Clockwise, from top: Downtown Cleveland skyline; the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame; Fountain of Eternal Life statue; the West Side Market; West Pierhead Lighthouse; FirstEnergy Stadium; the James A. Garfield Memorial; East 4th Street; south entrance to the Cleveland Museum of Art; and one of the eight Guardians of Traffic
Progress & Prosperity
|Founded||July 22, 1796|
|Incorporated||December 23, 1814 (village)|
|March 6, 1836 (city)|
|Named for||Moses Cleaveland|
|• Body||Cleveland City Council|
|• Mayor||Frank G. Jackson (D)|
|• City||82.47 sq mi (213.60 km2)|
|• Land||77.70 sq mi (201.24 km2)|
|• Water||4.77 sq mi (12.35 km2)|
|Elevation||653 ft (199 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||US: 51st|
|• Density||5,107.0/sq mi (1,971.8/km2)|
|• Urban||1,780,673 (US: 25th)|
|• Metro||2,055,612 (US: 32nd)|
|• CSA||3,501,538 (US: 16th)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||1066654|
Cleveland (// KLEEV-lənd) is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County. The city proper has a population of 385,525, making it the 51st-largest city in the United States, and the second-largest city in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the U.S., with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and is ranked 15th in the United States.
The city is on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately 60 miles (100 kilometers) west of the Ohio-Pennsylvania state border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River. It became a manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services, healthcare, and biomedicals. Cleveland is also home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Culture
- 6 Sports
- 7 Parks and gardens
- 8 Law and government
- 9 Education
- 10 Media
- 11 Infrastructure
- 12 Sister cities and international relations
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 External links
Cleveland was named on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city. They named it "Cleaveland" after their leader, General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio. The first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving access to Great Lakes trade.
The area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal. This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected the city to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie Canal and Hudson River, and later via the St. Lawrence Seaway. Its products could reach markets on the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836.
In 1836, the city, then only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854.
The city's prime geographic location as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland serves as a destination for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and business.
Cleveland emerged in the early 20th century as an important American manufacturing center. Its businesses included automotive companies such as Peerless, People's, Jordan, Chandler, and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.S. Other manufacturers in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker. Because of its significant growth, Cleveland was known as the "Sixth City" of the US during this period.
By 1920, due in large part to the city's economic prosperity, Cleveland became the nation's fifth-largest city. The city counted Progressive Era politicians such as the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson among its leaders. Its industrial jobs had attracted waves of European immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, as well as both black and white migrants from the rural South.
In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize the city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, and seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937. The exposition was housed on grounds now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and Burke Lakefront Airport, among others.
Following World War II, Cleveland continued to enjoy a prosperous economy. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, and the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s. As a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was dubbed "City of Champions" in sports at this time.
Businesses proclaimed Cleveland was the "best location in the nation". In 1940, non-Hispanic whites represented 90.2% of Cleveland's population. Wealthy patrons supported development of the city's cultural institutions, such as the art museum and orchestra. The city's population reached its peak of 914,808, and in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time. By the 1960s, the economy slowed, and residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following the subsidized highways.
In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans worked in numerous cities to gain constitutional rights and relief from racial discrimination. As change lagged despite federal laws to enforce rights, social and racial unrest occurred in Cleveland and numerous other industrial cities. In Cleveland, the Hough riots erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966. The Glenville Shootout took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect a black mayor, Carl Stokes (who served from 1968 to 1971).
Industrial restructuring, particularly in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous jobs in Cleveland and the region, and the city suffered economically. In December 1978, Cleveland became the first major American city since the Great Depression to enter into a financial default on federal loans. By the beginning of the 1980s, several factors, including changes in international free trade policies, inflation and the Savings and Loans Crisis, contributed to the recession that severely affected cities like Cleveland.
In the later 20th century, the metropolitan area began a gradual economic recovery under mayors George Voinovich and Michael R. White. Redevelopment within the city limits has been strongest in the downtown area near the Gateway Sports and Entertainment Complex—consisting of Progressive Field and Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse—and near North Coast Harbor, including the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, FirstEnergy Stadium, and the Great Lakes Science Center. Cleveland was hailed in 2007 by local media as the "Comeback City". Economic development of the inner-city neighborhoods and improvement of the school systems have been municipal priorities. In 1999, Cleveland was identified as an emerging global city.
Since the turn of the 21st century, the city has improved infrastructure, developed a more diversified economy, gained a national reputation in medical fields, and invested in the arts. Cleveland is generally considered to be an example of revitalization of an older industrial city. The city's goals include additional neighborhood revitalization and increased funding for public education. In 2009, Cleveland was chosen to host the 2014 Gay Games, the fourth city in the United States to host this international event. On July 8, 2014, Cleveland was chosen to be the host city of the 2016 Republican National Convention.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 82.47 square miles (213.60 km2), of which 77.70 square miles (201.24 km2) is land and 4.77 square miles (12.35 km2) is water. The shore of Lake Erie is 569 feet (173 m) above sea level; however, the city lies on a series of irregular bluffs lying roughly parallel to the lake. In Cleveland these bluffs are cut principally by the Cuyahoga River, Big Creek, and Euclid Creek.
The land rises quickly from the lake shores elevation of 569 feet. Public Square, less than one mile (1.6 km) inland, sits at an elevation of 650 feet (198 m), and Hopkins Airport, 5 miles (8 km) inland from the lake, is at an elevation of 791 feet (241 m).
Cleveland's downtown architecture is diverse. Many of the city's government and civic buildings, including City Hall, the Cuyahoga County Courthouse, the Cleveland Public Library, and Public Auditorium, are clustered around an open mall and share a common neoclassical architecture. Built in the early 20th century, they are the result of the 1903 Group Plan. They constitute one of the most complete examples of City Beautiful design in the United States.
The Terminal Tower, dedicated in 1930, was the tallest building in North America outside New York City until 1964 and the tallest in the city until 1991. It is a prototypical Beaux-Arts skyscraper. The two newer skyscrapers on Public Square, Key Tower (currently the tallest building in Ohio) and the 200 Public Square, combine elements of Art Deco architecture with postmodern designs. Another of Cleveland's architectural treasures is The Arcade (sometimes called the Old Arcade), a five-story arcade built in 1890 and renovated in 2001 as a Hyatt Regency Hotel.
Cleveland's landmark ecclesiastical architecture includes the historic Old Stone Church in downtown Cleveland and the onion domed St. Theodosius Russian Orthodox Cathedral in Tremont, along with myriad ethnically inspired Roman Catholic churches.
Running east from Public Square through University Circle is Euclid Avenue, which was known for its prestige and elegance as a residential street. In the late 1880s, writer Bayard Taylor described it as "the most beautiful street in the world". Known as "Millionaire's Row", Euclid Avenue was world-renowned as the home of such major figures as John D. Rockefeller, Mark Hanna, and John Hay.
Downtown Cleveland is centered on Public Square and includes a wide range of districts. It contains the traditional Financial District and Civic Center, as well as the Cleveland Theater District, which is home to Playhouse Square Center. Mixed-use neighborhoods, such as the Flats and the Warehouse District, are occupied by industrial and office buildings as well as restaurants and bars. The number of downtown housing units, in the form of condominiums, lofts, and apartments, has been on the increase since 2000. Recent developments include the revival of the Flats, the Euclid Corridor Project, and the developments along East 4th Street. Cleveland residents geographically define themselves in terms of whether they live on the east or west side of the Cuyahoga River. The east side includes the neighborhoods of Buckeye-Shaker, Central, Collinwood, Corlett, Euclid-Green, Fairfax, Forest Hills, Glenville, Payne/Goodrich-Kirtland Park, Hough, Kinsman, Lee Harvard/Seville-Miles, Mount Pleasant, Nottingham, St. Clair-Superior, Union-Miles Park, University, Little Italy, and Woodland Hills. The west side includes the neighborhoods of Brooklyn Centre, Clark-Fulton, Detroit-Shoreway, Cudell, Edgewater, Ohio City, Tremont, Old Brooklyn, Stockyards, West Boulevard, and the four neighborhoods colloquially known as West Park: Kamm's Corners, Jefferson, Puritas-Longmead, and Riverside. Three neighborhoods in the Cuyahoga Valley are sometimes referred to as the south side: Industrial Valley/Duck Island, Slavic Village (North and South Broadway), and Tremont.
Several neighborhoods have begun to attract the return of the middle class that left the city for the suburbs in the 1960s and 1970s. These neighborhoods are on both the west side (Ohio City, Tremont, Detroit-Shoreway, and Edgewater) and the east side (Collinwood, Hough, Fairfax, and Little Italy). Much of the growth has been spurred on by attracting creative class members, which in turn is spurring new residential development. Furthermore, a live-work zoning overlay for the city's near east side has facilitated the transformation of old industrial buildings into loft spaces for artists.
Cleveland's older, inner-ring suburbs include Bedford, Bedford Heights, Brook Park, Brooklyn, Brooklyn Heights, Cleveland Heights, Cuyahoga Heights, East Cleveland, Euclid, Fairview Park, Garfield Heights, Lakewood, Linndale, Maple Heights, Newburgh Heights, Parma, Parma Heights, Shaker Heights, Solon, South Euclid, University Heights and Warrensville Heights. Many of the suburbs are members of the Northeast Ohio First Suburbs Consortium.
Typical of the Great Lakes region, Cleveland exhibits a continental climate with four distinct seasons, which lies in the humid continental (Köppen Dfa) zone. Summers are warm and humid while winters are cold and snowy. The Lake Erie shoreline is very close to due east–west from the mouth of the Cuyahoga west to Sandusky, but at the mouth of the Cuyahoga it turns sharply northeast. This feature is the principal contributor to the lake effect snow that is typical in Cleveland (especially on the city's East Side) from mid-November until the surface of Lake Erie freezes, usually in late January or early February. The lake effect also causes a relative differential in geographical snowfall totals across the city: while Hopkins Airport, on the city's far West Side, has only reached 100 inches (254 cm) of snowfall in a season three times since record-keeping for snow began in 1893, seasonal totals approaching or exceeding 100 inches (254 cm) are not uncommon as the city ascends into the Heights on the east, where the region known as the 'Snow Belt' begins. Extending from the city's East Side and its suburbs, the Snow Belt reaches up the Lake Erie shore as far as Buffalo.
The all-time record high in Cleveland of 104 °F (40 °C) was established on June 25, 1988, and the all-time record low of −20 °F (−29 °C) was set on January 19, 1994. On average, July is the warmest month with a mean temperature of 73.5 °F (23.1 °C), and January, with a mean temperature of 28.1 °F (−2.2 °C), is the coldest. Normal yearly precipitation based on the 30-year average from 1981 to 2010 is 39.1 inches (990 mm). The least precipitation occurs on the western side and directly along the lake, and the most occurs in the eastern suburbs. Parts of Geauga County to the east receive over 44 inches (1,100 mm) of liquid precipitation annually.
|Climate data for Cleveland (Cleveland Airport), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1871–present[note 1]|
|Record high °F (°C)||73 |
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||56.9 |
|Average high °F (°C)||34.4 |
|Average low °F (°C)||21.7 |
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||0.0 |
|Record low °F (°C)||−20 |
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.72 |
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||18.7 |
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||17.1||13.9||14.2||14.4||13.2||11.1||10.3||9.8||10.0||11.4||13.5||16.0||154.9|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||13.5||10.1||7.5||2.3||0||0||0||0||0||0.2||3.3||10.0||46.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||73.3||73.0||70.4||66.1||67.3||69.0||69.8||73.1||73.7||70.8||71.9||74.1||71.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||101.0||122.3||167.0||216.0||263.6||294.6||307.2||262.2||219.0||169.5||89.8||67.8||2,280|
|Percent possible sunshine||34||41||45||54||59||65||67||61||59||49||30||24||51|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)|
|Black or African American||53.3%||46.6%||16.2%||1.6%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||10.0%||4.6%||n/a||n/a|
As of the census of 2010, there were 396,698 people, 167,490 households, and 89,821 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,107.0 inhabitants per square mile (1,971.8/km2). There were 207,536 housing units at an average density of 2,671.0 per square mile (1,031.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 53.3% African American, 37.3% White, 0.3% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 4.4% from other races, and 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.0% of the population.
There were 167,490 households of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 22.4% were married couples living together, 25.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 46.4% were non-families. 39.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.11.
The median age in the city was 35.7 years. 24.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 11% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.1% were from 25 to 44; 26.3% were from 45 to 64; and 12% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.0% male and 52.0% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 478,403 people, 190,638 households, and 111,904 families residing in the city. The population density was 6,166.5 inhabitants per square mile (2,380.9/km2). There were 215,856 housing units at an average density of 2,782.4 per square mile (1,074.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 51.0% African American, 41.5% White, 0.3% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 3.6% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latinos of any race were 7.3% of the population. Ethnic groups include Germans (15.2%), Irish (10.9%), English (8.7%), Italian (5.6%), Poles (3.2%), and French (3.0%). Out of the total population, 4.5% were foreign born; of which 41.2% were born in Europe, 29.1% Asia, 22.4% Latin American, 5.0% Africa, and 1.9% Northern America.
There are also substantial communities of Slovaks, Hungarians, French, Slovenes, Czechs, Ukrainians, Arabs, Dutch, Scottish, Russian, Scotch Irish, Croats, Macedonians, Puerto Ricans, West Indians, Romanians, Lithuanians, and Greeks. The presence of Hungarians within Cleveland proper was, at one time, so great the city boasted the highest concentration of Hungarians in the world outside of Budapest. The availability of jobs attracted African Americans from the South. Between 1920 and 1960, the black population of Cleveland increased from 35,000 to 251,000.
Out of 190,638 households, 29.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.5% were married couples living together, 24.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.3% were nonfamilies. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.19. The age distribution of the population shows 28.5% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was US$25,928, and the median income for a family was $30,286. Males had a median income of $30,610 versus $24,214 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,291. 26.3% of the population and 22.9% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 37.6% of those under the age of 18 and 16.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
As of 2010[update], 88.4% (337,658) of Cleveland residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 7.1% (27,262) spoke Spanish, 0.6% (2,200) Arabic, and 0.5% (1,960) Chinese. In addition 0.9% (3,364) spoke a Slavic language (1,279 – Polish, 679 Serbo-Croatian, and 485 Russian). In total, 11.6% (44,148) of Cleveland's population age 5 and older spoke another language other than English.
Cleveland's location on the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie has been key to its growth. The Ohio and Erie Canal coupled with rail links helped the city become an important business center. Steel and many other manufactured goods emerged as leading industries.
The city diversified its economy in addition to its manufacturing sector. Cleveland is home to the corporate headquarters of many large companies such as Applied Industrial Technologies, Cliffs Natural Resources, Forest City Enterprises, NACCO Industries, Sherwin-Williams Company, and KeyCorp. NASA maintains a facility in Cleveland, the Glenn Research Center. Jones Day, one of the largest law firms in the U.S., was founded in Cleveland. In 2007, Cleveland's commercial real estate market experienced rebound with a record pace of purchases, with a housing vacancy of 10%.
The Cleveland Clinic is the city's largest private employer with a workforce of over 37,000 as of 2008[update]. It carries the distinction as being among America's best hospitals with top ratings published in U.S. News & World Report. Cleveland's healthcare sector also includes University Hospitals of Cleveland, a renowned center for cancer treatment, MetroHealth medical center, and the insurance company Medical Mutual of Ohio. Cleveland is also noted in the fields of biotechnology and fuel cell research, led by Case Western Reserve University, the Cleveland Clinic, and University Hospitals of Cleveland. The city is among the top recipients of investment for biotech start-ups and research. Case Western Reserve, the Clinic, and University Hospitals have recently announced plans to build a large biotechnology research center and incubator on the site of the former Mount Sinai Hospital, creating a research campus to stimulate biotech startup companies that can be spun off from research conducted in the city.
City leaders promoted growth of the technology sector in the first decade of the 21st century. Mayor Jane L. Campbell appointed a "tech czar" to recruit technology companies to the downtown office market, offering connections to the high-speed fiber networks that run underneath downtown streets in several "high-tech offices" focused on the Euclid Avenue area. Cleveland State University hired a technology transfer officer to cultivate technology transfers from CSU research to marketable ideas and companies in the Cleveland area. Also, they appointed a vice president for economic development.
Cleveland is home to Playhouse Square Center, the second largest performing arts center in the United States behind New York City's Lincoln Center. Playhouse Square includes the State, Palace, Allen, Hanna, and Ohio theaters within what is known as the Cleveland Theater District. Playhouse Square's resident performing arts companies include Cleveland Play House, Cleveland State University Department of Theatre and Dance, and Great Lakes Theater Festival. The center hosts Broadway musicals, special concerts, speaking engagements, and other events throughout the year.
One Playhouse Square, now the headquarters for Cleveland's public broadcasters, was initially used as the broadcast studios of WJW (AM), where disc jockey Alan Freed first popularized the term "rock and roll". Cleveland gained a strong reputation in rock music in the 1960s and 70s as a key breakout market for nationally promoted acts and performers. The city hosted the "World Series of Rock" at Cleveland Municipal Stadium, which was notable high-attendance events. Located between Playhouse Square and University Circle is Karamu House, the oldest African-American theater in the United States, founded in the 1920s.
Cleveland is home to The Cleveland Orchestra, widely considered one of the world's finest orchestras, and often referred to as the finest in the United States. It is one of the "Big Five" major orchestras in the United States. The Orchestra plays at Severance Hall in University Circle during the winter and at Blossom Music Center in Cuyahoga Falls during the summer. The city is also home to the Cleveland Pops Orchestra, the Cleveland Youth Orchestra, the Contemporary Youth Orchestra the Cleveland Youth Wind Symphony, and the biennial Cleveland International Piano Competition which has, in the past, often featured The Cleveland Orchestra.
The city also has a history of polka music being popular both past and present, even having a subgenre called Cleveland-style polka named after the city, and is home to the Polka Hall of Fame. This is due in part to the success of Frankie Yankovic who was a Cleveland native and was considered the America's Polka King and the square at the intersection of Waterloo Rd. and East 152nd St. in Cleveland ( ), not far from where Yankovic grew up, was named in his honor.
There are two main art museums in Cleveland. The Cleveland Museum of Art is a major American art museum, with a collection that includes more than 40,000 works of art ranging over 6,000 years, from ancient masterpieces to contemporary pieces. Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland showcases established and emerging artists, particularly from the Cleveland area, through hosting and producing temporary exhibitions.
The Gordon Square Arts District on Detroit Avenue, in the Detroit-Shoreway neighborhood, is the location of the Capitol Theatre and an Off-Off-Broadway Playhouse, the Cleveland Public Theatre. Each spring, the campus of Cleveland State University hosts the Cleveland Thyagaraja Festival, the largest South Indian classical music festival next to Chennai's December Season.
Film and television
Players from the 1948 Cleveland Indians, winners of the World Series, appear in The Kid from Cleveland (1949). Cleveland Municipal Stadium features prominently in both that film and The Fortune Cookie (1966); written and directed by Billy Wilder, the picture marked Walter Matthau and Jack Lemmon's first on-screen collaboration and features gameday footage of the 1965 Cleveland Browns. Director Jules Dassin's first American film in nearly twenty years, Up Tight! (1968) is set in Cleveland immediately following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. Set in 1930s Cleveland, Sylvester Stallone leads a local labor union in F.I.S.T. (1978). Paul Simon chose Cleveland as the opening for his only venture into filmmaking, One-Trick Pony (1980); He spent six weeks filming concert scenes at the Cleveland Agora. The boxing-match-turned-riot near the start of Raging Bull (1980) takes place at the Cleveland Arena in 1941. Clevelander Jim Jarmusch's critically acclaimed and independently produced Stranger Than Paradise (1984)—a deadpan comedy about two New Yorkers who travel to Florida by way of Cleveland—was a favorite of the Cannes Film Festival, winning the Caméra d'Or. The cult-classic mockumentary This Is Spinal Tap (1984) includes a memorable scene where the parody band gets lost backstage just before performing at a Cleveland rock concert (origin of the phrase "Hello, Cleveland!"). Howard the Duck (1986), George Lucas' heavily criticized adaptation of the Marvel comic of the same name, begins with the title character crashing into Cleveland after drifting in outer space. Michael J. Fox and Joan Jett play the sibling leads of a Cleveland rock group in Light of Day (1987); directed by Paul Schrader, much of the film was shot in the city. Both Major League (1989) and Major League II (1994) reflected the actual perennial struggles of the Cleveland Indians during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Kevin Bacon stars in Telling Lies in America (1997), the semi-autobiographical tale of Clevelander Joe Eszterhas, a former reporter for The Plain Dealer. Cleveland serves as the setting for fictitious insurance giant Great Benefit in The Rainmaker (1997); in the film, Key Tower doubles as the firm's main headquarters. A group of Cleveland teenagers try to scam their way into a Kiss concert in Detroit Rock City (1999), and several key scenes from director Cameron Crowe's Almost Famous (2000) are set in Cleveland. Antwone Fisher (2002) recounts the real-life story of the Cleveland native. Brothers Joe and Anthony Russo—native Clevelanders and Case Western Reserve University alumni—filmed their comedy Welcome to Collinwood (2002) entirely on location in the city. American Splendor (2003)—the biographical film of Harvey Pekar, author of the autobiographical comic of the same name—was also filmed on location throughout Cleveland, as was The Oh in Ohio (2006). Much of The Rocker (2008) is set in the city, and Cleveland native Nathaniel Ayers' life story is told in The Soloist (2009). Kill the Irishman (2011) follows the real-life turf war in 1970s Cleveland between Irish mobster Danny Greene and the Cleveland crime family. More recently, the teenage comedy Fun Size (2012) takes place in and around Cleveland on Halloween night, and the film Draft Day (2014) followed Kevin Costner as general manager for the Cleveland Browns.
Cleveland has often doubled for other locations in the film. The wedding and reception scenes in The Deer Hunter (1978), while set in the small Pittsburgh suburb of Clairton, were shot in the Cleveland neighborhood of Tremont; U.S. Steel also permitted the production to film in one of its Cleveland mills. Francis Ford Coppola produced The Escape Artist (1982), much of which was shot in Downtown Cleveland near City Hall and the Cuyahoga County Courthouse, as well as the Flats. A Christmas Story (1983) was set in Indiana, but drew many of its external shots—including the Parker family home—from Cleveland. Much of Double Dragon (1994) and Happy Gilmore (1996) were also shot in Cleveland, and the opening shots of Air Force One (1997) were filmed in and above Severance Hall. A complex chase scene in Spider-Man 3 (2007), though set in New York City, was filmed along Cleveland's Euclid Avenue. Downtown's East 9th Street also doubled for New York in the climax of The Avengers (2012); in addition, the production shot on Cleveland's Public Square as a fill-in for Stuttgart, Germany. More recently, Jackass Presents: Bad Grandpa (2013), Miss Meadows (2014) and Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014) each filmed in Cleveland. Future productions in the Cleveland area are the responsibility of the Greater Cleveland Film Commission.
In television, the city is the setting for the popular network sitcom The Drew Carey Show, starring Cleveland native Drew Carey. Real-life crime series Cops, Crime 360, and The First 48 regularly film in Cleveland and other U.S. cities. Hot in Cleveland, a comedy airing on TV Land, premiered on June 16, 2010. Later episodes of the reality show Keeping Up With the Kardashians have been partially filmed in Cleveland, after series star Khloe Kardashian began a relationship with Cleveland Cavaliers center Tristan Thompson.
The American modernist poet Hart Crane was born in nearby Garrettsville, Ohio in 1899. His adolescence was divided between Cleveland and Akron before he moved to New York City in 1916. Aside from factory work during the first world war, he served as reporter to The Plain Dealer for a short period, before achieving recognition in the Modernist literary scene. A diminutive memorial park is dedicated to Crane along the left bank of the Cuyahoga in Cleveland. In University Circle, a historical marker sits at the location of his Cleveland childhood house on E. 115 near the Euclid Ave intersection. On Case Western Reserve University campus, a statue of him stands behind the Kelvin Smith Library.
Langston Hughes, preeminent poet of the Harlem Renaissance and child of an itinerant couple, lived in Cleveland as a teenager and attended Central High School in Cleveland in the 1910s. He wrote for the school newspaper and started writing his earlier plays, poems and short stories while living in Cleveland. The African-American avant garde poet Russell Atkins also lived in Cleveland.
Cleveland was the home of Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel, who created the comic book character Superman in 1932. Both attended Glenville High School, and their early collaborations resulted in the creation of "The Man of Steel". D. A. Levy wrote: "Cleveland: The Rectal Eye Visions". Mystery author Richard Montanari's first three novels, Deviant Way, The Violet Hour, and Kiss of Evil are set in Cleveland. Mystery writer, Les Roberts's Milan Jacovich series is also set in Cleveland. Author and Ohio resident, James Renner set his debut novel, The Man from Primrose Lane in present-day Cleveland.
Harlan Ellison, noted author of speculative fiction, was born in Cleveland in 1934; his family subsequently moved to the nearby suburb of Painesville, though Ellison moved back to Cleveland in 1949. As a youngster, he published a series of short stories appearing in the Cleveland News; he also performed in a number of productions for the Cleveland Play House.
The Cleveland State University Poetry Center serves as an academic center for poetry. Cleveland continues to have a thriving literary and poetry community, with regular poetry readings at bookstores, coffee shops, and various other venues.
Cleveland is the site of the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award, established by poet and philanthropist Edith Anisfield Wolf in 1935, which recognizes books that have made important contributions to understanding of racism and human diversity. Presented by the Cleveland Foundation, it remains the only American book prize focusing on works that address racism and diversity. In an early Gay and lesbian studies anthology titled Lavender Culture, a short piece by John Kelsey "The Cleveland Bar Scene in the Forties" discusses the gay and lesbian culture in Cleveland and the unique experiences of amateur female impersonators that existed alongside the New York and San Francisco LGBT subcultures.
Cleveland's melting pot of immigrant groups and their various culinary traditions have long played an important role in defining the local cuisine. Examples of these can particularly be found in neighborhoods such as Little Italy, Slavic Village, and Tremont.
Local mainstays of Cleveland's cuisine include an abundance of Polish and Central European contributions, such as kielbasa, stuffed cabbage and pierogies. Cleveland also has plenty of corned beef, with nationally renowned Slyman's, on the near East Side, a perennial winner of various accolades from Esquire Magazine, including being named the best corned beef sandwich in America in 2008. Other famed sandwiches include the Cleveland original, Polish Boy, a local favorite found at many BBQ and Soul food restaurants. With its blue-collar roots well intact, and plenty of Lake Erie perch available, the tradition of Friday night fish fries remains alive and thriving in Cleveland, particularly in church-based settings and during the season of Lent. Ohio City is home to a growing brewery district, which includes Great Lakes Brewing Company (Ohio's oldest microbrewery); Market Garden Brewery next to the historic West Side Market and Platform Beer Company.
Cleveland is noted in the world of celebrity food culture. Famous local figures include chef Michael Symon and food writer Michael Ruhlman, both of whom achieved local and national attentions for their contributions in the culinary world. On November 11, 2007, Symon helped gain the spotlight when he was named "The Next Iron Chef" on the Food Network. In 2007, Ruhlman collaborated with Anthony Bourdain, to do an episode of his Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations focusing on Cleveland's restaurant scene.
The national food press—including publications Gourmet, Food & Wine, Esquire and Playboy—has heaped praise on several Cleveland spots for awards including 'best new restaurant', 'best steakhouse', 'best farm-to-table programs' and 'great new neighborhood eateries'. In early 2008, the Chicago Tribune ran a feature article in its 'Travel' section proclaiming Cleveland, America's "hot new dining city".
Five miles (8.0 km) east of downtown Cleveland is University Circle, a 550-acre (2.2 km2) concentration of cultural, educational, and medical institutions, including the Cleveland Botanical Garden, Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Severance Hall, the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, and the Western Reserve Historical Society. A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Cleveland 17th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities. Cleveland is home to the I. M. Pei-designed Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on the Lake Erie waterfront at North Coast Harbor downtown. Neighboring attractions include Cleveland Browns Stadium, the Great Lakes Science Center, the Steamship Mather Museum, and the USS Cod, a World War II submarine. Cleveland has an attraction for visitors and fans of A Christmas Story: A Christmas Story House and Museum to see props, costumes, rooms, photos and other materials related to the Jean Shepherd film.
Cleveland is home to many festivals throughout the year. Cultural festivals such as the annual Feast of the Assumption in the Little Italy neighborhood, the Harvest Festival in the Slavic Village neighborhood, and the more recent Cleveland Asian Festival in the Asia Town neighborhood are popular events. Vendors at the West Side Market in Ohio City offer many ethnic foods for sale. Cleveland hosts an annual parade on Saint Patrick's Day that brings hundreds of thousands to the streets of downtown.
Fashion Week Cleveland, the city's annual fashion event, is the third-largest fashion show of its kind in the United States. In addition to the cultural festivals, Cleveland hosted the CMJ Rock Hall Music Fest, which featured national and local acts, including both established artists and up-and-coming acts, but the festival was discontinued in 2007 due to financial and manpower costs to the Rock Hall. The annual Ingenuity Fest, Notacon and TEDxCLE conference focus on the combination of art and technology. The Cleveland International Film Festival has been held annually since 1977, and it drew a record 66,476 people in March 2009. Cleveland also hosts an annual holiday display lighting and celebration, dubbed Winterfest, which is held downtown at the city's historic hub, Public Square.
Cleveland also has the Jack Cleveland Casino. Phase I opened on May 14, 2012, on Public Square, in the historic former Higbee's Building at Tower City Center. Phase II will open along the bend of the Cuyahoga River behind Tower City Center.
Cleveland's current major professional sports teams include the Cleveland Indians (Major League Baseball), Cleveland Browns (National Football League), and Cleveland Cavaliers (National Basketball Association). Local sporting facilities include Progressive Field, FirstEnergy Stadium, Quicken Loans Arena and the Wolstein Center.
The Cleveland Indians won the World Series in 1920 and 1948. They also won the American League pennant, making the World Series in the 1954, 1995, 1997, and 2016 seasons. Between 1995 and 2001, Progressive Field (then known as Jacobs Field) sold out 455 consecutive games, a Major League Baseball record until it was broken in 2008.
Historically, the Browns have been among the winningest franchises in American football history winning eight titles during a short period of time—1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1954, 1955, and 1964. The Browns have never played in a Super Bowl, getting close five times by making it to the NFL/AFC Championship Game in 1968, 1969, 1986, 1987, and 1989. Former owner Art Modell's relocation of the Browns after the 1995 season (to Baltimore creating the Ravens), caused tremendous heartbreak and resentment among local fans. Cleveland mayor, Michael R. White, worked with the NFL and Commissioner Paul Tagliabue to bring back the Browns beginning in 1999 season, retaining all team history. In earlier NFL history, the Cleveland Bulldogs won the NFL Championship in 1924, and the Cleveland Rams won the NFL Championship in 1945 before relocating to Los Angeles.
The Cavaliers won the Eastern Conference in 2007, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 but were defeated in the NBA Finals by the San Antonio Spurs and then by the Golden State Warriors, respectively. The Cavs won the Conference again in 2016 and won their first NBA Championship coming back from a 3–1 deficit, finally defeating the Golden State Warriors. Afterwards, an estimated 1.3 million people attended a parade held in the Cavs honor on June 22, 2016. This was the first time the city had planned for a championship parade in 50 years. Basketball, the Cleveland Rosenblums dominated the original American Basketball League winning three of the first five championships (1926, 1929, 1930), and the Cleveland Pipers, owned by George Steinbrenner, won the American Basketball League championship in 1962.
A notable Cleveland athlete is Jesse Owens, who grew up in the city after moving from Alabama when he was nine. He participated in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, where he achieved international fame by winning four gold medals. A statue commemorating his achievement can be found in Downtown Cleveland at Fort Washington Park.
Cleveland State University alum and area native, Stipe Miocic, won the UFC World Heavyweight Championship at UFC 198 in 2016. Miocic has defended his World Heavyweight Champion title at UFC 203, the first ever UFC World Championship fight held in the city of Cleveland, and again at UFC 211 and UFC 220.
Collegiately, NCAA Division I Cleveland State Vikings have 16 varsity sports, nationally known for their Cleveland State Vikings men's basketball team. NCAA Division III Case Western Reserve Spartans have 19 varsity sports, most known for their Case Western Reserve Spartans football team. The headquarters of the Mid-American Conference (MAC) are in Cleveland. The conference also stages both its men's and women's basketball tournaments at Quicken Loans Arena.
Several chess championships have taken place in Cleveland. The second American Chess Congress, a predecessor the current U.S. Championship, was held in 1871, and won by George Henry Mackenzie. The 1921 and 1957 U.S. Open Chess Championship also took place in the city, and were won by Edward Lasker and Bobby Fischer, respectively. The Cleveland Open is currently held annually.
The Cleveland Marathon has been hosted annually since 1978.
Parks and gardens
Cleveland is home to four of the parks in the countywide Cleveland Metroparks system, as well as the: Washington Park, Brookside Park and parts of the Rocky River and Washington Reservations. Known locally as the "Emerald Necklace", the Olmsted-inspired Metroparks encircle Cuyahoga county. Included in the system is the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. Located in Big Creek valley, the zoo contains one of the largest collection of primates in North America. In addition to the Metroparks system, the Cleveland Lakefront State Park district provides public access to Lake Erie. This cooperative between the City of Cleveland and the State of Ohio contains six parks: Edgewater Park, on the city's near west side between the Shoreway and the lake; East 55th Street Marina, Euclid Beach Park and Gordon Park. The Cleveland Public Parks District is the municipal body that oversees the city's neighborhood parks, the largest of which is the historic Rockefeller Park, notable for its late-19th century historical landmark bridges and Cultural Gardens.
Law and government
Cleveland's position as a center of manufacturing established it as a hotbed of union activity early in its history. While other parts of Ohio, particularly Cincinnati and the southern portion of the state, have historically supported the Republican Party, Cleveland commonly breeds the strongest support in the state for the Democrats. At the local level, elections are nonpartisan. However, Democrats still dominate every level of government. Cleveland is split between two congressional districts. Most of the western part of the city is in the 9th District, represented by Marcy Kaptur. Most of the eastern part of the city, as well as most of downtown, is in the 11th District, represented by Marcia Fudge. Both are Democrats.
During the 2004 Presidential election, although George W. Bush carried Ohio by 2.1%, John Kerry carried Cuyahoga County 66.6%–32.9%, his largest margin in any Ohio county. The city of Cleveland supported Kerry over Bush by the even larger margin of 83.3%–15.8%.
The city of Cleveland operates on the mayor–council (strong mayor) form of government. The mayor is the chief executive of the city, and the office has been held by Frank G. Jackson since 2006. Previous mayors of Cleveland include progressive Democrat Tom L. Johnson, World War I era War Secretary and founder of BakerHostetler law firm Newton D. Baker, United States Supreme Court Justice Harold Hitz Burton, Republican Senator George V. Voinovich, two-term Ohio Governor and Senator, former United States Representative Dennis Kucinich of Ohio's 10th congressional district, Frank J. Lausche, and Carl B. Stokes, the first African American mayor of a major American city. The state of Ohio lost two Congressional seats as a result of the 2010 Census, which affects Cleveland's districts in the northeast part of the state.
Between about 1935 to 1938, the Cleveland Torso Murderer killed and dismembered at least a dozen and perhaps twenty people in the area. No arrest was ever made.
From 2002 to 2013, Ariel Castro held three women as sex slaves in his home in Cleveland. Police became aware of the crime when one of the women escaped. Castro was sentenced to one thousand years in jail, but committed suicide.
Based on the Morgan Quitno Press 2008 national crime rankings, Cleveland ranked as the 7th most dangerous city in the nation among US cities with a population of 100,000 to 500,000 and the 11th most dangerous overall. Violent crime from 2005 to 2006 was mostly unchanged nationwide, but increased more than 10% in Cleveland. The murder rate dropped 30% in Cleveland, but was still far above the national average. Property crime from 2005 to 2006 was virtually unchanged across the country and in Cleveland, with larceny-theft down by 7% but burglaries up almost 14%.
In September 2009, the local police arrested Anthony Sowell, who was known in press reports as the Cleveland Strangler. He was convicted of eleven murders as well as other crimes and sentenced to death.
In October 2010, Cleveland had two neighborhoods appear on ABC News's list of 'America's 25 Most Dangerous Neighborhoods': both in sections just blocks apart in the city's Central neighborhood on the East Side. Ranked 21st was in the vicinity of Quincy Avenue and E. 40th Streets, while an area near E. 55th and Scovill Avenue ranked 2nd in the nation, just behind a section of the Englewood neighborhood in Chicago, which ranked 1st.
A study in 1971–72 found that although Cleveland's crime rate was significantly lower than other large urban areas, most Cleveland residents feared crime. In the 1980s, gang activity was on the rise, associated with crack cocaine. A task force was formed and was partially successful at reducing gang activity by a combination of removing gang-related graffiti and educating news sources to not name gangs in news reporting.
The distribution of crime in Cleveland is highly heterogeneous. Relatively few crimes take place in downtown Cleveland's business district, but the perception of crime in the downtown has been pointed to by the Greater Cleveland Growth Association (now the Greater Cleveland Partnership ) as damaging to the city's economy. More affluent areas of Cleveland and its suburbs have lower rates of violent crime than areas of lower socioeconomic status. A study, published online in 2006, pointed to higher incidences of violent crimes in some parts of Cleveland with higher populations of African Americans in 1990. A study of the relationship between employment access and crime in Cleveland found a strong inverse relationship, with the highest crime rates in areas of the city that had the lowest access to jobs. Furthermore, this relationship was found to be strongest with respect to economic crimes. A study of public housing in Cleveland found criminals tend to live in areas of higher affluence and move into areas of lower affluence to commit crimes.
In 2012, Cleveland's crime rate were 84 murders, 3,252 robberies, and 9,740 burglaries. In 2014, the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) published a report that investigated the use of force by the Cleveland Police Department from 2010 to 2013. The Justice Department found a pattern of excessive force including the use of firearms, tasers, fists, and chemical spray that unnecessarily escalated nonviolent situations, including against the mentally ill and people who were already restrained. As a result of the Justice Department report, the city of Cleveland has agreed to a consent decree to revise its policies and implement new independent oversight over the police force.
On May 26, 2015, the City of Cleveland and the DOJ released a 105-page agreement addressing concerns about Cleveland Division of Police (CDP) use-of-force policies and practices.
Consent decree with Department of Justice
The agreement follows a two-year Department of Justice investigation, prompted by a request from Cleveland Mayor Frank Jackson, to determine whether the CDP engaged in a pattern or practice of the use of excessive force in violation of the Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution and the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (1994), 42 U.S.C § 14141 (Section 14141"). Under Section 14141, the Department of Justice is granted authority to seek declaratory or equitable relief to remedy a pattern or practice of conduct by law enforcement officers that deprives individuals of rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution or federal law.
U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder and U.S. Attorney Steven Dettelbach announced the findings of the DOJ investigation in Cleveland on December 4, 2014. After reviewing nearly 600 use-of-force incidents from 2010 to 2013 and conducting thousands of interviews, the investigators found systemic patterns, insufficient accountability mechanisms, inadequate training, ineffective policies, and inadequate community engagement.
At the same time as the announcement of the investigation findings, the City of Cleveland and the Department of Justice issued a Joint Statement of Principles agreeing to begin negotiations with the intention of reaching a court-enforceable settlement agreement.
The details of the settlement agreement, or consent decree, were released on May 26, 2015. The agreement mandates sweeping changes in training for recruits and seasoned officers, developing programs to identify and support troubled officers, updating technology and data management practices, and an independent monitor to ensure the decree's goals are met. The agreement is not an admission or evidence of liability, nor is it an admission by the city, CDP, or its officers and employees that they have engaged in unconstitutional, illegal, or otherwise improper activities or conduct. Pending approval from a federal judge, the consent decree will be implemented and the agreement is binding.
At least some of the provisions have been identified as unique to Cleveland:
- a civilian inspector general who will review the work of the police officers. This position will be appointed by the Mayor but report to the Police Chief. It is intended to provide an additional layer of accountability and scrutiny.
- an equipment inventory that must result in a study by the police that shows what is needed.
On June 12, 2015, Chief U.S. District Judge Solomon Oliver Jr. approved and signed the consent decree. The signing of the agreement starts the clock for numerous deadlines that must be met in an effort to improve the department's handling of use-of-force incidents.
|Established||April 9, 1863|
|Fire chief||Angelo Calvillo|
|EMS level||First Responder BLS|
|Facilities and equipment|
Cleveland is served by the firefighters of the Cleveland Division of Fire. The fire department operates out of 22 active fire stations throughout the city in five battalions. Each Battalion is commanded by a Battalion Chief, who reports to an on-duty Assistant Chief.
The Division of Fire operates a fire apparatus fleet of twenty-two engine companies, eight ladder companies, three tower companies, two task force rescue squad companies, hazardous materials ("haz-mat") unit, and numerous other special, support, and reserve units. The current Chief of Department is Patrick Kelly.
Cleveland EMS is operated by the city as its own municipal third-service EMS division. Cleveland EMS is the primary provider of Advanced Life Support and ambulance transport within the city of Cleveland, while Cleveland Fire assists by providing fire response medical care. Although a merger between the fire and EMS departments was proposed in the past, the idea was subsequently abandonded.
The Cleveland Metropolitan School District is the largest K–12 district in the state of Ohio, with 127 schools and an enrollment of 55,567 students during the 2006–2007 academic year. It is the only district in Ohio under direct control of the mayor, who appoints a school board.
Approximately 1 square mile (2.6 km2) of Cleveland, adjacent the Shaker Square neighborhood, is part of the Shaker Heights City School District. The area, which has been a part of the Shaker school district since the 1920s, permits these Cleveland residents to pay the same school taxes as the Shaker residents, as well as vote in the Shaker school board elections.
Private and Parochial Schools
- Benedictine High School
- Birchwood School
- Cleveland Central Catholic High School
- Eleanor Gerson School
- Montessori High School at University Circle
- St. Ignatius High School
- St. Joseph Academy
- Villa Angela-St. Joseph High School
- Urban Community School
- Saint Martin de Porres
- The Bridge Avenue School
Colleges and universities
Cleveland is home to a number of colleges and universities. Most prominent among these is Case Western Reserve University, a world-renowned research and teaching institution in University Circle. A private university with several prominent graduate programs, CWRU was ranked 42nd in the nation in 2019 by U.S. News & World Report. University Circle also contains Cleveland Institute of Art and the Cleveland Institute of Music. Cleveland State University (CSU), based in Downtown Cleveland, is the city's public four-year university. In addition to CSU, downtown hosts the metropolitan campus of Cuyahoga Community College, the county's two-year higher education institution. Ohio Technical College is also based in Cleveland.
Cleveland's primary daily newspaper is The Plain Dealer. Defunct major newspapers include the Cleveland Press, an afternoon publication which printed its last edition on June 17, 1982; and the Cleveland News, which ceased publication in 1960. Additional newspaper coverage includes: The Morning Journal, which serves suburbs bordering directly on the western Cleveland border; the News-Herald which serves the smaller suburbs in the east side; the Thursdays-only Sun Post-Herald, which serves a few neighborhoods on the city's west side; and the Call and Post, a weekly newspaper that primarily serves the city's African-American community. The city is also served by Cleveland Magazine, a regional culture magazine published monthly; Crain's Cleveland Business, a weekly business newspaper; Cleveland Jewish News, a weekly Jewish newspaper; and Cleveland Scene, a free alternative weekly paper which absorbed its competitor, the Cleveland Free Times, in 2008. In addition, nationally distributed rock magazine Alternative Press was founded in Cleveland in 1985, and the publication's headquarters remain in the city.
Combined with nearby Akron and Canton, Cleveland is ranked as the 19th-largest television market by Nielsen Media Research (as of 2013[update]–14). The market is served by 10 full power stations, including: WEWS-TV (ABC), WJW (Fox), WKYC (NBC), WOIO (CBS), WVIZ (PBS), WUAB (The CW), WVPX-TV (Ion), WQHS-DT (Univision), WDLI-TV (Ion Life), and the independent WBNX-TV.
The Mike Douglas Show, a nationally syndicated daytime talk show, began in Cleveland in 1961 on KYW-TV (now WKYC), while The Morning Exchange on WEWS-TV served as the model for Good Morning America. Tim Conway and Ernie Anderson first established themselves in Cleveland while working together at KYW-TV and later WJW-TV (now WJW). Anderson both created and performed as the immensely popular Cleveland horror host Ghoulardi on WJW-TV's Shock Theater, and was later succeeded by the long-running late night duo Big Chuck and Lil' John.
Cleveland is directly served by 31 AM and FM radio stations, 22 of which are licensed to the city. Commercial FM music stations are frequently the highest rated stations in the market: WAKS (contemporary hit radio), WDOK (adult contemporary), WENZ (mainstream urban), WHLK (adult hits), WGAR-FM (country), WMJI (classic hits), WMMS (active rock/hot talk), WNCX (classic rock), WQAL (hot adult contemporary), and WZAK (urban adult contemporary). WCPN public radio functions as the local NPR affiliate, and sister station WCLV airs a classical music format. College radio stations include WBWC (Baldwin Wallace University), WCSB (Cleveland State University), WJCU (John Carroll University), and WRUW-FM (Case Western Reserve University).
News/talk station WTAM serves as the AM flagship for both the Cleveland Cavaliers and Cleveland Indians. WKNR and WWGK cover sports via ESPN Radio, while WKRK-FM covers sports via CBS Sports Radio (WKNR and WKRK-FM are also co-flagship stations for the Cleveland Browns). As WJW (AM), WKNR was once the home of Alan Freed − the Cleveland disc jockey credited with first using and popularizing the term "rock and roll" to describe the music genre. News/talk station WHK was one of the first radio stations to broadcast in the United States and the first in Ohio; its former sister station, rock station WMMS, dominated Cleveland radio in the 1970s and 1980s and was at that time one of the highest rated radio stations in the country. In 1972, WMMS program director Billy Bass coined the phrase "The Rock and Roll Capital of the World" to describe Cleveland. In 1987, Playboy named WMMS DJ Kid Leo (Lawrence Travagliante) "The Best Disc Jockey in the Country".
Cleveland is home to several major hospital systems, two of which are in University Circle. Most notable is the world renowned Cleveland Clinic, which is supplemented by University Hospitals and its Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital. Additionally MetroHealth System, which operates the level one trauma center for northeast Ohio, has various locations throughout greater Cleveland. Cleveland's Global Center for Health Innovation opened with 235,000 square feet (21,800 m2) of display space for healthcare companies across the world.
The city of Cleveland has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. In 2016, 23.7 percent of Cleveland households lacked a car, while the national average was 8.7 percent. Cleveland averaged 1.19 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.
Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is the city's major airport and an international airport that served as a main hub for United Airlines. It holds the distinction of having the first airport-to-downtown rapid transit connection in North America, established in 1968. In 1930, the airport was the site of the first airfield lighting system and the first air traffic control tower. Originally known as Cleveland Municipal Airport, it was the first municipally owned airport in the country. Cleveland Hopkins is a significant regional air freight hub hosting FedEx Express, UPS Airlines, United States Postal Service, and major commercial freight carriers. In addition to Hopkins, Cleveland is served by Burke Lakefront Airport, on the north shore of downtown between Lake Erie and the Shoreway. Burke is primarily a commuter and business airport.
Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Cleveland, via the Capitol Limited and Lake Shore Limited routes, which stop at Cleveland Lakefront Station. Cleveland has also been identified as a hub for the proposed Ohio Hub project, which would bring high-speed rail to Ohio. Cleveland hosts several inter-modal freight railroad terminals. There have been several proposals for commuter rail in Cleveland, including an ongoing (as of January 2011) study into a Sandusky–Cleveland line.
Cleveland has a bus and rail mass transit system operated by the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (RTA). The rail portion is officially called the RTA Rapid Transit, but local residents refer to it as The Rapid. It consists of four light rail lines, known as the Blue, Green, and Waterfront lines, and a heavy rail line, the Red Line. In 2008, RTA completed the HealthLine, a bus rapid transit line, for which naming rights were purchased by the Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals. It runs along Euclid Avenue from downtown through University Circle, ending at the Louis Stokes Station at Windermere in East Cleveland. In 2007, the American Public Transportation Association named Cleveland's mass transit system the best in North America. Cleveland is the only metropolitan area in the Western Hemisphere with its rail rapid transit system having only one center-city area rapid transit station (Tower City-Public Square). During construction of the Red Line rapid transit line in the 1950s the citizens of Cleveland voted to build the Downtown Distributor Subway which would have provided a number of Center City stations. The plan was quashed by highway promoting County Engineer Albert S. Porter and the full development and growth of center city Cleveland has since been significantly impeded due to the resulting inaccessibility.
Inter-city bus lines
National intercity bus service is provided at a Greyhound station, just behind the Playhouse Square theater district. Megabus provides service to Cleveland and has a stop at the Stephanie Tubbs Jones Transit Center on the east side of downtown. Akron Metro, Brunswick Transit Alternative, Laketran, Lorain County Transit, and Medina County Transit provide connecting bus service to the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. Geauga County Transit and Portage Area Regional Transportation Authority (PARTA) also offer connecting bus service in their neighboring areas.
Cleveland's road system consists of numbered streets running roughly north–south, and named avenues, which run roughly east–west. The numbered streets are designated "east" or "west", depending where they lie in relation to Ontario Street, which bisects Public Square. The numbered street system extends beyond the city limits into some suburbs on both the west and east sides. The named avenues that lie both on the east side of the Cuyahoga River and west of Ontario Street receive a "west" designation on street signage. The two downtown avenues which span the Cuyahoga change names on the west side of the river. Superior Avenue becomes Detroit Avenue on the west side, and Carnegie Avenue becomes Lorain Avenue. The bridges that make these connections are often called the Detroit–Superior Bridge and the Lorain–Carnegie Bridge.
Three two-digit Interstate highways serve Cleveland directly. Interstate 71 begins just southwest of downtown and is the major route from downtown Cleveland to the airport. I-71 runs through the southwestern suburbs and eventually connects Cleveland with Columbus and Cincinnati. Interstate 77 begins in downtown Cleveland and runs almost due south through the southern suburbs. I-77 sees the least traffic of the three interstates, although it does connect Cleveland to Akron. Interstate 90 connects the two sides of Cleveland, and is the northern terminus for both I-71 and I-77. Running due east–west through the west side suburbs, I-90 turns northeast at the junction with and I-490, and is known as the Innerbelt through downtown. At the junction with the Shoreway, I-90 makes a 90-degree turn known in the area as Dead Man's Curve, then continues northeast, entering Lake County near the eastern split with Ohio State Route 2. Cleveland is also served by two three-digit interstates, Interstate 480, which enters Cleveland briefly at a few points and Interstate 490, which connects I-77 with the junction of I-90 and I-71 just south of downtown.
Two other limited-access highways serve Cleveland. The Cleveland Memorial Shoreway carries State Route 2 along its length, and at varying points also carries US 6, US 20 and I-90. The Jennings Freeway (State Route 176) connects I-71 just south of I-90 to I-480 near the suburbs of Parma and Brooklyn Heights. A third highway, the Berea Freeway (State Route 237 in part), connects I-71 to the airport, and forms part of the boundary between Cleveland and Brook Park.
In 2011, Walk Score ranked Cleveland the seventeenth most walkable of the fifty largest cities in the United States. As of 2014[update], Walk Score increased Cleveland's rank to being the sixteenth most walkable US city, with a Walk Score of 57, a Transit Score of 47, and a Bike Score of 51. Cleveland's most walkable and transient areas can be found in the Downtown, Ohio City, Detroit-Shoreway, University Circle, and Buckeye-Shaker Square neighborhoods.
Energy and climate
The city's two main electrical utilities are FirstEnergy and Cleveland Public Power. Cleveland's climate action plan, updated in December 2018, has a 2050 target of 100 percent renewable power, along with reduction of greenhouse gases to 80 percent below the 2010 level.
Sister cities and international relations
Cleveland is home to the Consulate General of the Republic of Slovenia.
- Alexandria, Egypt
- Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
- Bangalore, Karnataka, India
- Brașov, Romania since 1991
- Bratislava, Slovakia
- Cleveland, England, United Kingdom
- Conakry, Guinea
- Fier, Albania since 2006
- Gdańsk, Poland since 1990
- Heidenheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
- Holon, Israel
- Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria
- Klaipėda, Lithuania since 1992
- Lima, Peru
- Ljubljana, Slovenia
- Miskolc, Hungary
- Rouen, Normandy, France since 2008
- Segundo Montes, Morazán, El Salvador since 1991
- Taipei, Taiwan
- Vicenza, Veneto, Italy
- Volgograd, Russia since 1990
- West Mayo, Connacht, Ireland since 2003
- Cleveland Stance
- Hot in Cleveland
- List of people from Cleveland
- List of references to Cleveland in popular culture
- Sustainable Cleveland
- Official records for Cleveland kept at downtown from January 1871 to May 1941, and at Hopkins Airport since June 1941. For more information, see Threadex.
- "Columbia Studies in the Social Sciences".
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Geographic Names Information System Feature Detail Report". USGS. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2017 Population". United States Census Bureau. US Census Bureau, Population Division. May 2018. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- "Zip Code Lookup". USPS. Archived from the original on September 3, 2007. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "Population Trends". Connecting Cleveland: 2020 Citywide Plan. Cleveland City Planning Commission. Archived from the original on March 29, 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
- "Cleveland: A Bicentennial Timeline". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved August 10, 2007.
- "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas". Statistical Abstract of the United States. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 27, 2014. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
- "Forest City". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. 1997. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- "Ohio and Erie Canal". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved August 10, 2007.
- "Columbus Street Bridge". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved August 10, 2007.
- "Rockefellers Timeline". PBS. 1999–2000. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
1870 Rockefeller founds Standard Oil of Ohio with $1 million in capital, the largest corporation in the country. The new company controls 10% of U.S. petroleum refining. 1885 Standard Oil Standard Oil moves into new headquarters at 26 Broadway in New York.
- Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.178.
- Clymer, p.156.
- "Cleveland Court Winner: Sixth City Gets Permanent Possession of Inter-Lake Trophy" (PDF). The New York Times. August 3, 1919. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
- "Ohio: Sixth City". Time.com. October 11, 1937. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- "Great Lakes Exposition". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved August 10, 2007.
- Porter, Philip (1976). "Chapter 6". Cleveland: Confused City on a Seesaw. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press. pp. 106–107. ISBN 0-8142-0264-0. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
- Porter, Philip W. (1976). "Chapter Nine: Erieview, the Big Mistake: 1953–1962". Cleveland: Confused City on a Seesaw. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press. p. 180. ISBN 0-8142-0264-0. Retrieved July 22, 2009. Transcription at The Cleveland Memory Project website.
- "Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co.", Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. June 14, 1997. Retrieved on August 2, 2007.
- Larkin, Brent (July 12, 2009). "Cleveland: the best location bleeding population". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
- "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012.
- "AAC Winners by State and City". National Civic League. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
- "Suburbs". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- Nishani,, Frazier, (2017). Harambee City : the Congress of Racial Equality in Cleveland and the rise of Black Power populism. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press. ISBN 9781610756013. OCLC 973832475.
- "The Banking Crises of the 1980s and Early 1990s: Summary and Implications" (PDF). Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- "Economist's View: The Jobless Rate". Economistsview.typepad.com. May 14, 2008. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- "Republic Steel To Close Mill". The New York Times. August 7, 1982.
- Jon Fobes/The Plain Dealer (February 8, 2009). "Unemployment hits nearly every area in Ohio, analysis of new claims finds". Blog.cleveland.com. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- "Encyclopedia of Cleveland History:FISHER BODY DIVISION OF GENERAL MOTORS CORP". Ech.case.edu. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Paynter, Bob; Pledger, Marcia (October 14, 2001). "Comeback City' fights old-shoe image". The Plain Dealer. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved August 10, 2007.
- Jackson, Frank, "State of the City of Cleveland" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 8, 2008. Retrieved June 3, 2007.. City of Cleveland, Ohio. March 1, 2007. Retrieved on August 1, 2007.
- "GaWC Research Bulletin 5", GaWC, Loughborough University, July 28, 1999
- "Request For Proposals: Finance, Design, Build, Manage, Operate, Maintain, Repair and Upgrade A Citywide Municipal Wireless Broadband Network Infrastructure" (PDF). City of Cleveland Municipal Wireless Network RFP. April 20, 2007. p. 17. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 8, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2007.
- "Gay Games: Cleveland To Host In 2014". The Huffington Post. September 29, 2009. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- "Cleveland gets 2016 GOP Convention". Cleveland Plain Dealer. July 8, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
- "Cleveland-Hopkins International Airport". AirNav. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
- Lawrence, Michael (1980). Make No Little Plans. Cleveland, Ohio: Western Reserve Historical Society. pp. 20–25. ISBN 0-911704-24-8.
- Toman, James; Cook, Daniel (2005). "The Tower". Cleveland's Towering Treasure. Cleveleand, Ohio: Cleveland Landmarks Press. p. 76. ISBN 0-936760-20-6.
- "The Arcade: A Cleveland Classic". Archived from the original on June 29, 2007. Retrieved September 17, 2007.
- "Cleveland Sacred Landmarks". Cleveland State University. Archived from the original on December 13, 2007. Retrieved January 5, 2008.
- Upton, Harriet Taylor (1910). History of the Western Reserve. The Lewis Publishing Company. p. 507.
- Cigliano, Jan (1991). Showplace of America. Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-445-8.
- Litt, Steven (November 29, 2009). "RTA's Euclid Avenue HealthLine is faring well in ridership, innovation". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- Michener, Charles (April 2011). "Cleveland's Signs of Renewal". Smithsonian. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- "Neighborhood Link". Cleveland State University. Archived from the original on December 18, 2002. Retrieved October 14, 2005.
- Kennedy, Maureen; Leonard, Paul (April 2001). "Dealing with Neighborhood Change: A Primer on Gentrification and Policy Choices". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on October 9, 2007. Retrieved February 18, 2006.
- Gill, Michael (October 29, 2003). "Can the Creative Class Save Cleveland?". Free Times. Archived from the original on September 18, 2004. Retrieved February 18, 2006.
- "Northeast Region". Northeast Ohio First Suburbs Consortium. Archived from the original on April 2, 2002. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
- Kottek, Marcus; Greiser, Jürgen; et al. (June 2006). "World Map of Köppen – Geiger Climate Classification". Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 15 (3): 261. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.
- Cleveland Snowfalle (sic) Statistics. National Weather Service. Retrieved on October 13, 2005.
- Johnson, Mark. "Where is Northern Ohio's Snow Belt?". NewsNet5.com. Archived from the original on September 22, 2013. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- Smith, Susan. "Akron, State Blanketed in 3-Digit Heat". Akron Beacon Journal. June 26, 1988. "The high of 104 degrees at Cleveland-Hopkins International Airport was the highest recorded in Cleveland since official weather record -keeping began in 1871, weather service officials said."
- Mio, Lou. "Stopped Cold: All-time Lows Shiver Ohio, But Forecast's for 'Warming'". The Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio). January 20, 1994. "It was 20 below Tuesday night, breaking Cleveland's all-time record of 19 below set Jan. 24, 1963, a few weeks after Browns owner Art Modell fired head coach Paul Brown during a newspaper strike."
- NOWData – NOAA Online Weather Data. National Weather Service. Retrieved on April 5, 2006.
- "Precipitation: Annual Climatology (1971–2000)" Archived September 22, 2013, at the Wayback Machine [map]. PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State University.
- "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
- "Station Name: OH CLEVELAND". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
- "Thread Stations Extremes". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
- "WMO Climate Normals for CLEVELAND/HOPKINS INTL AP, OH 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). "Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
- "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Census Summary File 2". American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
- "Cleveland (city), Ohio". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 18, 2014.
- Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder – Results".
- Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder – Results".
- "Cleveland History". Rudolph M. Susel. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
- "DP-2. Profile of Selected Social Characteristics: 2000". 2000 United States Census, SF3. American Factfinder. Archived from the original on June 9, 2010. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
- Baranick, Alana. "Cleveland's Hungarian story expands beyond Buckeye Rd. where immigrants paved the way for new arrivals Archived January 6, 2014, at WebCite", The Plain Dealer. Retrieved July 8, 2007.
- Cleveland: a metropolitan reader. William Dennis Keating, Norman Krumholz (1995). Kent State University Press. p.127. ISBN 0-87338-492-X
- Cleveland, Ohio Fact Sheet. Archived January 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on October 11, 2005.
- Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder – Results".
- Stapleton, Darwin H. (July 17, 1997). "Industry". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Retrieved July 22, 2007.
- Cho, Janet H. "A global venue; Cleveland's Jones Day law firm makes motions all over the world, but its culture is rooted in the town where it began", The Plain Dealer. June 19, 2006.
- Webber Sadovi, Maura (October 31, 2007). "Health-Care Industry Helps Revive Office Market in Cleveland". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 5, 2008.
- Ohio is a leader in housing downturn, The Columbus Dispatch. November 14, 2007. Retrieved November 14, 2007.
- Foreclosure Wave Sweeps America, BBC, November 5, 2007. Retrieved November 14, 2007.
- "All Boarded Up" article by Alex Kotlowitz in The New York Times Magazine March 4, 2009
- "Ohio Major Employers" (PDF). Ohio Department of Development. March 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 31, 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- "U.S. News Best Hospitals: Cardiology & Heart Surgery". Health.usnews.com. July 14, 2010. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Best Hospitals 2006: Cancer. U.S. News & World Report. (July 13, 2006) Retrieved on August 1, 2007.
- "Midwest Health Care Startups Raise Record $1.2 Billion in 2007" (PDF) (Press release). BioEnterprise. April 24, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 23, 2013. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
- "Case Western Reserve University: West Quad". Case Western Reserve University: School of Medicine. Archived from the original on March 20, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2007.
- "PSC Volunteer". Playhouse Square Center. Archived from the original on July 24, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2006.
- "Playhouse Square: The Theater District". Playhouse Square Center. Archived from the original on September 24, 2003. Retrieved May 14, 2007.
- Alan Freed. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved on July 3, 2007
- Mansfield, Herbert. Theater. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. March 4, 1998. Retrieved on July 3, 2007.
- Oestreich, James R. (January 22, 2018). "At 100, the Cleveland Orchestra May (Quietly) Be America's Best". The New York Times. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
- A Brief History of the Cleveland Orchestra. Archived March 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine Cleveland Orchestra. Retrieved on July 22, 2007.
- "CLEVELAND SQUARE NAMED FOR POLKA KING". Retrieved July 21, 2014.
- Cleveland Museum of Art. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. June 14, 1997. Retrieved on July 22, 2007.
- Who We Are Archived September 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland. Retrieved on August 16, 2007.
- "Cleveland Thyagaraja Festival". www.aradhana.org.
- "Movies Filmed in Cleveland". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. 1997. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- Kass, Arielle; Singler, Dan (April 12, 2010). "The most memorable movies and TV shows set or filmed in Northeast Ohio in the last 30 years". Crain's Cleveland Business. Crain Communications Inc. Archived from the original on August 25, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- "Movies filmed in Ohio". Dayton Daily News. Cox Ohio Publishing. Archived from the original on June 8, 2010. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- Soeder, John (May 14, 2009). "Hello, Cleveland! For 'Spinal Tap' stars, amps don't go up to 11 on Unwigged & Unplugged Tour". Cleveland.com. Cleveland Live, Inc. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- O'Connor, Clint (October 21, 2012). " 'Fun Size': Cleveland gets its close-up in new comedy starring Victoria Justice". Cleveland.com. Cleveland Live LLC. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
- Sangiacomo, Michael (March 3, 2011). "Upcoming 'Avengers' movie will be filmed in Cleveland". Cleveland.com. Cleveland Live, Inc. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- Stanley, Alessandra (June 15, 2010). "Stay. Eat. Make Yourself at Home. Maybe Find a Man". The New York Times. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
The Drew Carey Show' was set in Cleveland...
- "CRIME 360 – About – A&E TV". Aetv.com. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Rice, Lynette (June 17, 2010). "'Hot in Cleveland' attracts record ratings for TV Land". Hollywood Insider. Archived from the original on June 19, 2010. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- "Did I spot Kim, Khloe, and Kourtney Kardashian in Cleveland? Yep, you did". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
- John Perkovic, "Cleveland home of literary great Langston Hughes on the market for $85,000", Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 24, 2013 (accessed November 25, 2014)
- K. Prufer (ed.), Russell Atkins: On the life and work of an American master. Warrensburg, Mo.: Pleiades Press (2013). ISBN 978-0964145443
- Superman. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. July 22, 1997. Retrieved on July 3, 2007.
- Brad Ricca, Super Boys: The Amazing Adventures of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster—the Creators of Superman, Macmillan / St. Martin's Press (June 4, 2013) ISBN 978-0312643805
- Larry Smith, Mary E. Weems, and Nina Freedlander Gibans, editors, Cleveland Poetry Scenes, Bottom Dog Press (2008); ISBN 978-1933964171
- J. Burroughs (ed.), Songs in the Key of Cleveland: An Anthology of the 2013 Best Cleveland Poem Competition, Crisis Chronicles Press (2014) ISBN 978-1940996073
- A calendar of Cleveland area poetry events can be found at Clevelandpoetics (accessed November 25, 2014).
- Anisfield-Wolf Book Award home page (accessed November 25, 2014)
- Jacqueline Marino, "The Biggest Little-Known Book Award," Belt Magazine, September 9, 2013 (accessed November 25, 2014)
- Jay, Karla; Young, Allen, eds. (1979). Lavender Culture. New York: Jove Publications. ISBN 978-0814742174. OCLC 5100420.
- Muñoz, Jose Esteban (2009). Cruising Utopia The Then and There of Queer Futurity. NYU Press. p. 105.
- Raab, Scott (July 1, 2002). "Eating Cleveland". Esquire. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
If you're not from Cleveland, you've never et a Polish Boy. Go to Freddie's Rib House at midnight and get a large, to go. A Polish Boy is a bunwich packed with a charred forearm of spiced kielbasa, french fries, and coleslaw, and the whole shebang is soaked in barbecue sauce. (You read right: The fries and slaw smother the eight-inch link.)
- "The Best Sandwiches in America". Esquire. February 16, 2008. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
Corned Beef Slyman's, Cleveland
- "Polish boy sandwich". RecipeHut.com. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
The Polish Boy is a sausage sandwich originating in Cleveland, Ohio
- "Cleveland Fish Fries". Cleveland Magazine.com. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- "Past Winners". Great American Beer Festival. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- Eng, Monica (January 16, 2008). "Hot new dining city: Cleveland?!". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on June 3, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
By the time I hit Cleveland for the grand culinary tour, Ruhlman had the routine down. Earlier in the year, his chef/writer pal Anthony Bourdain had filmed a whole episode of his Travel Channel show "No Reservations" in Cleveland.
- "2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings". Walk Score. 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- "Travel Cleveland: Cleveland Attractions". Convention and Visitors Bureau of Greater Cleveland. Archived from the original on August 12, 2007. Retrieved May 22, 2007.
- "Cleveland's Irish Parade". clevelandirishparade.org. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
- "Fashion Week Cleveland to broaden cultural programs". Retrieved September 11, 2008.
- Soeder, John. "CMJ/Rock Hall Music Fest cancelled after two-year run. Archived January 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine" The Plain Dealer, April 6, 2007.
- "Ingenuity Festival". Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- "TEDxCLE". Retrieved August 13, 2010.
Cleveland's first, official TEDx event, TEDxCLE, took place on Friday, February 26 at The Capitol Theatre in the Gordon Square Arts District.
- "Highlights from the 33rd Cleveland International Film Festival" (PDF). Cleveland International Film Festival. March 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2013. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- "Winterfest". Cleveland.com. Archived from the original on January 31, 2008. Retrieved May 14, 2007.
- Thomas Ondrey (May 19, 2012). "Underwater wonders among the newcomers in Northeast Ohio". The Plain Dealer. cleveland.com. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Burt, Bill (September 9, 2008). "Sellouts! Record 456 and counting for Sox". Eagle Tribune. Archived from the original on September 3, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2008.
- Walker, James (July 13, 2010). "Take your pick recap: LeBron vs. Modell". ESPN.com:. Retrieved July 27, 2010.
- Kroll, John (September 6, 2012). "When Art Modell moved his Cleveland Browns team to Baltimore: How The Plain Dealer reported it". Plain Dealer. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
- Windhorst, Brian; McMenamin, Dave. Return of the king : LeBron James, the Cleveland Cavaliers, and the greatest comeback in NBA history (First ed.). New York. ISBN 9781478971689. OCLC 979415121.
- "Fort Washington Park; Cleveland, Ohio". June 11, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- Manoloff, Dennis (May 25, 2016). "UFC 203, with Stipe Miocic fight as main event, set for Sept. 10 at Quicken Loans Arena in Cleveland". Plain Dealer. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
- Wright, Branson (June 11, 2016). "Lake Erie Monsters win Calder Cup title with 1–0 OT victory over Hershey (photos)". Plain Dealer. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
- "Cleveland Metroparks Zoo – Virtual Tour". Clemetzoo.com. Archived from the original on December 7, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
- T Walker. "Comments and Reviews". Stateparks.com. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- "Welcome to the History of the Cleveland Cultural Gardens". Cleveland Cultural Gardens. Retrieved April 19, 2007.
- Huskins, David. "Ohio Voter and Election Maps". University of Akron Center for Policy Studies. Archived from the original on August 6, 2007. Retrieved August 10, 2007.
- Leip, David. 2004 Presidential General Election Results. Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved on May 9, 2007.
- November 2, 2004 Canvass Report Cuyahoga County Board of Elections. Retrieved on December 2, 2009.
- Richardson, James F. Politics. The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. May 13, 1998. Retrieved on August 1, 2007.
- "Carl B. Stokes, 68, first Black Mayor of a major U.S. city, dies.(Obituary)". Jet. 89 (23): 58–60. April 22, 1996. ISSN 0021-5996.
- Helliker, Kevin. Population of Cleveland Plunges 17%, Wall Street Journal, March 10, 2011, page A2.
- "City Crime Rankings 2008". CQ Press. March 25, 2009. Archived from the original on June 7, 2010. Retrieved April 27, 2009.
- "Ohio Department of Public Safety: Office of Criminal Justice Services-Crime in the U.S. 2006" (PDF). ohio.gov. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
- Page 2 of 2 (October 5, 2010). "Page 2: America's Most Dangerous Neighborhoods: Areas With Violent Crime – ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Mayerowitz, Scott (October 5, 2010). "Page 4: America's Most Dangerous Neighborhoods: Areas With Violent Crime – ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- US Dept of Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, 'Reporting Criminal Victimization in Cleveland (OH), 1971–1972 – A Report', National Institute of Justice
- National Criminal Justice Reference Service M. L. Walker; L. M. Schmidt; C. Ronald Huff, ed., "Community Response to Gangs", 'Gangs in America', 2nd ed, pp. 263–269, (1996)
- National Criminal Justice Reference Service R.J. Zion, "Reducing Crime and Fear of Crime in Downtown Cleveland", Victimology, Vol. 3, No. 3/4, Special Issue pp. 341–344, (1978)
- Logan, John R.; Stults, Brian J. (March 2006). "Racial Differences in Exposure to Crime: The City and Suburbs of Cleveland in 1990". Criminology. 37 (2): 251–276. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.1999.tb00486.x.
- Wang, Fahui; Minor, W. William (November 2004). "Where the Jobs Are: Employment Access and Crime Patterns in Cleveland". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 92 (3): 435–450. doi:10.1111/1467-8306.00298.
-  Tetsuro Motoyama et al., "Spatial and Temporal Aspects of Crime in Cleveland, Ohio and Spatial Dynamics of Crime (A Methodogical Review)", Link Between Crime and the Built Environment, Vol. 2, pp. C159–C175 (1980)
- "OHIO Offenses Known to Law Enforcement by City, 2012". Crime in the United States 2012. FBI.
- Richard A. Oppel Jr. (December 4, 2014). "Cleveland Police Cited for Abuse by Justice Department". The New York Times. Retrieved December 15, 2014.
- "DOJ consent decree: How long does the Cleveland police department have to implement changes?". cleveland.com.
- "Justice Department wants sweeping changes in Cleveland Police Department; report finds "systemic deficiencies"". cleveland.com.
- "Forcing Change: A decade of civil rights lawsuits against Cleveland police preceded U.S. Justice Department investigation". cleveland.com.
- "Cleveland consent decree provides blueprint for long-elusive police reforms: The Big Story". cleveland.com.
- "Cleveland will create Police Inspector General as part of Justice Department reform". Retrieved June 6, 2015.
- "Some changes outlined in consent decree unique to Cleveland, Justice Department says". Retrieved June 6, 2015.
- "Federal judge approves Cleveland consent decree, calls it a 'good, sound agreement'". June 2015. Retrieved June 13, 2015.
- "DOJ consent decree: How long does the Cleveland police department have to implement changes?". June 2015. Retrieved June 13, 2015.
- "Division of Fire". City of Cleveland. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
- "Cleveland Fire Stations". City of Cleveland. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
- Blackwell, Brandon (December 3, 2013). "Patrick Kelly sworn in as Cleveland's fire chief, pledges to restore confidence". Plain Dealer. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- "CARE History page". Cleveland Association of Rescue Employees. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
- Leila Atassi. "Cuyahoga Prosecutor says former Cleveland Fire Chief Paul Stubbs ignored payroll abuses; Mayor has remained steadfast in defense". Cleveland.com. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
- "Master Plan Update 2". Cleveland Metropolitan School District Bond Accountability Commission. May 21, 2007. Archived from the original (MS Word doc) on August 8, 2007. Retrieved July 25, 2007.
- "Reform History". Catalyst Cleveland. Archived from the original on July 11, 2007. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
- "Shaker Heights City School District." The Plain Dealer. Sunday April 25, 2010. Retrieved on November 21, 2011. "All of the city of Shaker Heights plus about 1 square mile of Cleveland around Shaker Square. H. The Cleveland portion has been part of the Shaker school district since the 1920s. Its residents pay the same school taxes as Shaker Heights residents and are entitled to use the schools and to vote in school elections."
- "The Bridge Avenue School". Retrieved January 1, 2011.
- "Case Western Reserve University – Best College". Colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. 2019. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
- Ohio Technical College Archived February 10, 2016, at the Wayback Machine – Automotive Training, Auto Body Training, Motorcycle Training, Diesel Training
- "The new Sun News, Cleveland, Ohio, Home Page". Sunnews.com. August 1, 2009. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- David Dirck Van Tassel (1987). The Encyclopedia of Cleveland history. Indiana University Press.
- "The Summer Set: AP Tour 2010 Dates + Pre-sale Tickets (On Sale Today)". AltSounds.com News. Altsounds Ltd. January 4, 2010. Archived from the original on January 7, 2010. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
Cleveland-based youth-culture magazine Alternative Press...
- "Warped Rumor: Will Cleveland Date Have Paramore?". CleveScene.com: C-Notes. Cleveland Scene. July 8, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
Cleveland-based rock mag Alternative Press...
- Rome, Alana (April 19, 2007). "Cute Is What We Aim For, Circa Survive, As Tall As Lions, Envy on the Coast". Redefine Magazine: Live Show Reviews. Redefine Media LLC. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
- "Warped Rumor: Will Cleveland Date Have Paramore?". CleveScene.com: C-Notes. Cleveland Scene. July 8, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
- "Cleveland/Akron TV market ranking" (PDF). Nielsen Media Research. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "Local Television Market Universe Estimates" (PDF). Nielsen Company. 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
- Holley, Joe (August 12, 2006). "Entertainer Mike Douglas, 81; Hosted Daytime TV Talk Show". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
- "Good Morning America: Free TV Show Tickets in New York City". NYtix.com. New York TV Show Tickets Inc. 2008. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- Feran, Tom; Heldenfels, R.D. (1997). Ghoulardi: Inside Cleveland TV's Wildest Ride. Cleveland, Ohio: Gray & Co.
- "Rock 'n' Roll". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. 2009. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Cleveland OH, RadioStationWorld. Retrieved on August 2, 2007.
- "On the Air". Cleveland Browns official website. Cleveland Browns. 2010. Archived from the original on August 4, 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "Cavaliers Radio Network". Cleveland Cavaliers official website. NBA Media Ventures, LLC. 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "Indians Radio Affiliates". Cleveland Indians official website. MLB Advanced Media, LP. 2001–2010. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Washington, Julie (August 25, 2007). "WTAM still No. 1 on the airwaves". The Plain Dealer. The Plain Dealer Publishing Co. p. E1 – Arts & Life.
- "Ratings: #29 Cleveland". Radio-Online.com. Radio Online. 2010. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- "Classical Pick: Radio Days". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
- Yarborough, Chuck (September 2, 2011). "WKRK FM/92.3 The Fan replaces rock with sports talk". Cleveland.com. Cleveland Live, Inc. Archived from the original on October 2, 2011. Retrieved September 17, 2011.
- Grossi, Tony (March 28, 2013). "ESPN 850 WKNR is the new radio home of the Cleveland Browns". ESPNCleveland.com. ESPN Internet Ventures and Good Karma Broadcasting, Inc. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- Press Release (March 28, 2013). "Browns Enter into Groundbreaking Radio Partnership With ESPN 850 WKNR And CBS Radio's 92.3 The Fan And 98.5 WNCX". Cleveland.CBSLocal.com. CBS Local Media, a division of CBS Radio Inc. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "Freed, Alan". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "WHK". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. 2002. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "WMMS". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. 1998. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Goldstein, Patrick (June 1, 1986). "Cleveland Is on a (Rock 'N') Roll". Los Angeles Times. p. 64 – Calendar.
- Adams, Deanna R. (2002). Rock 'n' Roll and the Cleveland Connection. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. p. 333.
- "Car Ownership in U.S. Cities Data and Map". Governing. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
- Tinsley, Jesse. "Burke to host air service again; Startup offers no-hassle hop to Detroit, more", The Plain Dealer. July 18, 2006.
- "Port of Cleveland". Port of Cleveland.
- The Ohio Hub. Ohio Rail Development Commission. Retrieved on November 4, 2006.
- "CSX Intermodal Terminal Information" (PDF). CSX. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
- "Norfolk Southern". Norfolk Southern. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
- "U.S. Ambassador to Haiti Kenneth Merten; passenger train from Cleveland to Sandusky: Whatever happened to ... ?". Cleveland Plain Dealer. January 16, 2011. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- "Passenger rail service between Cleveland and Sandusky to be studied". Cleveland Plain Dealer. February 2, 2010. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- "RTA HealthLine: Where It Goes". Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
- "Greater Cleveland: Best Location for Public Transportation in the Nation" (Press release). Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. October 1, 2007. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
- "Amtrak rail service, Greyhound Bus and Megabus information". Positively Cleveland. Archived from the original on December 30, 2010. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
- "Out-of-County Connections". Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. Archived from the original on April 10, 2009.
- "Street Names". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. March 4, 1998. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
- Interstate 490 Cleveland. Interstate-Guide.com. Retrieved on July 22, 2007.
- Riverside Neighborhood Tour. Neighborhood Link, Cleveland State University. Retrieved on July 22, 2007.
- Grzegorek, Vince (July 20, 2011). "Cleveland Ranked 17th Most Walkable City | Scene and Heard: Scene's News Blog | Cleveland Scene". Clevescene.com. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- "Cleveland Apartments for Rent and Cleveland Rentals". Walk Score. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- Gearino, Dan (September 22, 2018). "100% Renewable Energy: Cleveland Sets a Big Goal as It Sheds Its Fossil Fuel Past". InsideClimate News. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
- "Consulate of Republic of Slovenia in Cleveland". 2015. Retrieved August 9, 2015.
- "Sister Cities International (SCI)". Sister-cities.org. Archived from the original on June 13, 2015. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- "Cleveland's Sister Cities". City of Cleveland. Archived from the original on June 15, 2015. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- "Bratislava City – Twin Towns". Bratislava-City.sk. Archived from the original on July 28, 2013. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
- "Gdańsk Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'" (in Polish and English). Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. Archived from the original on July 23, 2013. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
- "Medmestno in mednarodno sodelovanje". Mestna občina Ljubljana (Ljubljana City) (in Slovenian). Archived from the original on June 26, 2013. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- Roguski, Randy (August 10, 2008). "Cleveland hopes to gain from century-old link to Rouen, France". Plain Dealer. Retrieved September 26, 2009.
- "Cleveland Jews support Israel generously". cleveland.com. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- General references