Democratic Bloc (East Germany)

The Democratic Bloc (German: Demokratischer Block der Parteien und Massenorganisationen) was an association of political parties and organizations in the GDR.

History[edit]

In parallel with the working staff of the CPSU European Advisory Commission commissioned in early 1944 to develop the exiled Communist Germany own political concept.[1] A first draft was on 6 March 1944 on a working session of the exiled Communist Party presented by Wilhelm Florin.[2] The guidelines developed by the Soviet concept of the future Communist Party saw as a government. After the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht on 8 May 1945 and the Berlin Declaration of the Commander in Chief of the four victorious powers of 5 June 1945 all political activity was prohibited in all zones of occupation. After consultation by Anton Ackermann, and Walter Ulbricht Gustav Sobottka on 4 June 1945 in Moscow allowed the Order № 2[3] of 10 of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany in June 1945, the formation and activity of anti-fascist parties[4] in the Soviet Occupation Zone. With its call of 11 June 1945, the Communist Party came to Berlin as first advertised to the public and for cooperation:

The Central Committee of Communist Party of Germany is in the opinion that the above program can be used as a basis for the creation of a bloc of anti-fascist democratic parties (the Communist Party, the Social Democratic Party, the Centre Party and others) are used. We believe that such a block can form the solid foundation in the fight for the complete liquidation of the remnants of the Hitler regime and for the establishment of a democratic regime.

In addition to the block at the zone level corresponding blocks were set up at the country level. In Brandenburg, the existing three members from the four-party anti-fascist came together to comprise the democratic unit block of Brandenburg on 28 November 1945 .[5] In Thuringia, the antifascist-democratic bloc of Thuringia was formed on 17 August 1945.[6] In Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt was founded on 29 August 1945.[7]

By 1946, the KPD and the Soviet occupation authorities had cajoled the Social Democrats in the eastern zone to merge with the KPD to form the Socialist Unity Party. Ostensibly a union of equals, the SED soon became a full-fledged Communist party along lines similar to other parties in what would become the Soviet bloc. The SED and the occupation authorities soon pressured the other parties into forming a permanent coalition under SED leadership. This coalition presented a single, SED-dominated "unity list" in the Constitutional Assembly elections held in May 1949. Although voters were only given the option of approving or rejecting the list in less-than-secret circumstances, official figures showed 66 percent of those turning out approved the list – by far the lowest total to which an SED-led alliance would admit during the four decades of Communist rule in East Germany.

In 1950 it was succeeded by the National Front.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hinter den Kulissen des Nationalkomitees: Das Institut 99 in Moskau und die Deutschlandpolitik der UdSSR 1943–1946
  2. ^ Die Lage und die Aufgaben in Deutschland bis zum Sturz Hitlers", vorgetragen am 6. März 1944 auf der Arbeitssitzung der Exil-KPD; Peter Erler, Horst Laude, Manfred Wilke, Peter Erler: „Nach Hitler kommen wir": Dokumente zur Programmatik der Moskauer KPD-Führung 1944/45 für Nachkriegsdeutschland, Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-050-02554-9, S. 153
  3. ^ Befehl Nr. 2 des Obersten Chefs der Sowjetischen Militärischen Administration
  4. ^ Wortlaut des Befehls Nr. 2 der SMAD
  5. ^ SBZ-Handbuch, Seite 88 ff.
  6. ^ SBZ-Handbuch, Seite 176 ff. und Seite 618
  7. ^ SBZ-Handbuch, Seite 618