|MIME / IANA||ISO-8859-8|
|Standard||ISO/IEC 8859-8, SI 1311|
|Classification||extended ASCII, ISO 8859|
|Based on||DEC Hebrew (8-bit), ISO/IEC 8859-1|
|Other related encoding(s)||Windows-1255|
ISO/IEC 8859-8, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 8: Latin/Hebrew alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings. ISO/IEC 8859-8:1999 from 1999 represents its second and current revision, preceded by the first edition ISO/IEC 8859-8:1988 in 1988. It is informally referred to as Latin/Hebrew. ISO/IEC 8859-8 covers all the Hebrew letters, but no Hebrew vowel signs. IBM assigned code page 916 to it. This character set was also adopted by Israeli Standard SI1311:2002, with some extensions.
ISO-8859-8 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. The text is (usually) in logical order, so bidi processing is required for display. Nominally ISO-8859-8 (code page 28598) is for “visual order”, and ISO-8859-8-I (code page 38598) is for logical order. But usually in practice, and required for XML documents, ISO-8859-8 also stands for logical order text. The WHATWG Encoding Standard used by HTML5 treats ISO-8859-8 and ISO-8859-8-I as distinct encodings with the same mapping due to influence on the layout direction, but notes that this no longer applies to ISO-8859-6 (Arabic), only to ISO-8859-8.
There is also ISO-8859-8-E which supposedly requires directionality to be explicitly specified with special control characters; this latter variant is in practice unused.
The Microsoft Windows code page for Hebrew, Windows-1255, is mostly an extension of ISO/IEC 8859-8 without C1 controls, except for the omission of the double underscore, and replacement of the generic currency sign (¤) with the sheqel sign (₪). It adds support for vowel points as combining characters, and some additional punctuation.
Over a decade after the publication of that standard, Unicode is preferred, at least for the Internet (meaning UTF-8, the dominant encoding for web pages). ISO-8859-8 is used by less that 0.1% of websites.
Code page layout
Other UndefinedLetter Number Punctuation Symbol
FD is left-to-right mark (U+200E) and FE is right-to-left mark (U+200F), as specified in a newer amendment as ISO/IEC 8859-8:1999.
2002 Israeli Standard extensions
Israeli Standard SI1311:2002 matches ISO/IEC 8859-8:1999 except for a number of additional character allocations for the Euro sign, New Shekel sign and more advanced explicit bidirectional formatting.
- 8-bit DEC Hebrew (similar DEC code page)
- Code page 1255 (similar Windows code page)
- SI 960
- 7-bit DEC Hebrew
- "IBM Globalization". www.ibm.com. 31 August 2018.
- van Kesteren, Anne. "9. Legacy single-byte encodings". Encoding Standard. WHATWG.
Note: ISO-8859-8 and ISO-8859-8-I are distinct encoding names, because ISO-8859-8 has influence on the layout direction. And although historically this might have been the case for ISO-8859-6 and "ISO-8859-6-I" as well, that is no longer true.
- John, Nicholas A. (2013). "The Construction of the Multilingual Internet: Unicode, Hebrew, and Globalization". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 18 (3): 321–338. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12015. ISSN 1083-6101.
Background: the problem of Hebrew and the Internet
- "Usage Statistics of ISO-8859-8 for Websites, January 2019". w3techs.com. Retrieved 2019-01-17.
- Standards Institution of Israel. "ISO-IR 234: Latin/Hebrew character set for 8-bit codes" (PDF). Information Technology Standards Commission of Japan (ITSCJ/IPSJ).
- ISO/IEC 8859-8:1999
- Revisions of the ECMA standard:
- Standard ECMA-121 - 8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphics Character Sets - Latin/Hebrew Alphabet (PDF) (1 ed.). European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA). July 1987. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- Standard ECMA-121 - 8-Bit Single-Byte Coded Graphics Character Sets - Latin/Hebrew Alphabet (PDF) (2 ed.). European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA). December 2000. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2016-02-15. ()
- Israeli Standard SI1311:2002 (Hebrew)
- ISO-IR registrations:
- From ECMA-121:1987 and following ISO/IEC 8859-8:1988: European Computer Manufacturers Association (1987-07-31). ISO-IR 138 - Latin/Hebrew Alphabet (PDF). Information Technology Standards Commission of Japan (ITSCJ/IPSJ). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
- Following ISO/IEC 8859-8:1999 and ECMA-121:2000: Standards Institution of Israel (1998-05-01). ISO-IR 198 - Latin/Hebrew Alphabet (PDF). Information Technology Standards Commission of Japan (ITSCJ/IPSJ). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
- From SI 1311:2002: Standards Institution of Israel (2004-07-20). ISO-IR 234 - Latin/Hebrew character set for 8-bit codes (PDF). Information Technology Standards Commission of Japan (ITSCJ/IPSJ). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2017-02-15.