5 1.74 17.6 63.3 74.8
1993 2 585 675 26 759 39 197 −12 438 10.4 15.3 −4.9 1.52 16.2 61.6 73.8
1994 2 540 904 24 256 41 757 −17 501 9.6 16.6 −6.9 1.41 15.7 60.7 72.9
1995 2 500 580 21 595 38 931 −17 336 8.7 15.7 −7.0 1.27 18.8 60.8 73.1
1996 2 469 531 19 782 34 320 −14 538 8.1 14.0 −5.9 1.18 15.9 63.9 75.6
1997 2 444 912 18 830 33 533 −14 703 7.7 13.8 −6.0 1.13 15.3 64.2 75.9
1998 2 420 789 18 410 34 200 −15 790 7.6 14.2 −6.6 1.11 15.0 64.1 75.5
1999 2 399 248 19 396 32 844 −13 448 8.1 13.7 −5.6 1.18 11.3 64.9 76.2
2000 2 381 715 20 248 32 205 −11 957 8.5 13.6 −5.0 1.24 10.3 64.8 76.0
2001 2 353 384 19 664 32 991 −13 327 8.3 14.0 −5.7 1.22 11.0 64.5 75.7
2002 2 320 956 20 044 32 498 −12 454 8.7 14.1 −5.3 1.25 9.8 64.7 76.1
2003 2 299 390 21 006 32 437 −11 431 9.2 14.2 −4.9 1.32 9.4 65.6 76.0
2004 2 276 520 20 334 32 024 −11 690 9.1 14.2 −5.1 1.29 9.3 65.9 76.3
2005 2 249 724 21 497 32 777 −11 280 9.8 14.6 −4.9 1.38 7.7 65.2 76.5
2006 2 227 874 22 264 33 098 −10 834 10.3 14.9 −4.7 1.46 7.4 65.2 76.3
2007 2 208 840 23 273 33 042 −9 769 10.9 15.0 −4.3 1.54 8.5 65.3 76.2
2008 2 191 810 23 948 31 006 −7 058 11.2 14.2 −3.1 1.59 6.6 66.7 77.7
2009 2 162 834 21 677 29 897 −8 220 10.3 14.0 −3.6 1.47 7.6 67.7 77.8
2010 2 120 504 19 219 30 040 −10 821 9.4 14.3 −4.8 1.36 5.6 68.1 78.1
2011 2 074 605 18 825 28 540 −9 715 9.1 13.9 −4.8 1.34 6.6 68.7 78.7
2012 2 044 813 19 897 29 025 −9 128 9.8 14.2 −4.4 1.45 6.3 69.1 78.9
2013 2 023 825 20 596 28 691 −8 095 10.2 14.3 −4.0 1.53 4.4 69.5 79.0
2014 2 001 468 21 746 28 466 −6 720 10.8 14.3 −3.5 1.65 3.8 69.1 79.3
2015 1 986 096 21 979 28 319 −6 330 11.0 14.3 -3.3 1.71 4.1 69.7 79.3
2016 1 968 957 21 968 28 580 −6 612 11.2 14.5 -3.3 1.74
2017 1 950 116 20 828 28 757 −7 929 10.6 14.6 -4.0 1.70
2018 1 934 379 19 314 28 820 −9 506 9.9 14.7 -4.8 1.64


Current vital statistics[edit]

[15]

  • Number of births for January-July 2018 = Decrease 11,625
  • Number of births for January-July 2019 = Decrease 10,798
  • Number of deaths for January-July 2018 = Negative increase 17,422
  • Number of deaths for January-July 2019 = Positive decrease 16,690
  • Natural growth for January-July 2018 = Decrease -5,797
  • Natural growth for January-July 2019 = Decrease -5,892


  • Number of marriages from January-June 2018 = Decrease 4,470
  • Number of marriages from January-June 2019 = Increase 4,730

Ethnic groups[edit]

Distribution of Russians, Belarusians and Ukrainians in 2011
Ethnic Latvians and Russians
Smaller ethnic minorities

Latvians have always been the largest ethnic group in Latvia during the past century, but minority peoples have always been numerous. Before WW II the proportion of non-Latvians was approximately 25%, the Russians being the largest minority (app. 10%), followed by Jews (approx. 5%), Germans and Poles (2–3%). After World War 2 only small numbers of Jews and Germans remained and following a massive immigration of Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians, Latvians almost became a minority. In 1989, the proportion of Latvians had decreased to only 52% (from 75.5% in 1935). Despite the decreasing number of Latvians due to low fertility rates, the proportion of Latvians has considerably increased during the past two decades and reached 62.1% in 2011 (slightly higher than the 62.0% in 1959). This is due to large scale emigration of Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians. The number of these peoples almost halved between 1989 and 2011.

Population of Latvia according to ethnic group 1925–2017
Ethnic
group
census 1925 [16] census 1935 [16] census 1959 [17] census 1970 [18] census 1979 [19] census 1989 [20] census 2000 [21] census 2011[4] statistics 2018[22]
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Latvians 1,354,126 73.4 1,472,612 75.5 1,297,881 62.0 1,341,805 56.8 1,344,105 53.7 1,387,757 52.0 1,370,703 57.7 1,285,136 62.1 1,202,781 62.2
Russians 193,648 10.5 206,499 10.6 556,448 26.6 704,599 29.8 821,464 32.8 905,515 34.0 703,243 29.6 557,119 26.9 487,250 25.2
Belarusians 38,010 2.1 26,867 1.4 61,587 2.9 94,898 4.0 111,505 4.5 119,702 4.5 97,150 4.1 68,202 3.3 62,713 3.2
Ukrainians[23][24] 512 0.03 1,844 0.09 29,440 1.4 53,461 2.3 66,703 2.7 92,101 3.5 63,644 2.7 45,798 2.2 43,128 2.2
Poles 51,143 2.8 48,949 2.5 59,774 2.9 63,045 2.7 62,690 2.5 60,416 2.3 59,505 2.5 44,772 2.2 39,687 2.1
Lithuanians 23,192 1.3 22,913 1.2 32,383 1.6 40,589 1.7 37,818 1.5 34,630 1.3 33,430 1.4 24,479 1.2 22,831 1.2
Roma 2,870 0.2 3,839 0.2 4,301 0.2 5,427 0.2 6,134 0.3 7,044 0.3 8,205 0.3 6,489 0.3 5,082 0.3
Jews 95,675 5.2 93,479 4.8 36,592 1.8 36,680 1.6 28,331 1.1 22,897 0.9 10,385 0.4 6,437 0.3 4,721 0.2
Germans 70,964 3.8 62,144 3.2 1,609 0.08 5,413 0.2 3,299 0.1 3,783 0.1 3,465 0.1 3,042 0.1 2,554 0.1
Estonians 7,893 0.4 7,014 0.4 4,610 0.2 4,334 0.2 3,681 0.2 3,312 0.1 2,652 0.1 2,007 0.1 1,676 0.09
Livonians 1,268 0.07 944 0.05 185 0.01 48 0.0 107 0.0 135 0.01 180 0.01 250 0.01 161 0.01
Others 5,504 0.3 3,398 0.2 8,648 0.4 13,828 0.6 16,979 0.7 29,275 1.1 24,824 1.1 26,640 1.3 61,795 3.2
Total 1,844,805 1,950,502 2,093,458 2,364,127 2,502,816 2,666,567 2,377,383 2,070,371 1,934,379
Distribution of Russian speakers in 2000

Languages[edit]

Main language spoken at home in Latvia, 2011 census.[25]
Latvian
62.1%
Russian
37.2%
Other
0.7%

In the 2011 census, 1,164,894 persons in Latvia reported Latvian as their main language spoken at home; 698,757 respondents listed Russian as their main language spoken at home,[25] representing 37.2% of the total population, whereas Latvian was recorded as the main language spoken at home for 62.1%.[27] Latvian was spoken as a second language by 20.8% of the population, and 43.7% spoke Russian as a second language.[28] In total, 71% of ethnic Latvians said they could speak Russian, and 52% of Russians could speak Latvian in census 2000.[29]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Latvia (2011)[30]
Lutheranism
34.2%
Roman Catholicism
24.1%
Russian Orthodox
17.8%
Old Believers
1.6%
Other Christian
1.2%
Other or none
21.1%

The largest religion in Latvia is Christianity (79%),[30] though only about 7% of the population attends religious services regularly.[31] The largest groups as of 2011 were:

In the Eurobarometer Poll 2010, 38% of Latvian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", while 48% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 11% stated that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force".

Lutheranism was more prominent before the Soviet occupation, when it was a majority religion of ~60% due to strong historical links with the Nordic countries and influence of the Hansa, and Germany in general. Since then, Lutheranism has declined to a slightly greater extent than Roman Catholicism in all three Baltic states. The Evangelical Lutheran Church, with an estimated 600,000 members in 1956, was affected most adversely. An internal document of 18 March 1987, near the end of communist rule, spoke of an active membership that had shrunk to only 25,000 in Latvia, but the faith has since experienced a revival.[32] Moreover, modern Evangelical Protestant denominations are spreading worldwide, including Latvia. The country's Orthodox Christians belong to the Latvian Orthodox Church, a semi-autonomous body within the Russian Orthodox Church. In 2011, there were 416 Jews and 319 Muslims living in Latvia.[30]

There are more than 600 Latvian neopagans, Dievturi, whose religion is based on Latvian mythology.[33] About 21% of the total population is not affiliated with a specific religion.[30]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Statistics - residence permit requests". Immigration-residency.eu. 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  2. ^ "Number of Resident Population in Latvia". Central Statistics Office of Latvia. Archived from the original on 2016-05-08. Retrieved 14 June 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  3. ^ "Population Census 2011 - Key Indicators". Central Statistics Office of Latvia. Archived from the original on 2016-05-29. Retrieved 14 June 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  4. ^ a b "Population Census 2011 - Key Indicators - Latvijas statistika". Csb.gov.lv. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  5. ^ "International Data Base Country Rankings". Census.gov. Archived from the original on March 29, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  6. ^ "Illegal immigrants from Africa and Latin America increase in Latvia". The Baltic Times. Retrieved 2012-04-15.
  7. ^ "Estonia urges cooperation with Russia in fighting illegal immigration". Baltic Review. Archived from the original on 2012-04-14. Retrieved 2012-04-15. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  8. ^ "2009 Human Rights Report: Latvia". US State Department. Retrieved 2012-04-15.
  9. ^ "Statistics show immigration in Latvia is growing". Baltic Legal. Retrieved 2012-08-18.
  10. ^ 1897-1959. uzrādītas vecuma grupas līdz 20 gadiem, 20-65 g. un virs 65 g. (1959. - virs 70 g.), skat.: Jānis Rutkis. Latvijas ģeogrāfija. Apgāds Zemgale. Stokholma. 1960. 421. lpp.
  11. ^ 1970-2006. uzrādītas vecuma grupas atbilstoši attiecīgo gadu likumdošanā noteiktajam darbspējas un pensijas vecumam, skat.: Demogrāfija 2006. LR CSP. Rīga. 2006. ISBN 9984-06-287-2. 21–22 lpp.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 2012-05-27. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  14. ^ "ISG010. Iedzīvotāju skaits, tā izmaiņas un dabiskās kustības galvenie rādītāji".
  15. ^ "Population change and demographic balance by month". Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  16. ^ a b "Ethnicities in region of Latvia. Statistics". roots-saknes.lv. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
  17. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1959 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР (in Russian). demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 2010-03-16. Retrieved 2010-01-02. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  18. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1970 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР (in Russian). demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 2009-12-03. Retrieved 2010-01-02. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  19. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР (in Russian). demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 2010-03-24. Retrieved 2010-01-02. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  20. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР (in Russian). demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 2010-03-16. Retrieved 2010-01-02. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  21. ^ "Integrācijas politika Latvijā: daudzpusīga pieeja" (in Latvian). 2010-04-10. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved 2015-12-26. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ "Численность и удельный вес украинцев в Латвии, 1897–2011 гг. / Завьялов А. В. Социальная адаптация украинских иммигрантов : монография / А. В. Завьялов. – Иркутск : Изд-во ИГУ, 2017. – 179 с." (PDF).
  24. ^ "Численность и удельный вес украинцев в муниципальных образованиях Латвии, 2011 г. / Завьялов А. В. Социальная адаптация украинских иммигрантов : монография / А. В. Завьялов. – Иркутск : Изд-во ИГУ, 2017. – 179 с." (PDF).
  25. ^ a b c "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2014-02-23. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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