Częstochowa Ghetto uprising

Częstochowa Ghetto uprising
Czestochowa ghetto Rynek Warszawski circa 1944.jpg
Shelled Warsaw Square in Częstochowa circa 1944 after the Częstochowa Ghetto uprising, renamed as Ghetto Heroes Square after the war
LocationCzęstochowa Ghetto, Nazi occupied Poland
LaunchedJune 25, 1943
SuppressedJune 30, 1943

The Częstochowa Ghetto uprising was an insurrection in Poland's Częstochowa Ghetto against German occupational forces during World War II. It took place in late June 1943, resulting in some 2,000 Jews being killed.

The Ghetto was established following a day known as Bloody Monday, a day in which the Nazis killed 300 Jewish citizens in its occupation of the city of Częstochowa.[1] The ghetto lasted from its inception on September 3rd, 1939 to its liberation by the Soviet Red Army in January of 1945. [2] The prisoners of the Ghetto were forced to work in slave labor fatcories, manufacturing Throughout the life of this site, it housed 48,000 Polish Jews- of which, 40,000 were deported to Treblinka extermination camp. [3][4]

The first instance of armed resistance took place on January 4, 1943, at the so-called Large Ghetto established by the Germans in April 1941.[5] During the 'selection' of some 500 Jews to be deported to the ghetto in Radomsko, shooting broke out at the Warsaw Square (now, Ghetto Heroes Square) in which Mendel Fiszelewicz (Fiszelowicz) along with Isza Fajner were killed. 50 young Jews were executed in reprisal.[6]

Full-scale insurgency[edit]

The final liquidation of the so-called Small Ghetto (work camp for munitions factory) commenced in June 1943,[7] after four months of mass executions at the Cemetery (Jewish elders, children, intellectuals) and 'selections' of Jews for deportations to slave labour camps including in Bliżyn.[6] On June 25 (or 26), 1943 a full uprising broke out, organized by the Organisation of Jewish Fighters,[4] even though the insurgents were weakly armed. They barricaded themselves in bunkers along the Nadrzeczna Street. In the fighting and subsequent massacres 1,500 Jews died. The leader of the uprising, Mordechaj Zylberberg, committed suicide as the Germans were about to capture his bunker on Nadrzeczna. The uprising was suppressed on June 30, 1943 with additional 500 Jews burned alive or buried beneath the rubble of the Small Ghetto. The remaining 3,900 fugitives were rounded up and sent to camp in Warta or incarcerated at the nearby work prisons, Hasag Pelcery and Huta Częstochowa.[6] However, the Częstochowa Ghetto was not liquidated. Some 10,000 Jews were brought in from Skarżysko-Kamienna in 1944. Around 5,200 of them were liberated by the Red Army in mid January 1945.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Czestochowa www.HolocaustResearchProject.org". www.holocaustresearchproject.org. Retrieved 2019-11-25.
  2. ^ "Czestochowa www.HolocaustResearchProject.org". www.holocaustresearchproject.org. Retrieved 2019-11-25.
  3. ^ The statistical data compiled on the basis of "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland" Archived 8 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine by Virtual Shtetl Museum of the History of the Polish Jews  (in English), as well as "Getta Żydowskie," by Gedeon,  (in Polish) and "Ghetto List" by Michael Peters at www.deathcamps.org/occupation/ghettolist.htm  (in English). Accessed July 12, 2011.
  4. ^ a b Shmuel Krakowski (translated from Hebrew by David Fachler) (2010). "Armed Resistance". YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
  5. ^ The Jews of Czestochowa. Coexistence—Holocaust—Memory, 2004. PDF 875.6 KB. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
  6. ^ a b c d "Jewish community of Częstochowa. History". Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. pp. 5 of 5. Archived from the original on February 20, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
  7. ^ Andrew Rajcher (translated from Polish original), The Częstochowa Ghetto. World Society of Częstochowa Jews and Their Descendants (Home Page). Retrieved April 26, 2012.
  • "Ruch podziemny w częstochowskim getcie : wspomnienia" Liber Brener