Changsha

Changsha

长沙市
Clockwise from top: Skyline of Changsha, Yuehu Park, Huangxing South Pedestrian Street, Aiwan Pavilion
Clockwise from top: Skyline of Changsha, Yuehu Park, Huangxing South Pedestrian Street, Aiwan Pavilion
Nickname(s): 
"星城" (Star City)
Motto(s): 
"心忧天下,敢为人先"
(Care About the World, Dare to Be Pioneers)
Location of Changsha City in Hunan
Location of Changsha City in Hunan
Changsha is located in Hunan
Changsha
Changsha
Location of the city center in Hunan
Coordinates (Changsha municipal government): 28°13′41″N 112°56′20″E / 28.228°N 112.939°E / 28.228; 112.939Coordinates: 28°13′41″N 112°56′20″E / 28.228°N 112.939°E / 28.228; 112.939
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHunan
Municipal seatYuelu District
Divisions9 County-level divisions, 172 Township divisions
Government
 • Party SecretaryHu Henghua
 • MayorChen Wenhao
Area
 • Prefecture-level city11,819 km2 (4,563 sq mi)
 • Urban
 (2018)[1]
738 km2 (285 sq mi)
Elevation
63 m (207 ft)
Population
 (2015)
 • Prefecture-level city7,431,800
 • Density630/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
 • Urban
 (2018)[1]
4,020,000
 • Urban density5,400/km2 (14,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
4,597,134
 • Rank in China
19th
Ethnicity
 • Han99.22%
 • Minorities0.78%
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
410000
Area code(s)0731
ISO 3166 codeCN-HN-01
GDP Total (2016)CNY 931 billion
(US$139 billion)[2]
GDP per capita (2016)CNY 127,346
(US$19,025)
GDP growth rateIncrease 10.7%
License Plate湘A
湘O (police and authorities)
City treeCamphor tree
City flowerAzalea
LanguagesMandarin, Changsha dialect
Websitewww.changsha.gov.cn
Changsha
Changsha (Chinese characters).svg
"Changsha" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese长沙
Traditional Chinese長沙
Hanyu PinyinChángshā
XiangTsã13 sɔ33
Literal meaning"Long Sandbar"
Former names
Qingyang
Traditional Chinese青陽
Simplified Chinese青阳
Linxiang
Traditional Chinese臨湘
Simplified Chinese临湘
Literal meaningOverlooking the Xiang
Linxiang
Chinese潭州
Literal meaningEddy Prefecture

Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China. It covers 11,819 km2 (4,563 sq mi) and is bordered by Yueyang and Yiyang to the north, Loudi to the west, Xiangtan and Zhuzhou to the south, Yichun and Pingxiang of Jiangxi province to the east. According to the 2010 census, Changsha has 7,044,118 residents, constituting 10.72% of the province's population.[3] It is part of the Chang-Zhu-Tan city cluster or megalopolis.

Changsha is in the Xiang River valley plain, bordering the Luoxiao Mountains on the east, Wuling Mountains on the west, edging in Dongting Lake on the north and bounded on the south by the Hengshan Mountains. It has a monsoonal humid subtropical climate, with an average annual air temperature of 16.8 to 17.3 °C (62.2 to 63.1 °F) and an annual rainfall of 1,358.6 to 1,552.5 mm (53.49 to 61.12 in).[4]

Changsha has a history of more than 3,000 years.[5] Changsha was the capital of Changsha Kingdom in the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD), and the capital of the Chu State (907–951) in the Ten Kingdoms period. The lacquerware and Silk Texts recovered from Mawangdui (2nd century BC) there are an indication of the richness of local craft traditions. In 1904 Changsha was opened to foreign trade, and large numbers of Europeans and Americans settled there. Changsha was the site of Mao Zedong's conversion to communism. It was also the scene of major battles in the Sino-Japanese War (1931–1945) and was briefly occupied by the Japanese. Changsha is now an important commercial, manufacturing and transportation centre.

Names[edit]

Chángshā is the pinyin romanization of the Mandarin pronunciation of the Chinese name 長沙 or 长沙, meaning "long sandy [place]". The name's origin is unknown. It is attested as early as the 11th century BC, when a vassal lord of the area sent King Cheng of Zhou a gift described as a "Changsha softshell turtle" (长沙; 長沙; Chángshā biē). In the 2nd century AD, historian Ying Shao wrote that the Qin use of the name "Changsha" for the area was a continuance of its old name.[6] The name originally described the area. The Chu metropolis was known as Qingyang. The capital of the Kingdom of Changsha—within the present-day city of Changsha—was known as Linxiang, meaning "[place] Overlooking the Xiang River".

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Development started around 3000 BC when Changsha developed with the proliferation of Longshan culture, although there is no firm evidence of such a link.[clarification needed][7] Evidence exists that people lived and thrived in the area during the Bronze Age. Numerous examples of pottery and other objects have been discovered.

Later Chinese legends related that the Flame and Yellow Emperors visited the area. Sima Qian's history states that the Yellow Emperor granted his eldest son Shaohao the lands of Changsha and its neighbors. During the Spring and Autumn Period (8th–5th century BC), the Yue culture spread into the area around Changsha. During the succeeding Warring States Period, Chu took control of Changsha. Its capital, Qingyang, became an important southern outpost of the kingdom. In 1951-57 archaeologists explored numerous large and medium-sized Chu tombs from the Warring States Era. More than 3,000 tombs have been discovered. Under the Qin (221–206 BC), Changsha was a staging post for expeditions south into Guangdong that led to its conquest and the establishment of the Nanyue kingdom.

Under the Han (3rd century BC – 3rd century AD), Linxiang was the capital of the kingdom of Changsha. At first this was a client state held by Liu Bang's Baiyue ally Wu Rui that served as a means of controlling the restive Chu people and as a buffer state against Nanyue. By 202 BC, Linxiang had city walls to protect it against uprisings and invasions. The famous Mawangdui tombs were constructed between 186 and 165 BC. Lady Xin Zhui was buried in the earliest tomb (No. 2) and, during its excavation in the 1970s, was found to have been very well preserved. More importantly, the tombs included the earliest surviving copies of the Tao Te Ching and other important literary and historical documents.

When Wu Rui's descendant Wu Zhu (, Wú Zhù) died childless in 157 BC, the kingdom was granted to a cadet branch of the imperial family as their fief. The kingdom was abolished under Wang Mang's short-lived Xin dynasty and briefly revived by the Eastern Han. In AD 33, its prince was demoted and the area administered as Linxiang County [zh] and Changsha Commandery. Following the turmoil of the Three Kingdoms, Emperor Wu of Jin granted Changsha to the sixth son of a general of the imperial family named Sima Yi. The local government had over 100 counties at the beginning of the dynasty. Over the course of the dynasty, the local government of Changsha lost control over a few counties, leaving them to local rule. Following the turmoil of the Northern and Southern dynasties, the Sui (6th century) renamed Changsha Tan Prefecture or Tanzhou. Changsha's 3-tier administration was simplified to a 2-tier state and county system, eliminating the middle canton region.[clarification needed]

Under the Tang, Changsha prospered as a center of trade between central China and Southeast Asia but suffered during the Anshi Rebellion, when it fell to the rebels. Under the Song dynasty, the Yuelu Academy was founded in 976. It was destroyed by war in 1127 and rebuilt in 1165, during which year the celebrated philosopher Zhu Xi taught there. It was again destroyed by the Mongols during the establishment of the Yuan before being restored in the late 15th century under the Ming. Early 19th-century graduates of the academy formed what one historian called a "network of messianic alumni", including Zeng Guofan, architect of the Tongzhi Restoration,[8] and Cai E, a major leader in the defense of the Republic of China.[9] In 1903 the academy became Hunan High School. Modern-day Hunan University is also a descendant of the academy. Some of its buildings were remodeled from 1981 to 1986 according to their presumed original Song design.

During the Mongol conquest of the Southern Song, Tanzhou was fiercely defended by the local Song troops. After the city finally fell, the defenders committed mass suicide. Under the Ming (14th–17th centuries), Tanzhou was again renamed Changsha and made a superior prefecture.[clarification needed]

Modern history[edit]

Tianxin Pavilion, from where Taiping Heavenly Kingdom made an attack on Changsha

Under the Qing (17th–20th centuries), Changsha was the capital of Hunan and prospered as one of China's chief rice markets. During the Taiping Rebellion, the city was besieged by the rebels in 1852 or 1854[which?] for three months but never fell. The rebels moved on to Wuhan, but Changsha then became the principal base for the government's suppression of the rebellion.

The 1903 Treaty of Shanghai between the Qing and Japanese empires opened the city to foreign trade effective 1904. Most favored nation clauses in other unequal treaties extended the Japanese gains to the Western powers as well. Consequently, international capital entered the town and factories, churches, and schools were built. A college was started by Yale alumni, which later became a medical centre named Xiangya and a secondary school named the Yali School.

Following the Xinhai Revolution, further development followed the opening of the railway to Hankou in Hubei province in 1918, which was later extended to Guangzhou in Guangdong Province in 1936. Although Changsha's population grew, the city remained primarily commercial in character. Before 1937, it had little industry apart from some small cotton-textile, glass, and nonferrous-metal plants and handicraft enterprises.

Mao Zedong, the founder of the People's Republic of China, began his political career in Changsha. He was a student at the Hunan Number 1 Teachers' Training School from 1913 to 1918. He later returned as a teacher and principal from 1920 to 1922. The school was destroyed during the Chinese Civil War but has since been restored. The former office of the Hunan Communist Party Central Committee where Mao Zedong once lived is now a museum that includes Mao's living quarters, photographs and other historical items from the 1920s.

Until May 1927, communist support remained strong in Changsha before the massacre carried out by the right-wing faction of the KMT troops. The faction owed its allegiance to Chiang Kai-shek during its offensive against the KMT's left-wing faction under Wang Jingwei, who was then allied closely with the Communists. The purge of communists and suspected communists was part of Chiang's plans for consolidating his hold over the KMT, weakening Wang's control, and thereby over the entire China. In a period of twenty days, Chiang's forces killed more than ten thousand people in Changsha and its outskirts.

During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–45), Changsha's strategic location made it the focus of four campaigns by the Imperial Japanese Army to capture it from the Nationalist Army: these campaigns were the 1st Changsha,[10] the 2nd Changsha, the 3rd Changsha, and the 4th Changsha. The city was able to repulse the first three attacks thanks to Xue Yue's leadership, but ultimately fell into Japanese hands in 1944 for a year until the Japanese were defeated in a counterattack and forced to surrender.[11][12] Before these Japanese campaigns, the city was already virtually destroyed by the 1938 Changsha Fire, a deliberate fire ordered by Kuomintang commanders who mistakenly feared the city was about to fall to the Japanese; Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek had suggested that the city be burned so that the Japanese force would gain nothing after entering it.[13]

Following the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War, Changsha slowly recovered from its former damage. Since Deng Xiaoping's Reform and Opening Up Policy, Changsha has rapidly developed since the 1990s, becoming one of the important cities in the central and western regions. At the end of 2007, Changsha, Zhuzhou, and Xiangtan received approval from the State Council for the "Chang-Zhu-Tan (Greater Changsha) Resource-Saving and Environment-Friendly Society Comprehensive Reform Pilot Area", an important engine in the rise of central China.[clarification needed] In 2015, Xiangjiang New Area was approved as a national new area.

Geography[edit]

Taohualing Reservoir, Meixi Lake

Changsha is in northeast Hunan Province, the lower reaches of the Xiang River and the western part of the Changliu Basin. It lies between 111°53′ to 114°15′ east longitude and 27°51′ to 28°41′ north latitude. The city borders Yichun and Pingxiang of Jiangxi Province in the east, Zhuzhou and Xiangtan in the south, Loudi and Yiyang in the west, and Yueyang and Yiyang in the north. It is about 230 kilometres from east to west and about 88 kilometres from north to south. Changsha covers an area of 11,819 km2 (4,563 sq mi), of which the urban area of 2,150.9 km2 (830.5 sq mi), the urban built-up area is 374.64 km2 (144.65 sq mi). Changsha's highest point is Mount Qixing (七星岭) in Daweishan Town, 1,607.9 m (5,275 ft). The lowest point is Zhanhu (湛湖) in Qiaokou Town, 23.5 m (77 ft).[14]

The Xiang is the main river in the city, running 74 km (46 mi) northward through the territory. 15 tributaries flow into the Xiang, of which Liuyang, Laodao, Jinjiang and Wei are the four largest.[14] The Xiang divides the city into two parts. The eastern part is mainly commercial and the west is mainly cultural and educational. On October 10, 2001, the seat of Changsha City was transferred from Fanzheng Street to Guanshaling. Since then, the economy of both sides of the Xiang River has achieved a balanced development.[15]

Hydrology[edit]

Most of the rivers in Changsha belong to the Xiang River system. In addition to the Xiangjiang River, 15 tributaries flow into the Xiang, mainly including Liuyang River, Laodao River, Minjiang River, and Qinshui River.[16] 302 tributaries are more than 5 kilometers long, including 289 in the Xiang River Basin. According to the tributary grading there are 24 primary tributaries, 128 secondary tributaries, 118 third tributaries, and 32 tributaries; and 13 are Zijiang water systems; a fairly complete water system is formed, and the river network is densely distributed. Hydrological characteristics of Changsha: the water system is complete, the river network dense; the water volume greater, the water energy resources abundant; the winter not frozen, and the sediment content small.[17]

Geological characteristics[edit]

The geological features of Changsha City are: the formation is fully exposed, the granite body is widely distributed, and the geological structure is complex. The strata of each geological and historical period are exposed in Changsha City, and the oldest stratum is formed about 1 billion years ago. About 600 million years ago, Changsha was a sea, but the sea was not deep. Later, seawater gradually withdrew from the east and west, and most of Liuyang, Changsha, and Wangcheng rose out of the sea and became the northwestern edge of the ancient land of Jiangnan. About 140 million years ago, the sea leaching in the Changsha area ended and it became a land. Due to the influence of crustal movement and geological structure, a long-shaped mountain depression basin, the Chang (Sha) Ping (Jiang) Basin, was formed. Beginning of the new generation, the entire Changping Basin has risen to land. About 3.5 million years ago, the third ice age occurred on the earth, and Liuyang retained the remains of glacier landforms.[17]

Climate[edit]

Changsha has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with annual average temperature being at 17.03 °C (62.7 °F), with a mean of 4.6 °C (40.3 °F) in January and 29.0 °C (84.2 °F) in July. Average annual precipitation is 1,331 millimetres (52.4 in), with a 275-day frost-free period. With a monthly possible-sunshine percentage ranging from 19% in March to 57% in August, the city receives 1,545 hours of bright sunshine annually. The four seasons are distinct. The summers are long and very hot, with heavy rainfall, and autumn is comfortable and is the driest season. Winter is chilly and overcast with lighter rainfall more likely than downpours; cold snaps occur with temperatures occasionally dropping below freezing. Spring is especially rainy and humid with the sun shining less than 30% of the time. The minimum temperature ever recorded since 1951 at the current Wangchengpo Weather Observing Station was −12.0 °C (10.4 °F), recorded on 9 February 1972. The maximum was 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) on 13 August 1953 and 2 August 2003 [the unofficial record of 43.0 °C (109.4 °F) was set on 10 August 1934].

Administration[edit]

The municipality of Changsha exercises jurisdiction over 6 districts, 1 county and 2 county-level cities:

Map
Subdivision Simplified Chinese Pinyin Pop.

(2010 Census)

Area (km²) Dens. (/km²)
City Proper
Furong District 芙蓉区 Fúróng Qū 523,730 42 12,470
Tianxin District 天心区 Tiānxīn Qū 475,663 74 6,428
Yuelu District 岳麓区 Yuèlù Qū 801,861 552 1,453
Kaifu District 开福区 Kāifú Qū 567,373 187 3,034
Yuhua District 雨花区 Yǔhuā Qū 725,353 114 6,363
Wangcheng District 望城区 Wàngchéng Qū 523,489 970 540
Suburban and rural
Liuyang City 浏阳市 Liúyáng Shì 1,278,928 4,999 256
Ningxiang City 宁乡市 Níngxiāng Shì 1,168,056 2,906 402
Changsha County 长沙县 Chángshā Xiàn 979,665 1,997 491
Nianjia Lake in the city center

Government[edit]

The current CPC Party Secretary of Changsha is Hu Henghua and the current Mayor is Hu Zhongxiong.

Economy[edit]

Changsha Business Quarter

Changsha's population nearly tripled between the start of its rebuilding in 1949 and the early 1980s. The city is now a major port, handling rice, cotton, timber, and livestock, and is also a collection and distribution point on the railway from Hankou to Guangzhou. It is a centre of rice milling and also has oil-extraction, tea and tobacco production, and meat-processing plants. Its textile industry produces cotton yarn and fabrics and engages in dyeing and printing. Agricultural chemicals and fertilizers, farm implements, and pumping machinery are also produced.

Changsha has a large thermal generating station linked by a power grid with the nearby industrial centres of Zhuzhou and Xiangtan; the three cities were designated in the 1970s as the nucleus of a major industrial complex. In the 1960s there was some development of heavy industry. The manufacture of machinery, especially machine tools and precision tools, became important, and Changsha became a center of China's aluminum industry. The city also has cement, rubber, ceramic, and papermaking plants and is a centre for many types of traditional handicrafts, producing Xiang embroidery, leather goods, umbrellas, and buttons. Coal is mined in the vicinity.

The Huangxing Road Pedestrian Street

Changsha is one of China's 20 most "economically advanced" cities. In 2008, Changsha's nominal GDP was ¥300.1 billion (US$43 billion), a year-on-year growth of 15.1% from the previous year. Its per capita GDP was ¥45,765 (US$6,589).[20] Its GDP grew at an average of 14% per year from 2001 to 2005, compared to the national average of 9% in the period. As of 2005, the service sector generated roughly around 49% of Changsha's GDP, up 112% from 2001 figures, leading to a disposable income for urban residents of 12,343 RMB annually. This growth is expected to continue driving the city's economic growth.[21] The manufacturing and construction sectors have grown relatively steadily, growing 116% during 2001-2005. The primary sector, including agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery, has grown slightly over this same period. In addition, the consumer market has grown dramatically along with income levels, with the minimum salary level at 600 RMB per month in comparison to Beijing's at 640 RMB or Shanghai's at 750 RMB per month.[22] Urban residents in 2005 had an average income of about US$1,500, 15% higher than the national average and up 10% from 2001 figures.[23]

Changsha has attracted a substantial level of foreign investment. In 2005, for example, nearly US$1 billion worth of foreign direct investment (FDI) poured into the city, mainly in hi-tech, manufacturing, food production, and services. This figure is up 40% from 2001. 59% of the total FDI has come from Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, and Japan; 28% has come from the Americas and 9% from Europe.[24] By the end of 2008 more than 500 foreign companies had made over US$10 million worth of investments in Changsha.[25] Changsha had total retail sales of 74 RMB billion in 2006.[26]

But rapid economic growth has made environmental pollution a serious problem in Changsha, caused by rapidly increasing numbers of private cars, widespread construction sites, and numerous industrial facilities on the outskirts of the city.

Development Zones[edit]

Lugu Hi-tech Industry Development Zone

The Changsha ETZ was founded in 1992. It is located in Xingsha, the eastern Changsha. The total planned area is 38.6 km2 (14.9 sq mi) and the current[when?] area is 38.6 km2 (14.9 sq mi). Near the zone are National Highways 319 and 107 as well as the G4 Beijing–Hong Kong–Macau Expressway. The zone is also very close to Changsha's downtown area and the railway station, while the distance between the zone and the city's airport is a mere 8 km (5.0 mi). The major industries in the zone include the high-tech industry, the biology project technology industry, and the new material industry.[27]

The Liuyang ETZ is a national biological industry base created on 10 January 1998, located in Dongyang Town. Its pillar industry comprises biological pharmacy, Information technology and Health food. As of 2015, It has more than 700 registered enterprises. The total industrial output value of the zone hits 85.6 billion yuan (US$13.7 billion) and its business income is 100.2 billion yuan (US$16.1 billion).[28] Its builtup area covers 16.5 km2 (6.4 sq mi).[29]

Population and demographics[edit]

Changsha has an urban population of 7,044,118. A total of 12,966,836 reside in the metropolitan area.[30] The majority of people living in Changsha are Han Chinese. A sizeable population of ethnic minority groups also live in Changsha. The three largest are the Hui, Tujia, and Miao peoples. The 2000 census showed that 48,564 members of ethnic minorities live in Changsha, 0.7% of the population. The other minorities make up a significantly smaller part of the population. Twenty ethnic minorities have fewer than 1,000 members living in the city.[30][31]

Culture[edit]

Media[edit]

Hunan Broadcasting System is China's largest television after China Central Television (CCTV). Its headquarters is in Changsha and produces some of the most popular programs in China, including Super Girl. These programs have also brought a new entertainment industry into the city, which includes singing bars, dance clubs, theater shows, as well as related businesses including hair salons, fashion stores, and shops for hot spicy snacks at night (especially during summer). While Changsha has developed into an entertainment hub, the city has also become increasingly westernized and has attracted a growing number of foreigners.

Cuisine[edit]

There are various types of cuisine found in Changsha, yet Hunan cuisine remains to be the most popular genre. Hot and spicy food is typical of the region.

The city has its own Siu yeh culture.

In May 2008, the BBC broadcast, as part of its Storyville documentary series, the four-part The Biggest Chinese Restaurant in the World, which explored the inner workings of the 5,000-seating-capacity West Lake Restaurant (Xihu Lou Jiujia) in Changsha.

During the Warring States period, Qu Yuan, a great patriotic poet, recorded many dishes in Hunan in his famous poem "The Soul"(招魂). During the Western Han Dynasty, there were 109 varieties of dishes in Hunan, and there were nine categories of cooking methods. After the Six Dynasties, Hunan's food culture was rich and active. The Ming and Qing dynasties are the golden age for the development of Hunan cuisine. The unique style of Hunan cuisine is basically a foregone conclusion. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, there were two kinds of Hunan cuisine restaurants in Changsha. In the early years of the Republic of China, the famous Dai (Yang Ming) School, Sheng (Shan Zhai) School, Xiao (Lu Song) School, and Zuyu School appeared in various genres, which laid the historical status of Hunan cuisine. Since the founding of New China, especially since the reform and opening up, it has been better developed.[32] Changsha snacks mainly include taste shrimp, Changsha stinky tofu, sugar oil glutinous rice, yellow duck called, Deyuan buns, spicy chicken, Yang Yuxing and so on.

Sports[edit]

Changsha has one of China's largest multi-purpose sports stadiums—Helong Stadium, with 55,000 seats. The stadium was named after the Communist military leader He Long. It is the home ground of local football team Hunan Billows F.C., which plays in China League Two. The more modest 6,000-seat Hunan Provincial People's Stadium, also located in Changsha, is used by the team for their smaller games.[33]

Historical culture[edit]

Changsha hosts the Hunan Provincial Museum. 180,000 historical significant artifacts ranging from the Zhou dynasty to the recent Qing Dynasty are hosted in the 51,000 acres of space in the museum.[34]

Mawangdui is a well-known tomb located 22 kilometers east of Changsha.[35][36] It was discovered with numerous artifacts from the Han dynasty. Numerous Silk Funeral banners surround the tomb, along with a wealth of classical texts.[37][38] The tomb of Lady Dai lies in Mawangdui is well known due to its well-preserved state: scientists were able to detect blood, conduct an autopsy and determined that she died of heart disease due to a poor diet.[39][40]

Changsha is a sister city with St. Paul, Minnesota. St. Paul is developing a China garden at Phalen Park, based on the design of architects from Changsha.[41] Current plans include a pavilion replicating one in Changsha, while in return St. Paul will send the city five statues of the Peanuts characters. They will be placed in Phalen's sister park, Yanghu Wetlands.[42]

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Changsha is the seat of many ancient schools and academies.[43] It is the site of the Hunan Medical University (1914) and has several colleges and institutes of higher learning.

National

Public

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

International schools[edit]

Notable high schools[edit]

Notable Primary Schools[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Changsha is well connected by roads, river, rail, and air transportation modes, and is a regional hub for industrial, tourist, and service sectors.

The city's public transportation system consists of an extensive bus network with over 100 lines. Changsha Metro is planning a 6-line network.[44] Metro Line 2 opened on 29 April 2014[45] and 20 stations for Line 2[44] opened on 28 June 2016.[46][47] A further four lines are planned for construction by 2025.[45] Line 3 will run southwest–northeast and will be 33.4 kilometres (20.8 mi) long, Line 4 northwest-southeast and 29.1 kilometres (18.1 mi) long.[48] A maglev link running 16.5 kilometres (10.3 mi) between Changsha South station and Changsha airport opened in April 2016, with a construction cost of €400m.[45][49][50] Connecting Changsha with Zhuzhou and Xiangtan, Changzhutan Intercity Rail opened on December 26, 2016.[51]

The G4, G4E, G4W2, G5513 and G0401 of National Expressways, G107, G106 and G319 of National Highways, S20, S21, S40, S41, S50, S60 and S71 of Hunan provincial Expressways, connect the Changsha metro area nationally. There are three main bus terminals in Changsha: the South Station, East Station and West Station, dispatching long- and short-haul trips to cities within and outside the province of Hunan. Changsha is surrounded by major rivers, including the Xiang (湘江) and its tributaries such as the Liuyang, Jin, Wei, Longwanggang and Laodao. Ships mainly transport goods from Xianing port in North Changsha domestically and internationally.

Changsha Railway Station is in the city center and provides express and regular services to most Chinese cities via the Beijing–Guangzhou and Shimen–Changsha Railways. The Changsha South Railway Station is a new high-speed railway station in Yuhua district on the Beijing–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway (as part of the planned Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong High-Speed Railway). The station, with 8 platforms,[52] opened on 26 December 2009.[53] Since then passenger volume has increased greatly.[54] The Hangzhou-Changsha-Huaihua sector of the Shanghai-Changsha-Kunming high-speed railway entered service in 2014.

Changsha Huanghua International Airport is a regional hub for China Southern Airlines. The airport has daily flights to major cities in China, including Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, as well as Hong Kong, Macau and Taipei. Other major airlines also provide daily service between Changsha and other domestic and international destinations.The airport provides direct flights to 45 major international cities, including Los Angeles, Singapore, Seoul, Pusan, Osaka, Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, London (Heathrow Airport), Frankfurt and Sydney.[55] As of 5 August 2016 the airport handled 70,011 people daily.[56]

Notable people[edit]

Greater Changsha Metropolitan Region is the birthplace of:

Astronomy[edit]

Changsha is represented by the star Zeta Corvi in a Chinese constellation.[57]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cox, Wendell (2018). Demographia World Urban Areas. 14th Annual Edition (PDF). St. Louis: Demographia. p. 22. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
  2. ^ "Statistical Communiqué of Changsha on the 2016 National Economic and Social Development (Chinese·中文)". Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  3. ^ 湖南省第六次全国人口普查 - 湖南省第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报[1]. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  4. ^ Changsha.gov: Geography of Changsha Archived 19 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ The complete list of national famous historical and cultural cities (promulgated by State Council of China): Chinese-EconomicsNet.com (2015-9-1) Archived 4 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine or Netease (2015-9-1) Archived 17 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Zhongguo gujin diming dacidian 中国古今地名大词典 [Dictionary of Chinese Place-names Ancient and Modern] (Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chubanshe, 2005), 505.
  7. ^ www.chinaeducenter.com. "Changsha City Guide - China Education Center". www.chinaeducenter.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  8. ^ William T. Rowe. China's Last Empire: The Great Qing. (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, History of Imperial China, 2009; ISBN 9780674036123), p. 162-163
  9. ^ Daniel McMahon, "The Yuelu Academy and Hunan's Nineteenth-Century Turn toward Statecraft," Late Imperial China 26.1 (2005): 72-109 Project MUSE Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ Van De Ven, Hans J., War and Nationalism in China, 1925–1945, pg. 237.
  11. ^ Duxiu Chen; Gregor Benton (1998). Gregor Benton (ed.). Chen Duxiu's last articles and letters, 1937-1942 (illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 45. ISBN 0824821122. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 24. Xi'an never fell. Under the Guonaindang General Xue Yue, Changsha was successfully defended three times against the Japanese; Changsha (and the vital Guangzhou-Hankou Railway) did not fall to the Japanese until early 1945.
  12. ^ Natkiel, Richard (1985). Atlas of World War II. Brompton Books Corp. p. 147. ISBN 1-890221-20-1.
  13. ^ Taylor, Jay (2009). The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Making of Modern China. p. 158.
  14. ^ a b according to the natural environment of Changsha / 自然环境 from Changsha Statistical Yearbook 2017 / 长沙统计年鉴2017 see changsha.gov Archived 17 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ sina.com (2013-5-8) Archived 19 April 2018 at the Wayback Machinechina-zjj Archived 20 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "Changsha". www.xinli110.com. Archived from the original on 17 November 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  17. ^ a b "Environmental Resources in Changsha". www.changsha.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 14 August 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  18. ^ "China Meteorological Administration". Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  19. ^ "Archived copy" 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data. China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 23 September 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ Changsha Statistical Yearbook 2007
  21. ^ China Briefing Archived 8 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. China Briefing. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  22. ^ China Briefing Changsha Report Archived 8 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. China-briefing.com. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  23. ^ Changsha Statistical Yearbook 2005
  24. ^ "Strategic & Commercial Intelligence: Changsha investment Environment study 2006 Advisory" (PDF). www.kpmg.com.cn. KPMG. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 June 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  25. ^ Changsha Economic Data and News Archived 2 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. The China Perspective. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  26. ^ China Business News Archived 13 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. China-Briefing. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  27. ^ Changsha National Economic and Technology Development Zone Archived 26 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. RightSite.asia. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  28. ^ About Liuyang ETZ: letz.gov.cn Archived 24 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ 浏阳经开区2016年经济工作报告 [Development Report of LETZ in 2016]. Liuyang People's Government. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017.
  30. ^ a b 湖南人口信息服务网 - 人口普查资料. Hunan Bureau of Statistics (湖南统计局). Archived from the original on 31 March 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  31. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局. www.stats.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 9 May 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  32. ^ "Hunan cuisine". www.china.com.cn. Archived from the original on 16 November 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  33. ^ "Hunan Xiangtao FC". soccerway.com. Archived from the original on 13 February 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
  34. ^ "Hunan Provincial Museum". www.hnmuseum.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  35. ^ Buck, David D., 1975, Three Han Dynasty Tombs at Ma-Wang-Tui. World Archaeology, 7(1): 30-45.
  36. ^ Lee, Sherman E., 1994, A History of Far Eastern Art, Fifth edition, Prentice Hall
  37. ^ Hsu, Mei-Ling, 1978, The Han Maps and Early Chinese Cartography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 68(1): 45-60
  38. ^ 马王堆汉墓陈列全景数字展厅--湖南省博物馆. www.hnmuseum.com (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  39. ^ Harper, Don, 1998, Early Chinese Medical Literature: The Mawangdui Medical Manuscripts, Kegan Paul International
  40. ^ "A Selection of Artifacts from Mawangdui - Photo Gallery - Archaeology Magazine Archive". archive.archaeology.org. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  41. ^ Phalen Regional Park China Garden Archived 13 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ St. Paul Chinese garden getting pavilion gift from sister city Archived 21 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ Yeulu Academy, Changsha Archived 16 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Dm.hnu.cn. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  44. ^ a b 线路图 [Official Map]. hncsmtr.com (in Chinese). Changsha Metro Group Co., Ltd. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  45. ^ a b c "Changsha metro opens". railwaygazette.com. 29 April 2014. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  46. ^ 长沙地铁1号线正式开通试运营 告别单线出行迎来换乘时代_图片频道_新华网 (in Chinese). Xinhua News. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  47. ^ 长沙地铁1号线一期工程可研报告获批 2015年全面竣工 (in Chinese). Changsha News Online (长沙新闻网). 26 October 2010. Archived from the original on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  48. ^ "Metro projects underway in Changsha, Xi'an, Wuhan and Xiamen". railwaygazette.com. 13 July 2011. Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  49. ^ "Changsha airport maglev line openes". Railway Gazette. 4 April 2016. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  50. ^ Changsha to Construct Maglev Train Archived 16 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine, 2014-01-09
  51. ^ 广铁集团公司关于长株潭城际铁路开通运营的公告 (in Chinese). 12306.cn. 25 December 2016. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
  52. ^ 琛, 黄; Su Yi (2 January 2010). 长沙南站好多市民过眼瘾. 长沙晚报. 新民网. Archived from the original on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  53. ^ "Archived copy" 抢占先机 武广高速铁路通车长沙商圈又添新丁. 0731fdc.com news (in Chinese). 26 December 2009. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  54. ^ Bradsher, Keith (24 September 2013). "Speedy Trains Transform China". New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
  55. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  56. ^ "Archived copy" 湖南省机场管理集团有限公司,贵宾服务 (in Chinese). Hunan Airport Management Group Co., Ltd. Archived from the original on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  57. ^ Star Name - R.H. Allen p.182. Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.

External links[edit]