Micul Paris (The Little Paris),
Paris of the East
Patria și dreptul meu
(The Homeland and my right)
|• Mayor||Gabriela Firea (Social Democratic Party)|
|• Capital city||228 km2 (88 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,811 km2 (699 sq mi)|
|Elevation||55.8–91.5 m (183.1–300.2 ft)|
|• Capital city||1,883,425|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||1st in Romania (5th in EU)|
|• Density||8,026/km2 (20,790/sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,315,173 (Bucharest-Ilfov)|
|Demonyms||Bucharester (en) bucureștean, bucureșteancă (ro)|
|Time zone||UTC+02:00 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+03:00 (EEST)|
|- Total||€ 52.2 mld (23.9% of Romania)|
|- Per capita||€ 28,573|
|HDI (2017)||0.914 – very high|
Bucharest (UK: // BOO-kə-REST, US: // -rest; Romanian: București [bukuˈreʃtʲ] (listen)) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at Coordinates: , on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km (37.3 mi) north of the Danube River and the Bulgarian border.
Bucharest was first mentioned in documents in 1459. It became the capital of Romania in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media, culture, and art. Its architecture is a mix of historical (neo-classical and Art Nouveau), interbellum (Bauhaus, and art deco), communist era and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of 'Paris of the East' (Romanian: Parisul Estului) or 'Little Paris' (Romanian: Micul Paris). Although buildings and districts in the historic city centre were heavily damaged or destroyed by war, earthquakes, and even Nicolae Ceaușescu's program of systematization, many survived and have been renovated. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an economic and cultural boom. It is one of the fastest-growing high-tech cities in Europe, according to Financial Times, CBRE, TechCrunch and others. UiPath, a global startup founded in Bucharest, has reached $7 billion in valuation. Since 2019, Bucharest hosts the largest high tech summit in Southeast Europe (Romania Blockchain Summit).
In 2016, the historical city centre was listed as 'endangered' by the World Monuments Watch. In 2017, Bucharest was the European city with the highest growth of tourists who stay over night, according to the Mastercard Global Index of Urban Destinations. As for the past two consecutive years, 2018 and 2019, Bucharest ranked as the European destination with the highest potential for development according to the same study.
According to the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants live within the city limits, a decrease from the 2002 census. Adding the satellite towns around the urban area, the proposed metropolitan area of Bucharest would have a population of 2.27 million people. Bucharest is the fifth largest city in the European Union by population within city limits, after Berlin, Madrid, Rome, and Paris.
Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania. The city has a number of large convention facilities, educational institutes, cultural venues, traditional 'shopping arcades' and recreational areas.
The city proper is administratively known as the 'Municipality of Bucharest' (Municipiul București), and has the same administrative level as that of a national county, being further subdivided into six sectors, each governed by a local mayor.
The Romanian name București has an unverified origin. Tradition connects the founding of Bucharest with the name of Bucur, who was a prince, an outlaw, a fisherman, a shepherd or a hunter, according to different legends. In Romanian, the word stem bucurie means 'joy' ('happiness'), and it is believed to be of Dacian origin, hence the city Bucharest means 'city of joy'.
Other etymologies are given by early scholars, including the one of an Ottoman traveller, Evliya Çelebi, who said that Bucharest was named after a certain 'Abu-Kariș', from the tribe of 'Bani-Kureiș'. In 1781, Austrian historian Franz Sulzer claimed that it was related to bucurie (joy), bucuros (joyful), or a se bucura (to be joyful), while an early 19th-century book published in Vienna assumed its name to be derived from 'Bukovie', a beech forest. In English, the city's name was formerly rendered as Bukarest.
A native or resident of Bucharest is called a 'Bucharester' (Romanian: bucureștean).
Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements in antiquity until its consolidation as the national capital of Romania late in the 19th century. First mentioned as the 'Citadel of București' in 1459, it became the residence of the famous Wallachian prince Vlad III the Impaler.:23
The Ottomans appointed Greek administrators (Phanariotes) to run the town from the 18th century. A short-lived revolt initiated by Tudor Vladimirescu in 1821 led to the end of the rule of Constantinople Greeks in Bucharest.
The Old Princely Court (Curtea Veche) was erected by Mircea Ciobanul in the mid-16th century. Under subsequent rulers, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the royal court. During the years to come, it competed with Târgoviște on the status of capital city after an increase in the importance of southern Muntenia brought about by the demands of the suzerain power – the Ottoman Empire.
Bucharest finally became the permanent location of the Wallachian court after 1698 (starting with the reign of Constantin Brâncoveanu).
Partly destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during the following 200 years, and hit by Caragea's plague in 1813–14, the city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several intervals by the Habsburg Monarchy (1716, 1737, 1789) and Imperial Russia (three times between 1768 and 1806). It was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean War, with an interlude during the Bucharest-centred 1848 Wallachian revolution. Later, an Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian departure (remaining in the city until March 1857). On 23 March 1847, a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings, destroying a third of the city.
In 1862, after Wallachia and Moldavia were united to form the Principality of Romania, Bucharest became the new nation's capital city. In 1881, it became the political centre of the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Romania under King Carol I. During the second half of the 19th century, the city's population increased dramatically, and a new period of urban development began. During this period, gas lighting, horse-drawn trams, and limited electrification were introduced. The Dâmbovița River was also massively channelled in 1883, thus putting a stop to previously endemic floods like the 1865 flooding of Bucharest. The Fortifications of Bucharest were built. The extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest the nickname of 'Little Paris' (Micul Paris) of the east, with Calea Victoriei as its Champs-Élysées.
Between 6 December 1916 and November 1918, the city was occupied by German forces as a result of the Battle of Bucharest, with the official capital temporarily moved to Iași (also called Jassy), in the Moldavia region. After World War I, Bucharest became the capital of Greater Romania. In the interwar years, Bucharest's urban development continued, with the city gaining an average of 30,000 new residents each year. Also, some of the city's main landmarks were built in this period, including Arcul de Triumf and Palatul Telefoanelor. However, the Great Depression took its toll on Bucharest's citizens, culminating in the Grivița Strike of 1933.
In January 1941, the city was the scene of the Legionnaires' rebellion and Bucharest pogrom. As the capital of an Axis country and a major transit point for Axis troops en route to the Eastern Front, Bucharest suffered heavy damage during World War II due to Allied bombings. On 23 August 1944, Bucharest was the site of the royal coup which brought Romania into the Allied camp. The city suffered a short period of Nazi Luftwaffe bombings, as well as a failed attempt by German troops to regain the city.
After the establishment of communism in Romania, the city continued growing. New districts were constructed, most of them dominated by tower blocks. During Nicolae Ceaușescu's leadership (1965–89), much of the historic part of the city was demolished and replaced by 'Socialist realism' style development: (1) the Centrul Civic (the Civic Centre) and (2) the Palace of the Parliament, for which an entire historic quarter was razed to make way for Ceaușescu's megalomaniac plans. On 4 March 1977, an earthquake centred in Vrancea, about 135 km (83.89 mi) away, claimed 1,500 lives and caused further damage to the historic centre.
The Romanian Revolution of 1989 began with massive anti-Ceaușescu protests in Timișoara in December 1989 and continued in Bucharest, leading to the overthrow of the Communist regime. Dissatisfied with the postrevolutionary leadership of the National Salvation Front, some student leagues and opposition groups organised anti-Communist rallies in early 1990, which caused the political change.
Since 2000, the city has been continuously modernised. Residential and commercial developments are underway, particularly in the northern districts; Bucharest's old historic centre is being restored.
In 2015, Bucharest experienced drama, 64 people were killed in the Colectiv nightclub fire. Later the Romanian capital saw the 2017–2019 Romanian protests against the judicial reforms. On 10 August 2018 a protest under the motto 'Diaspora at Home' was held in Bucharest and was marked by significant violence, with over 450 persons injured.
Treaties signed in Bucharest
- Treaty of Bucharest, between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire ending the Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812)
- Treaty of Bucharest, between Serbia and Bulgaria ending the Serbo-Bulgarian War
- Treaty of Bucharest, between Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece ending of the Second Balkan War
- Treaty of Bucharest, a treaty of alliance between Romania and the Entente Powers
- Treaty of Bucharest, between Romania and the Central Powers
The city is situated on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, which flows into the Argeș River, a tributary of the Danube. Several lakes – the most important of which are Lake Herăstrău, Lake Floreasca, Lake Tei, and Lake Colentina – stretch across the northern parts of the city, along the Colentina River, a tributary of the Dâmbovița. In addition, in the centre of the capital is a small artificial lake – Lake Cișmigiu – surrounded by the Cișmigiu Gardens. These gardens have a rich history, having been frequented by poets and writers. Opened in 1847 and based on the plans of German architect Carl F.W. Meyer, the gardens are the main recreational facility in the city centre.
Bucharest parks and gardens also include Herăstrău Park, Tineretului Park and the Botanical Garden. Herăstrău Park is located in the northern part of the city, around Lake Herăstrău, and includes the site the Village Museum. Grigore Antipa Museum is also near in the Victoriei Square. One of its best known locations are Hard Rock Cafe Bucharest and Berăria H (one of the largest beer halls in Europe). Tineretului Park was created in 1965 and designed as the main recreational space for southern Bucharest. It contains a Mini Town which is a play area for kids. The Botanical Garden, located in the Cotroceni neighbourhood a bit west of the city centre, is the largest of its kind in Romania and contains over 10,000 species of plants (many of them exotic); it originated as the pleasure park of the royal family. Besides them, there are many other smaller parks that should be visited, some of them being still large. Alexandru Ioan Cuza Park, Kiseleff Park, Carol Park, Izvor Park, Grădina Icoanei, Circului Park and Moghioroş Park are a few of them. Other large parks in Bucharest are: National Park, Tei Park, Eroilor Park and Crângași Park with Morii Lake.
Lake Văcărești is located in the southern part of the city. Over 190 hectares, including 90 hectares of water, host 97 species of birds, half of them protected by law, and at least seven species of mammals. The lake is surrounded by buildings of flats and is an odd result of human intervention and nature taking its course. The area was a small village that Ceaușescu attempted to convert into a lake. After demolishing the houses and building the concrete basin, the plan was abandoned following the 1989 revolution. For nearly two decades, the area shifted from being an abandoned green space where children could play and sunbathe, to being contested by previous owners of the land there, to being closed for redevelopment into a sports centre. The redevelopment deal failed, and over the following years, the green space grew into a unique habitat. In May 2016, the lake was declared a national park, the Văcărești Nature Park. Dubbed the 'Delta of Bucharest', the area is protected.
Bucharest is situated in the southeastern corner of the Romanian Plain, in an area once covered by the Vlăsiei Forest, which after it was cleared, gave way for a fertile flatland. As with many cities, Bucharest is traditionally considered to be built upon seven hills, similar to the seven hills of Rome. Bucharest's seven hills are: Mihai Vodă, Dealul Mitropoliei, Radu Vodă, Cotroceni, Dealul Spirii, Văcărești, and Sfântu Gheorghe Nou.
The city has an area of 226 km2 (87 sq mi). The altitude varies from 55.8 m (183.1 ft) at the Dâmbovița bridge in Cățelu, southeastern Bucharest and 91.5 m (300.2 ft) at the Militari church. The city has a roughly round shape, with the centre situated in the cross-way of the main north-south/east-west axes at University Square. The milestone for Romania's Kilometre Zero is placed just south of University Square in front of the New St. George Church (Sfântul Gheorghe Nou) at St. George Square (Piața Sfântul Gheorghe). Bucharest's radius, from University Square to the city limits in all directions, varies from 10 to 12 km (6 to 7 mi).
Until recently, the regions surrounding Bucharest were largely rural, but after 1989, suburbs started to be built around Bucharest, in the surrounding Ilfov County. Further urban consolidation is expected to take place in the late 2010s, when the 'Bucharest Metropolitan Area' plan will become operational, incorporating additional communes and cities from the Ilfov and other neighbouring counties.
Bucharest has a subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa, by the -3°C isotherm), but close to continental climates (Dfa/Dfb) and mild summer climates (Cfb/Dfb), with warm to hot, humid summers and cold, snowy winters. Owing to its position on the Romanian Plain, the city's winters can get windy, though some of the winds are mitigated due to urbanisation. Winter temperatures often dip below 0 °C (32 °F), sometimes even to −20 °C (−4 °F). In summer, the average temperature is 23 °C (73 °F) (the average for July and August). Temperatures frequently reach 35 to 40 °C (95 to 104 °F) in midsummer in the city centre. Although average precipitation and humidity during summer are low, occasional heavy storms occur. During spring and autumn, daytime temperatures vary between 17 and 22 °C (63 and 72 °F), and precipitation during spring tends to be higher than in summer, with more frequent yet milder periods of rain.
|Climate data for Bucharest Băneasa (1981–2010, extremes 1929–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||17.1 |
|Average high °C (°F)||2.8 |
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−1.3 |
|Average low °C (°F)||−4.8 |
|Record low °C (°F)||−32.2 |
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||37 |
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||13.7 |
|Average rainy days||6||6||9||11||12||11||9||8||8||10||10||9||109|
|Average snowy days||8||7||5||1||0.03||0||0||0||0||0.3||3||7||31|
|Average relative humidity (%)||89||83||75||71||69||70||68||68||73||79||85||88||76|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||70.6||84.5||138.0||184.8||246.3||265.8||289.2||281.4||224.1||177.4||87.5||62.8||2,112.4|
|Average ultraviolet index||1||2||3||5||7||8||8||7||5||3||2||1||4|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net (average temperatures, humidity, precipitation, and snowy days)|
|Source #2: NOAA (snowfall and sunshine, 1961–1990), Administrația Națională de Meteorologie (extremes) and Weather Atlas|
Bucharest has a unique status in Romanian administration, since it is the only municipal area that is not part of a county. Its population, however, is larger than that of any other Romanian county, hence the power of the Bucharest General Municipality (Primăria Generală), which is the capital's local government body, is the same as any other Romanian county council.
The Municipality of Bucharest, along with the surrounding Ilfov County, is part of the București – Ilfov development region project, which is equivalent to NUTS-II regions in the European Union and is used both by the EU and the Romanian government for statistical analysis, and to co-ordinate regional development projects and manage funds from the EU. The Bucharest-Ilfov development region is not, however, an administrative entity yet.
The city government is headed by a general mayor (Primar General). Decisions are approved and discussed by the capital's General Council (Consiliu General) made up of 55 elected councilors. Furthermore, the city is divided into six administrative sectors (sectoare), each of which has its own 27-seat sectoral council, town hall, and mayor. The powers of the local government over a certain area are, therefore, shared both by the Bucharest municipality and the local sectoral councils with little or no overlapping of authority. The general rule is that the main capital municipality is responsible for citywide utilities such as the water and sewage system, the overall transport system, and the main boulevards, while sectoral town halls manage the contact between individuals and the local government, secondary streets and parks maintenance, schools administration, and cleaning services.
The six sectors are numbered from one to six and are disposed radially so that each one has under its administration a certain area of the city centre. They are numbered clockwise and are further divided into sectoral quarters (cartiere) which are not part of the official administrative division:
- Sector 1 (population 227,717): Dorobanți, Băneasa, Aviației, Pipera, Aviatorilor, Primăverii, Romană, Victoriei, Herăstrău Park, Bucureștii Noi, Dămăroaia, Strǎulești, Grivița, 1 Mai, Băneasa Forest, Pajura, Domenii, Chibrit
- Sector 2 (population 357,338): Pantelimon, Colentina, Iancului, Tei, Floreasca, Moșilor, Obor, Vatra Luminoasă, Fundeni, Plumbuita, Ștefan cel Mare, Baicului
- Sector 3 (population 399,231): Vitan, Dudești, Titan, Centrul Civic, Dristor, Lipscani, Muncii, Unirii
- Sector 4 (population 300,331): Berceni, Olteniței, Giurgiului, Progresul, Văcărești, Timpuri Noi, Tineretului
- Sector 5 (population 288,690): Rahova, Ferentari, Giurgiului, Cotroceni, 13 Septembrie, Dealul Spirii
- Sector 6 (population 371,060): Giulești, Crângași, Drumul Taberei, Militari, Grozăvești (also known as Regie), Ghencea
Each sector is governed by a local mayor, as follows: Sector 1 – Daniel Tudorache (PSD, since 2016), Sector 2 – Mihai Mugur Toader (PSD, since 2016), Sector 3 – Robert Negoiță (PSD, since 2012), Sector 4 – Daniel Băluță (PSD, since 2016), Sector 5 – Daniel Florea (PSD, since 2016), Sector 6 – Gabriel Mutu (PSD, since 2016).
Like all other local councils in Romania, the Bucharest sectoral councils, the capital's general council, and the mayors are elected every four years by the population. Additionally, Bucharest has a prefect, who is appointed by Romania's national government. The prefect is not allowed to be a member of a political party and his role is to represent the national government at the municipal level. The prefect is acting as a liaison official facilitating the implementation of national development plans and governing programs at local level. The prefect of Bucharest (as of 2014[update]) is Paul Nicolae Petrovan.
City general council
The city's general council has the following current political composition, based on the results of the latest local elections:
|Social Democratic Party (PSD)||24|
|Save Romania Union (USR)||15|
|National Liberal Party (PNL)||8|
|People's Movement Party (PMP)||4|
|Alliance of Liberals and Democrats (ALDE)||4|
Bucharest's judicial system is similar to that of the Romanian counties. Each of the six sectors has its own local first-instance court (judecătorie), while more serious cases are directed to the Bucharest Tribunal (Tribunalul Bucureşti), the city's municipal court. The Bucharest Court of Appeal (Curtea de Apel Bucureşti) judges appeals against decisions taken by first-instance courts and tribunals in Bucharest and in five surrounding counties (Teleorman, Ialomița, Giurgiu, Călărași, and Ilfov). Bucharest is also home to Romania's supreme court, the High Court of Cassation and Justice, as well as to the Constitutional Court of Romania.
Bucharest has a municipal police force, the Bucharest Police (Poliția București), which is responsible for policing crime within the whole city, and operates a number of divisions. The Bucharest Police are headquartered on Ștefan cel Mare Blvd. in the city centre, and at precincts throughout the city. From 2004 onwards, each sector city hall also has under its administration a community police force (Poliția Comunitară), dealing with local community issues. Bucharest also houses the general inspectorates of the Gendarmerie and the national police.
Bucharest's crime rate is rather low in comparison to other European capital cities, with the number of total offences declining by 51% between 2000 and 2004, and by 7% between 2012 and 2013. The violent crime rate in Bucharest remains very low, with 11 murders and 983 other violent offences taking place in 2007. Although violent crimes fell by 13% in 2013 compared to 2012, 19 murders (18 of which the suspects were arrested) were recorded.
Although in the 2000s, a number of police crackdowns on organised crime gangs occurred, such as the Cămătaru clan, organised crime generally has little impact on public life. Petty crime, however, is more common, particularly in the form of pickpocketing, which occurs mainly on the city's public transport network. Confidence tricks were common in the 1990s, especially in regards to tourists, but the frequency of these incidents has since declined. However, in general, theft was reduced by 13.6% in 2013 compared to 2012. Levels of crime are higher in the southern districts of the city, particularly in Ferentari, a socially disadvantaged area.
Quality of life
As stated by the Mercer international surveys for quality of life in cities around the world, Bucharest occupied the 94th place in 2001 and slipped lower, to the 108th place in 2009 and the 107th place in 2010. Compared to it, Vienna occupied number one worldwide in 2011 and 2009. Warsaw ranked 84th, Istanbul 112th, and neighbours Sofia 114th and Belgrade 136th (in the 2010 rankings).
Mercer Human Resource Consulting issues yearly a global ranking of the world's most livable cities based on 39 key quality-of-life issues. Among them: political stability, currency-exchange regulations, political and media censorship, school quality, housing, the environment, and public safety. Mercer collects data worldwide, in 215 cities. The difficult situation of the quality of life in Bucharest is confirmed also by a vast urbanism study, done by the Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism.
In 2016, Bucharest's urban situation was described as 'critical' by a Romanian Order of Architects (OAR) report that criticised the city's weak, incoherent and arbitrary public management policies, its elected officials' lack of transparency and public engagement, as well as its inadequate and unsustainable use of essential urban resources. Bucharest's historical city centre is listed as 'endangered' by the World Monuments Watch (as of 2016).
|1851 data: Chambers's Encyclopaedia, 1900: Encyclopædia Britannica, Other data:|
As per the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants lived within the city limits, a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census. This decrease is due to low natural increase, but also to a shift in population from the city itself to its smaller satellite towns such as Voluntari, Buftea, and Otopeni. In a study published by the United Nations, Bucharest placed 19th in among 28 cities that recorded sharp declines in population from 1990 to the mid-2010s. In particular, the population fell by 3.77%.
The city's population, according to the 2002 census, was 1,926,334 inhabitants, or 8.9% of the total population of Romania. A significant number of people commute to the city every day, mostly from the surrounding Ilfov County, but official statistics regarding their numbers do not exist.
Bucharest's population experienced two phases of rapid growth, the first beginning in the late 19th century when the city was consolidated as the national capital and lasting until the Second World War, and the second during the Ceaușescu years (1965–1989), when a massive urbanization campaign was launched and many people migrated from rural areas to the capital. At this time, due to Ceaușescu's decision to ban abortion and contraception, natural increase was also significant.
Bucharest is a city of high population density: 8,260/km2 (21,400/sq mi), owing to the fact that most of the population lives in high-density communist era apartment blocks (blocuri). However, this also depends on the part of the city: the southern boroughs have a higher density than the northern ones. Of the European Union country capital-cities, only Paris and Athens have a higher population density (see List of European Union cities proper by population density).
About 96.6% of the population of Bucharest is Romanian. Other significant ethnic groups are Romani, Hungarians, Turks, Jews, Germans, Chinese, Russians, Ukrainians and Italians. A relatively small number of Bucharesters are also the Greeks, Armenians, Bulgarians, French, Arabs, Africans (including the Afro-Romanians), Vietnamese, Filipinos, Nepalis, Sri Lankans and the Indians. 226,943 people did not declare their ethnicity.
In terms of religious affiliation, 96.1% of the population is Romanian Orthodox, 1.2% is Roman Catholic, 0.5% is Muslim, and 0.4% is Romanian Greek Catholic. Despite this, only 18% of the population, of any religion, attends a place of worship once a week or more. The life expectancy of residents of Bucharest in 2015 was 77.8 years old, which is 2.4 years above the national average.
Bucharest is the centre of the Romanian economy and industry, accounting for around 24% (2017) of the country's GDP and about one-quarter of its industrial production, while being inhabited by 9% of the country's population. Almost one-third of national taxes is paid by Bucharest's citizens and companies. The living standard in the Bucharest-Ilfov region was 145% of the EU average in 2017, according to GDP per capita at the purchasing power parity standard (adjusted to the national price level).
Bucharest area surpassed, on comparable terms, European metropolitan areas such as Budapest (139%), Madrid (125%), Berlin (118%), Rome (110%), Lisbon (102%) or Sofia (79%). and more than twice the Romanian average. After relative stagnation in the 1990s, the city's strong economic growth has revitalised infrastructure and led to the development of shopping malls, residential estates, and high-rise office buildings. In January 2013, Bucharest had an unemployment rate of 2.1%, significantly lower than the national unemployment rate of 5.8%.
Bucharest's economy is centred on industry and services, with services particularly growing in importance in the last 10 years. The headquarters of 186,000 firms, including nearly all large Romanian companies, are located in Bucharest. An important source of growth since 2000 has been the city's rapidly expanding property and construction sector. Bucharest is also Romania's largest centre for information technology and communications and is home to several software companies operating offshore delivery centres. Romania's largest stock exchange, the Bucharest Stock Exchange, which was merged in December 2005 with the Bucharest-based electronic stock exchange Rasdaq, plays a major role in the city's economy.
International supermarket chains such as Kaufland, Lidl, Metro, Selgros, Penny Market, Carrefour, Auchan, Cora, Profi and Mega Image are all operating in Bucharest. The city is undergoing a retail boom. Bucharest hosts luxury brands such as Armani, Versace, Ralph Lauren, Dior, Prada, Chanel, Hermes, Louis Vuitton and Gucci. Malls and large shopping centres have been built since the late 1990s, such as Băneasa Shopping City, AFI Palace Cotroceni, Mega Mall, București Mall, ParkLake Shopping Centre, Sun Plaza, Promenada Mall and longest Unirea Shopping Centre. Bucharest has over 20 malls as of 2019.
IT corporations Amazon, Microsoft, Oracle Corporation or IBM are all present in the Romanian capital. The top ten is also dominated by companies operating in automotive, oil & gas (such as Petrom), as well as companies in telecommunication and FMCG.
Bucharest's public transport system is the largest in Romania and one of the largest in Europe. It is made up of the Bucharest Metro, run by Metrorex, as well as a surface transport system run by STB (Societatea de Transport București, previously known as the RATB), which consists of buses, trams, trolleybuses, and light rail. In addition, a private minibus system operates there. As of 2007[update], a limit of 10,000 taxicab licences was imposed.
It is the hub of Romania's national railway network, run by Căile Ferate Române. The main railway station is Gara de Nord ('North Station'), which provides connections to all major cities in Romania, as well as international destinations: Belgrade, Sofia, Varna, Chișinău, Kiev, Chernivtsi, Lviv, Thessaloniki, Vienna, Budapest, Istanbul, Moscow etc.
The city has five other railway stations run by CFR, of which the most important are Basarab (adjacent to North Station), Obor, Băneasa, and Progresul. These are in the process of being integrated into a commuter railway serving Bucharest and the surrounding Ilfov County. Seven main lines radiate out of Bucharest.
The oldest station in Bucharest is Filaret. It was inaugurated in 1869, and in 1960, the communist government turned it in a bus terminal.
Bucharest has two international airports:
- Henri Coandă International Airport (IATA: OTP, ICAO: LROP), located 16.5 km (10.3 mi) north of the Bucharest city centre, in the town of Otopeni, Ilfov. It is the busiest airport in Romania, in terms of passenger traffic: 12,807,032 in 2017.
- Aurel Vlaicu International Airport (IATA: BBU, ICAO: LRBS) is Bucharest's business and VIP airport. It is situated only 8 km (5.0 mi) north of the Bucharest city centre, within city limits.
Bucharest is a major intersection of Romania's national road network. A few of the busiest national roads and motorways link the city to all of Romania's major cities, as well as to neighbouring countries such as Hungary, Bulgaria and Ukraine. The A1 to Pitești, the A2 Sun Motorway to the Dobrogea region and Constanța and the A3 to Ploiești all start from Bucharest.
A series of high-capacity boulevards, which generally radiate out from the city centre to the outskirts, provides a framework for the municipal road system. The main axes, which run north-south, east-west and northwest-southeast, as well as one internal and one external ring road, support the bulk of the traffic.
The city's roads are usually very crowded during rush hours, due to an increase in car ownership in recent years. In 2013, the number of cars registered in Bucharest amounted to 1,125,591. This results in wear and potholes appearing on busy roads, particularly secondary roads, this being identified as one of Bucharest's main infrastructural problems. A comprehensive effort on behalf of the City Hall to boost road infrastructure was made, and according to the general development plan, 2,000 roads have been repaired by 2008. The huge number of cars registered in the city forced the Romanian Auto Registry to switch to 3-digit numbers on registration plates in 2010.
On 17 June 2011, the Basarab Overpass was inaugurated and opened to traffic, thus completing the inner city traffic ring. The overpass took five years to build and is the longest cable-stayed bridge in Romania and the widest such bridge in Europe; upon completion, traffic on the Grant Bridge and in the Gara de Nord area became noticeably more fluid.
Victoriei Avenue, a major avenue in central Bucharest
Although it is situated on the banks of a river, Bucharest has never functioned as a port city, with other Romanian cities such as Constanța and Galați acting as the country's main ports. The unfinished Danube-Bucharest Canal, which is 73 km (45 mi) long and around 70% completed, could link Bucharest to the Danube River, and via the Danube-Black Sea Canal, to the Black Sea. Works on the canal were suspended in 1989, but proposals have been made to resume construction as part of the European Strategy for the Danube Region.
Bucharest has a growing cultural scene, in fields including the visual arts, performing arts, and nightlife. Unlike other parts of Romania, such as the Black Sea coast or Transylvania, Bucharest's cultural scene has no defined style, and instead incorporates elements of Romanian and international culture.
Bucharest has landmark buildings and monuments. Perhaps the most prominent of these is the Palace of the Parliament, built in the 1980s during the reign of Communist dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu. The largest Parliament building in the world, the palace houses the Romanian Parliament (the Chamber of Deputies, and the Senate), as well as the National Museum of Contemporary Art. The building boasts one of the largest convention centres in the world.
Another landmark in Bucharest is Arcul de Triumf (The Triumphal Arch), built in its current form in 1935 and modelled after the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. A newer landmark of the city is the Memorial of Rebirth, a stylised marble pillar unveiled in 2005 to commemorate the victims of the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which overthrew Communism. The abstract monument sparked controversy when it was unveiled, being dubbed with names such as 'the olive on the toothpick', (măslina-n scobitoare), as many argued that it does not fit in its surroundings and believed that its choice was based on political reasons.
InterContinental Bucharest is a high-rise five-star hotel situated near University Square and is also a landmark of the city. The building is designed so that each room has a unique panorama of the city.
House of the Spark (Casa Scânteii) is a replica of the famous 'Lomonosov' Moscow State University. This edifice built in the characteristic style of the large-scale Soviet projects, was intended to be representative to the new political regime and to assert the superiority of the Communist doctrine. Construction started in 1952 and was completed in 1957, a few years after Stalin's death that occurred in 1953. Popularly known as Casa Scânteii ('House of the Spark') after the name of the official gazette of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, Scânteia, it was made for the purpose of bringing together under one roof all of Bucharest's official press and publishing houses. It is the only building in Bucharest featuring the 'Hammer and Sickle', the Red Star and other communist insignia carved into medallions adorning the façade.
Other cultural venues include the National Museum of Art of Romania, Grigore Antipa National Museum of Natural History, Museum of the Romanian Peasant, National History Museum and the Military Museum.
In terms of visual arts, the city has museums featuring both classical and contemporary Romanian art, as well as selected international works. The National Museum of Art of Romania is perhaps the best-known of Bucharest museums. It is located in the royal palace and features collections of medieval and modern Romanian art, including works by sculptor Constantin Brâncuși, as well as an international collection assembled by the Romanian royal family.
Other, smaller, museums contain specialised collections. The Zambaccian Museum, which is situated in the former home of art collector Krikor H. Zambaccian, contains works by well-known Romanian artists and international artists such as Paul Cézanne, Eugène Delacroix, Henri Matisse, Camille Pissarro, and Pablo Picasso.
The Gheorghe Tattarescu Museum contains portraits of Romanian revolutionaries in exile such as Gheorghe Magheru, ștefan Golescu, and Nicolae Bălcescu, and allegorical compositions with revolutionary (Romania's rebirth, 1849) and patriotic (The Principalities' Unification, 1857) themes. Another impressive art collection gathering important Romanian painters, can be found at the Ligia and Pompiliu Macovei residence, which is open to visitors as it is now part of the Bucharest Museum patrimony.
The Theodor Pallady Museum is situated in one of the oldest surviving merchant houses in Bucharest and includes works by Romanian painter Theodor Pallady, as well as European and oriental furniture pieces. The Museum of Art Collections contains the collections of Romanian art aficionados, including Krikor Zambaccian and Theodor Pallady.
Despite the classical art galleries and museums in the city, a contemporary arts scene also exists. The National Museum of Contemporary Art (MNAC), situated in a wing of the Palace of the Parliament, was opened in 2004 and contains Romanian and international contemporary art. The MNAC also manages the Kalinderu MediaLab, which caters to multimedia and experimental art. Private art galleries are scattered throughout the city centre.
The palace of the National Bank of Romania houses the national numismatic collection. Exhibits include banknotes, coins, documents, photographs, maps, silver and gold bullion bars, bullion coins, and dies and moulds. The building was constructed between 1884 and 1890. The thesaurus room contains notable marble decorations.
Performing arts are some of the strongest cultural elements of Bucharest. The most famous symphony orchestra is National Radio Orchestra of Romania. One of the most prominent buildings is the neoclassical Romanian Athenaeum, which was founded in 1852, and hosts classical music concerts, the George Enescu Festival, and is home to the George Enescu Philharmonic Orchestra.
Bucharest is home to the Romanian National Opera and the I.L. Caragiale National Theatre. Another well-known theatre in Bucharest is the State Jewish Theatre, which features plays starring world-renowned Romanian-Jewish actress Maia Morgenstern. Smaller theatres throughout the city cater to specific genres, such as the Comedy Theatre, the Nottara Theatre, the Bulandra Theatre, the Odeon Theatre, and the revue theatre of Constantin Tănase.
Music and nightlife
Bucharest is home to Romania's largest recording labels, and is often the residence of Romanian musicians. Romanian rock bands of the 1970s and 1980s, such as Iris and Holograf, continue to be popular, particularly with the middle-aged, while since the beginning of the 1990s, the hip hop/rap scene has developed. Hip-hop bands and artists from Bucharest such as B.U.G. Mafia, Paraziții, and La Familia enjoy national and international recognition.
The pop-rock band Taxi have been gaining international respect, as has Spitalul de Urgență's raucous updating of traditional Romanian music. While many neighbourhood discos play manele, an Oriental- and Roma-influenced genre of music that is particularly popular in Bucharest's working-class districts, the city has a rich jazz and blues scene, and to an even larger extent, house music/trance and heavy metal/punk scenes. Bucharest's jazz profile has especially risen since 2002, with the presence of two venues, Green Hours and Art Jazz, as well as an American presence alongside established Romanians.
Cultural events and festivals
A number of cultural festivals are held in Bucharest throughout the year, but most festivals take place in June, July, and August. The National Opera organises the International Opera Festival every year in May and June, which includes ensembles and orchestras from all over the world.
The Romanian Athaeneum Society hosts the George Enescu Festival at locations throughout the city in September every two years (odd years). The Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the Village Museum organise events throughout the year, showcasing Romanian folk arts and crafts.
In the 2000s, due to the growing prominence of the Chinese community in Bucharest, Chinese cultural events took place. The first officially organised Chinese festival was the Chinese New Year's Eve Festival of February 2005, which took place in Nichita Stănescu Park and was organised by the Bucharest City Hall.
In 2005, Bucharest was the first city in Southeastern Europe to host the international CowParade, which resulted in dozens of decorated cow sculptures being placed across the city.
In 2004, Bucharest imposed in the circle of important festivals in Eastern Europe with the Bucharest International Film Festival, an event widely acknowledged in Europe, having as guests of honour famous names from the world cinema: Andrei Konchalovsky, Danis Tanović, Nikita Mikhalkov, Rutger Hauer, Jerzy Skolimowski, Jan Harlan, Radu Mihăileanu, and many others.
Traditional Romanian culture continues to have a major influence in arts such as theatre, film, and music. Bucharest has two internationally renowned ethnographic museums, the Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the open-air Dimitrie Gusti National Village Museum, in King Michael I Park. It contains 272 authentic buildings and peasant farms from all over Romania.
The Museum of the Romanian Peasant was declared the European Museum of the Year in 1996. Patronised by the Ministry of Culture, the museum preserves and exhibits numerous collections of objects and monuments of material and spiritual culture. The Museum of the Romanian Peasant holds one of the richest collections of peasant objects in Romania, its heritage being nearly 90,000 pieces, those being divided into several collections: ceramics, costumes, textiles, wooden objects, religious objects, customs, etc.
The Museum of Romanian History is another important museum in Bucharest, containing a collection of artefacts detailing Romanian history and culture from the prehistoric times, Dacian era, medieval times, and the modern era.
Bucharest is the seat of the Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church, one of the Eastern Orthodox churches in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople, and also of its subdivisions, the Metropolis of Muntenia and Dobrudja and the Archbishopric of Bucharest. Orthodox believers consider Demetrius Basarabov to be the patron saint of the city.
The city is a centre for other Christian organizations in Romania, including the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bucharest, established in 1883, and the Romanian Greek-Catholic Eparchy of Saint Basil the Great, founded in 2014.
Bucharest also hosts 6 synagogues, including the Choral Temple of Bucharest, the Great Synagogue of Bucharest and the Holy Union Temple. The latter was converted into the Museum of the History of the Romanian Jewish Community, while the Great Synagogue and the Choral Temple are both active and hold regular services.
Curtea Veche church
The city centre is a mixture of medieval, neoclassical, Art Deco and Art Nouveau buildings, as well as 'neo-Romanian' buildings dating from the beginning of the 20th century and a collection of modern buildings from the 1920s and 1930s. The mostly utilitarian Communist-era architecture dominates most southern boroughs. Recently built contemporary structures such as skyscrapers and office buildings complete the landscape.
Of the city's medieval architecture, most of what survived into modern times was destroyed by Communist systematization, fire, and military incursions. Some medieval and renaissance edifices remain, the most notable are in the Lipscani area. This precinct contains notable buildings such as Manuc's Inn (Hanul lui Manuc) and the ruins of the Old Court (Curtea Veche); during the late Middle Ages, this area was the heart of commerce in Bucharest. From the 1970s onwards, the area went through urban decline, and many historical buildings fell into disrepair. In 2005, the Lipscani area was restored.
To execute a massive redevelopment project during the rule of Nicolae Ceausescu, the government conducted extensive demolition of churches and many other historic structures in Romania. According to Alexandru Budişteanu, former chief architect of Bucharest, 'The sight of a church bothered Ceauşescu. It didn't matter if they demolished or moved it, as long as it was no longer in sight'. Nevertheless, a project organised by Romanian engineer Eugeniu Iordǎchescu was able to move many historic structures to less-prominent sites and save them.
The city centre has retained architecture from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly the interwar period, which is often seen as the 'golden age' of Bucharest architecture. During this time, the city grew in size and wealth, therefore seeking to emulate other large European capitals such as Paris. Much of the architecture of the time belongs to a Modern (rationalist) Architecture current, led by Horia Creangă and Marcel Iancu.
In Romania, the tendencies of innovation in the architectural language met the need of valorisation and affirmation of the national cultural identity. The Art Nouveau movement finds expression through new architectural style initiated by Ion Mincu and taken over by other prestigious architects who capitalise important references of Romanian laic and medieval ecclesiastical architecture (for example the Mogoșoaia Palace, the Stavropoleos Church or the disappeared church of Văcărești Monastery) and Romanian folk motifs.
Two notable buildings from this time are the Crețulescu Palace, housing cultural institutions including UNESCO's European Centre for Higher Education, and the Cotroceni Palace, the residence of the Romanian President. Many large-scale constructions such as the Gara de Nord, the busiest railway station in the city, National Bank of Romania's headquarters, and the Telephone Palace date from these times. In the 2000s, historic buildings in the city centre underwent restoration. In some residential areas of the city, particularly in high-income central and northern districts, turn-of-the-20th-century villas were mostly restored beginning in the late 1990s.
Communist era architecture
A major part of Bucharest's architecture is made up of buildings constructed during the Communist era replacing the historical architecture with high-density apartment blocks – significant portions of the historic centre of Bucharest were demolished to construct one of the largest buildings in the world, the Palace of the Parliament (then officially called the House of the Republic). In Nicolae Ceaușescu's project of systematization, new buildings were built in previously historical areas, which were razed and then built upon.
One of the singular examples of this type of architecture is Centrul Civic, a development that replaced a major part of Bucharest's historic city centre with giant utilitarian buildings, mainly with marble or travertine façades, inspired by North Korean architecture. The mass demolitions that occurred in the 1980s, under which an overall area of eight square kilometres of the historic centre of Bucharest were levelled, including monasteries, churches, synagogues, a hospital, and a noted Art Deco sports stadium, changed drastically the appearance of the city.
Communist-era architecture can also be found in Bucharest's residential districts, mainly in blocuri, which are high-density apartment blocks that house the majority of the city's population. Initially, these apartment blocks started to be constructed in the 1960s, on relatively empty areas and fields (good examples include Pajura, Drumul Taberei, Berceni and Titan), however with the 1970s, they mostly targeted peripheral neighbourhoods such as Colentina, Pantelimon, Militari and Rahova. Construction of these apartment blocks were also often randomised, for instance some small streets were demolished and later widened with the blocks being built next to them, but other neighbouring streets were left intact (like in the example of Calea Moșilor from 1978–1982), or built in various patterns such as the Piața Iancului-Lizeanu apartment buildings from 1962–1963.
There is also communist architecture that was built in the early years of the system, in the late 1940s and 1950s. Buildings constructed in this era followed the Soviet Stalinist trend of Socialist Realism, and include the House of the Free Press (which was named Casa Scînteii during communism).
Palace of the Parliament, the largest assembly structure in the world
Apartment blocks on Unirii Boulevard, built in the 1980s
Centrul Civic, panoramic view
Since the fall of Communism in 1989, several Communist-era buildings have been refurbished, modernised, and used for other purposes. Perhaps the best example of this is the conversion of obsolete retail complexes into shopping malls and commercial centres. These giant, circular halls, which were unofficially called hunger circuses due to the food shortages experienced in the 1980s, were constructed during the Ceaușescu era to act as produce markets and refectories, although most were left unfinished at the time of the revolution.
Modern shopping malls such as the Unirea Shopping Centre, Bucharest Mall, Plaza Romania, and City Mall emerged on pre-existent structures of former hunger circuses. Another example is the conversion of a large utilitarian construction in Centrul Civic into a Marriott Hotel. This process was accelerated after 2000, when the city underwent a property boom, and many Communist-era buildings in the city centre became prime real estate due to their location. Many Communist-era apartment blocks have also been refurbished to improve urban appearance.
The newest contribution to Bucharest's architecture took place after the fall of Communism, particularly after 2000, when the city went through a period of urban renewal – and architectural revitalization – on the back of Romania's economic growth. Buildings from this time are mostly made of glass and steel, and often have more than 10 storeys. Examples include shopping malls (particularly the Bucharest Mall, a conversion and extension of an abandoned building), office buildings, bank headquarters, etc.
During the last ten years, several high rise office buildings were built, particularly in the northern and eastern parts of the city. Additionally, a trend to add modern wings and façades to historic buildings has occurred, the most prominent example of which is the Bucharest Architects' Association Building, which is a modern glass-and-steel construction built inside a historic stone façade. In 2013, the Bucharest skyline enriched with a 137-m-high office building (SkyTower of Floreasca City Centre), currently the tallest building in Romania. Examples of modern skyscrapers built in the 21st century include Bucharest Tower Centre, Euro Tower, Nusco Tower, Cathedral Plaza, City Gate Towers, Rin Grand Hotel, Premium Plaza, Bucharest Corporate Centre, Millennium Business Centre, PGV Tower, Charles de Gaulle Plaza, Business Development Centre Bucharest, BRD Tower, and Bucharest Financial Plaza. Despite this development on vertical, Romanian architects avoid designing very tall buildings due to vulnerability to earthquakes.
Aside from buildings used for business and institutions, residential developments have also been built, many of which consist of high-rise office buildings and suburban residential communities. An example of a new high rise residential complex is Asmita Gardens. These developments are increasingly prominent in northern Bucharest, which is less densely populated and is home to middle- and upper-class Bucharesters due to the process of gentrification.
Overall, 159 faculties are in 34 universities. Sixteen public universities are in Bucharest, the largest of which are the University of Bucharest, the Politehnica University of Bucharest, the Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, the Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, the National University of Political Studies and Public Administration and the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest.
In the 2020 QS World University Rankings, from Bucharest, only the University of Bucharest was included in the top universities of the world. The Politehnica University disappeared from the ranking. Also, in recent years, the city has had increasing numbers of foreign students enrolling in its universities.
The first modern educational institution was the Princely Academy from Bucharest, founded in 1694 and divided in 1864 to form the present-day University of Bucharest and the Saint Sava National College, both of which are among the most prestigious of their kind in Romania.
Over 450 public primary and secondary schools are in the city, all of which are administered by the Bucharest Municipal Schooling Inspectorate. Each sector also has its own Schooling Inspectorate, subordinated to the municipal one.
Rectorate of the Politehnica University (PUB) at night
The city is well-served by a modern landline and mobile network. Offices of Poșta Română, the national postal operator, are spread throughout the city, with the central post office (Romanian: Oficiul Poștal București 1) located at 12 Matei Millo Street. Public telephones are located in many places and are operated by Telekom Romania, a subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom and successor of the former monopoly Romtelecom.
Bucharest is headquarters of most of the national television networks and national newspapers, radio stations and online news websites. The largest daily newspapers in Bucharest include Evenimentul Zilei, Jurnalul Național, Cotidianul, România Liberă, and Adevărul, while the biggest news websites are Hotnews.ro (with an English and Spanish version), Ziare.com, and Gândul. During the rush hours, tabloid newspapers Click!, Libertatea, and Cancan are popular for commuters.
A number of newspapers and media publications are based in Casa Presei Libere (The House of the Free Press), a landmark of northern Bucharest, originally named Casa Scânteii after the Communist Romania-era official newspaper Scînteia. Casa Presei Libere is not the only Bucharest landmark that grew out of the media and communications industry. Palatul Telefoanelor ('The Telephone Palace') was the first major modernist building on Calea Victoriei in the city's centre, and the massive, unfinished communist-era Casa Radio looms over a park a block away from the Opera.
English-language newspapers first became available in the early 1930s and reappeared in the 1990s. The two daily English-language newspapers are the Bucharest Daily News and Nine O' Clock; several magazines and publications in other languages are available, such as the Hungarian-language daily Új Magyar Szó.
Observator Cultural covers the city's arts, and the free weekly magazines Șapte Seri ('Seven Evenings') and B24FUN, list entertainment events. The city is home to the intellectual journal Dilema veche and the satire magazine Academia Cațavencu.
One of the most modern hospitals in the capital is Colțea that has been re-equipped after a 90-million-euro investment in 2011. It specialises in oncological and cardiac disorders. It was built by Mihai Cantacuzino between 1701 and 1703, composed of many buildings, each with 12 to 30 beds, a church, three chapels, a school, and doctors' and teachers' houses.
Another conventional hospital is Pantelimon, which was established in 1733 by Grigore II Ghica. The surface area of the hospital land property was 400,000 m2 (4,305,564 sq ft). The hospital had in its inventory a house for infectious diseases and a house for persons with disabilities.
Other hospitals or clinics are Bucharest Emergency Hospital, Floreasca Emergency Clinic Hospital, Bucharest University Emergency Hospital, and Fundeni Clinical Institute or Biomedica International and Euroclinic, which are private.
Arena Națională, a new stadium inaugurated on 6 September 2011, hosted the 2012 Europa League Final and has a 55,600-seat capacity, making it one of the largest stadiums in Southeastern Europe and one of the few with a roof.
Sport clubs have formed for handball, water polo, volleyball, rugby union, basketball and ice hockey. The majority of Romanian track and field athletes and most gymnasts are affiliated with clubs in Bucharest. The largest indoor arena in Bucharest is the Romexpo Dome with a seating capacity of 40,000. It can be used for boxing, kickboxing, handball and tennis.
Starting in 2007, Bucharest has hosted annual races along a temporary urban track surrounding the Palace of the Parliament, called Bucharest Ring. The competition is called the Bucharest City Challenge, and has hosted FIA GT, FIA GT3, British F3, and Logan Cup races in 2007 and 2008. The 2009 and 2010 edition have not been held in Bucharest due to a lawsuit. Bucharest GP won the lawsuit that it initiated and will host city races around the Parliament starting 2011 with the Auto GP. Since 2009, Bucharest has the largest Ferrari Shop in Eastern Europe and the 2nd largest in Europe after Milan shop.
Every year, Bucharest hosts the Bucharest Open international tennis tournament, which is included in the WTA Tour. The outdoor tournament is hosted by the tennis complex BNR Arenas. Ice hockey games are held at the Mihai Flamaropol Arena, which holds 8,000 spectators. Rugby games are held in different locations, but the most modern stadium is Arcul de Triumf Stadium, which is also home to the Romanian national rugby team.
- Costache Aristia (1800–1880), actor, writer, schoolteacher, revolutionary and philanthropist
- Nicolae Crețulescu (1812–1900), medical doctor and politician, second Prime Minister of Romania following the assassination of Barbu Catargiu; one of the first presidents of the Romanian Academy
- Constantin Bosianu (1815–1882), law professor and head of the Senate, Prime Minister of Romania and first dean of the Faculty of Law in Bucharest
- C. A. Rosetti (1816–1885), writer, politician and leader of the Wallachian Revolution of 1848; the Romanian Academy was founded on his initiative
- Ion Ghica (1816–1897), economist, engineer, mathematician, writer, revolutionary, diplomat and Prime Minister of Romania
- Dimitrie Ghica (1816–1897), army officer, police prefect, politician, mayor of Bucharest and Prime Minister of Romania
- Nicolae Bălcescu (1819–1852), historian, writer, soldier and leader of the Wallachian Revolution of 1848
- Nicolae Filimon (1819–1865), novelist and short-story writer, author of the first Realist novel in Romanian literature
- Dora d'Istria (1828–1888), writer
- Petre Ispirescu (1830–1887), folklorist and publicist
- Alexandru Odobescu (1834–1895), archaeologist, author and politician
- Ștefan Fălcoianu (1835–1905), army general who served as Chief of the Romanian General Staff and War Minister.
- Ioan Kalinderu (1840–1814), law professor, writer, silviculturist, confidant of King Carol I and head of the Romanian Academy
- Ion I. Câmpineanu (1841–1888), politician, mayor of Bucharest and the first head of the National Bank of Romania
- Emanoil Protopopescu-Pake (1845–1893), law professor, police prefect and politician, mayor of Bucharest
- Alexandru Macedonski (1854–1920), poet, writer and literary critic
- Barbu Ștefănescu Delavrancea (1858–1918), writer, poet, lawyer and mayor of Bucharest
- Nicolae Filipescu (1862–1916), politician, mayor of Bucharest
- Gheorghe Marinescu (1863–1938), founder of the Romanian School of Neurology
- Elena Văcărescu (1864–1947), writer and twice laureate of the French Academy
- Dragomir Hurmuzescu (1865–1954), physicist and inventor
- Vintilă Brătianu (1867–1930), construction engineer, mayor of Bucharest and Prime Minister of Romania
- Nicolae Paulescu (1869–1931), medical doctor, physiologist and the discoverer of insulin
- Ion Gheorghe Duca (1879–1933), politician and Prime Minister of Romania
- Tudor Arghezi (1880–1967), poet and writer
- Traian Lalescu (1882–1929), mathematician
- Mateiu Caragiale (1885–1936), poet and prose writer, illegitimate child of Ion Luca Caragiale
- Viorica Agarici (1886–1979), nurse and philanthropist, Righteous Among the Nations
- George Topîrceanu (1886–1937), poet, short story writer and humourist.
- Henri Coandă (1886–1972), aviation pioneer, inventor, the builder of world's first jet powered aircraft (Coandă-1910) and the discoverer of the Coandă effect
- Jacob L. Moreno (1889–1974), psychiatrist, leading social scientist, founder of psychodrama and foremost pioneer of group psychotherapy
- Edward G. Robinson (1893–1973), actor of stage and screen during Hollywood's Golden Age
- Catherine Caradja (1893–1993), aristocrat and philanthropist
- Mihail Andricu (1894–1974), composer, violinist, and pianist
- Camil Petrescu (1894–1957), writer, poet and philosopher
- Marcel Janco (1895–1984), visual artist, architect and art theorist, co-inventor of Dadaism
- Clara Haskil (1895–1960), classical pianist
- Marthe, Princess Bibesco (1886–1973), writer and poet
- George Călinescu (1899–1965), literary critic
- Mircea Eliade (1907–1986), historian of religion, writer and philosopher
- Haralamb H. Georgescu (1908–1977), modernist architect
- Șerban Țițeica (1908–1985), physicist, the child of Gheorghe Țițeica; head of the Romanian Academy
- Vazken I of Bucharest (1908–1994), Catholicos of All Armenians, National Hero of Armenia
- Richard Wurmbrand (1909–2001), Christian minister
- Maria Tănase (1913–1963), singer and actress
- Corneliu Coposu (1914–1995), politician and communist detainee
- Gică Petrescu (1915–2006), singer and composer
- Gellu Naum (1915–2001), surrealist writer
- Neagu Djuvara (1916–2018), historian, diplomat, law professor, writer and philosopher, nephew of Alexandru Djuvara
- Dinu Lipatti (1917–1950), pianist and composer
- Angelica Rozeanu (1921–2006), one of the most successful female table tennis players in the history of the sport
- Horia Damian (1922–2012), painter and sculptor
- Liviu Ciulei (1923–2011), theatre and film director, film writer, actor, educator, and costume and set designer
- Dinu C. Giurescu (1927–2018), historian and politician, son of Constantin C. Giurescu
- Nicolae Herlea (1927–2014), opera singer, baritone
- Draga Olteanu Matei (b. 1933), film and stage actress
- Victor Rebengiuc (b. 1933), film and stage actor, activist
- Gheorghe Dinică (1934–2009), actor
- Mircea Albulescu (1934–2016), film and stage actor, professor, journalist, poet and writer
- Cristian Țopescu (1937–2018), sports commentator, journalist and politician
- Gheorghe Gruia (1940–2015), handball player and twice world champion, named Greatest Handball Player of All Time by the International Handball Federation (IHF)
- Margareta Pâslaru (b. 1943), actress and singer
- Cristian Gațu (b. 1945), former handball player, twice winner of the World Championship with Romania and twice winner of the European Champions Cup with Steaua București
- Mircea Lucescu (b. 1945), former football player and current coach, European Coach of the Year
- Ilie Năstase (b. 1946), tennis player and the first World No. 1, International Tennis Hall of Famer
- Florea Dumitrache (1948–2007), football player and twice winner of the Romanian Footballer of the Year award
- Andrei Pleșu (b. 1948), philosopher and essayist
- Corneliu Vadim Tudor (1949–2015), poet, writer, journalist and politician
- Dudu Georgescu (b. 1950), football player and twice winner of the European Golden Shoe
- Anghel Iordănescu (b. 1950), former football player and coach, and winner of the European Cup
- Mircea Cărtărescu (b. 1956), writer, poet and literary critic
- Michael Crețu (b. 1957), singer, songwriter, and producer, founder of Enigma
- Mircea Geoană (b. 1958), former politician and current Deputy Secretary General of NATO
- Cristian Diaconescu (b. 1959), diplomat
- Octavian Morariu (b. 1961), currently President of Rugby Europe
- Maia Morgenstern (b. 1962), film and stage actress
- Ștefan Bănică Jr. (b. 1967), singer, composer and actor
- Laura Badea-Cârlescu (b. 1970), fencer, Olympic, World and European champion in foil, International Fencing Hall of Famer
- Bogdan Aurescu (b. 1973), lawyer, diplomat and politician
- Rukmini Callimachi (b. 1973), NYTimes journalist
- Theodor Paleologu (b. 1973), historian, diplomat and politician, son of Alexandru Paleologu
- Roxana Mărăcineanu (b. 1975), former swimmer, first French world champion, current politician and the Minister of Youth and Sports of France
- Ion Oncescu (b. 1978), prolific arm wrestler, hall of famer
- Alexandra Maria Lara (b. 1978), actress
- Ana Maria Popescu (b. 1984), fencer, Olympic, World and European champion, former World No. 1 in épée
- Cristina Neagu (b. 1988), handball player, has a record four IHF World Player of the Year awards
The twin towns and sister cities of Bucharest are:
- Paris, France
- London, England
- Moscow, Russia
- Beijing, China
- São Paulo, Brazil
- Pretoria, South Africa
- Hanoi, Vietnam
- Manila, Philippines
- Ankara, Turkey
- Budapest, Hungary
- Athens, Greece
- Nicosia, Cyprus
- Sofia, Bulgaria
- Chișinău, Moldova
- Tirana, Albania
- Damascus, Syria
- Amman, Jordan
- Hannover, Germany
- Montreal, Quebec, Canada
- Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
- Atlanta, Georgia, United States
- Detroit, Michigan, United States
- Jersey City, New Jersey, United States
- Athens, Georgia, United States
- Lagos, Nigeria
- "Paris of the east". The Irish Times. 5 May 2009. Archived from the original on 4 June 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- Catiusa Ivanov (23 June 2016). "Gabriela Firea, primarul ales al capitalei, despune astăzi jurământul". Realitatea TV. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
- INS. "Romanian Statistical Yearbook" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
- "Demographia World Urban Areas & Population Projections" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- "Populaţia României pe localitati la 1 ianuarie 2019" (in Romanian). INSSE. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
- "Official data for 2011 census" (PDF) (in Romanian). INSSE. 4 July 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- "1.4 Produsul intern brut pe locuitor, pe judeţe şi regiuni" (PDF). CNP.ro.
- "Sub-national HDI – Subnational HDI – Global Data Lab". Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
- Bucharest, the small Paris of the East Archived 21 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine, on the Museums from Romania web site.
- Bucica, 2000, p.6.
- "Bucharest is Booming". qualitestgroup.com. 23 April 2019.
- "High-Tech Cities: Have You Ever Tried Coffee in Bucharest?". Pentalog. 17 April 2019. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
- "How Romania became a popular tech destination". Financial Times. 19 September 2019. Archived from the original on 27 September 2019. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
- "Bucharest, In The Top Of Cities With The Most Experts In High-Tech Industry". Romania Journal. 11 February 2019.
- "10 Romanian startups to look out for in 2019 and beyond". eu-startups.com. 29 May 2019. Archived from the original on 13 November 2019. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
- "The Silicon Valley of Transylvania". TechCrunch. 6 April 2016. Archived from the original on 13 April 2019. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
- "UiPath nabs $568M at a $7B valuation to bring robotic process automation to the front office". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 12 May 2019. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
- "Bucureştiul găzduieşte România Blockchain Summit". Antena 3 (in Romanian). 20 June 2019. Archived from the original on 20 June 2019. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
- "- World Monuments Fund". Wmf.org. Archived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
- "Mastercard study: Bucharest is the European city with the highest growth of tourists' number". business-review.eu. 29 September 2017. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
- "Bucharest has highest potential for development in Europe". travelandtourworld.com. 15 October 2015.
- "Adevarul: The BMZ in numbers". Archived from the original on 13 September 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- PriceWaterhouseCoopers Global Regional Attractiveness Report Romania Archived 13 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- Rosetti, II. p.110
- Ion I. Russu, Limba traco-dacilor, 1967, Editura științifică
- Cutler, Nellie (2011). "Southeastern Europe". TIME for Kids World Atlas. TIME for Kids Books (Rev. and updated ed.). New York, NY. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-60320-884-0.
- Georgescu et al., p.76-77
- Giurescu, C.C., 1976, History of Bucharest, Bucharest: The Publishing House for Sports and Tourism
- Djuvara, Neagu (2013). Între Orient și Occident. Țările române la începutul epocii moderne (1800–1848). Humanitas. ISBN 978-973-50-4083-3.
- Giurescu, p.154-161, 169–171
- Giurescu, p.157, 161, 163
- Giurescu, p.191-195
- "Data". www.geocities.com. Archived from the original on 25 October 2009.
- "Thousands of Romanians rally against ruling party's judicial overhaul". Reuters. 26 November 2017. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
- "Romania: Tens of thousands protest for second night running | DW | 12.08.2018". Archived from the original on 12 August 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
- Botanical Garden Archived 29 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine, onlinegallery.ro. Retrieved 13 October 2006.
- "FOTOGALERIE Cum e afectata fauna din Delta Vacaresti de incendii si distrugeri si de ce dureaza atat de mult protejarea zonei". HotNewsRo. 3 March 2016. Archived from the original on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- "Delta Văcăreşti, privită de la etajul 17. Cum s-a transformat lacul lui Ceauşescu în parcul natural urban de astăzi". adevarul.ro. Archived from the original on 1 May 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- "Delta dintre blocuri | Parcul Natural Văcărești | "delta" dintre blocuri". parcnaturalvacaresti.ro. Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- "Parcul Natural Văcărești a fost aprobat oficial | Parcul Natural Văcărești | "delta" dintre blocuri". parcnaturalvacaresti.ro. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Andrei Dumitrescu (28 May 2015). "CGMB a avizat declararea lacului Văcăreşti arie naturală protejată". Mediafax. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
- "BMA will be extended to the Danube". 13 June 2011. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016.
- Sfetcu, Nicolae (14 November 2015). Bucharest Tourist Guide (Ghid turistic București): Pocket Edition (Ediția de buzunar). Nicolae Sfetcu.
- "Bucharest, Romania Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- "The Climate of Bucharest 1981–2010 (Average Temperatures, Humidity)" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Archived from the original on 13 October 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- "București Băneasa Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "București Băneasa: Record mensili dal 1929" (in Italian). Administrația Națională de Meteorologie. Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Bucharest, Romania – Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- "Marian Vanghelie, suspendat din funcția de primar al sectorului 5. Cine îi va prelua atribuțiile". Jurnalul Național (in Romanian). 6 April 2015. Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Victor Ponta, prezent la ceremonia de învestire a noului prefect al Capitalei. Cine este Paul Nicolae Petrovan, înlocuitorul Georgetei Gavrilă". Digi24 (in Romanian). 3 April 2014. Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Bucharest Crime Statistics 2000–2004 Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Bucharest Directorate-General of Police
- "DGPMB – Poliția Română" (PDF). b.politiaromana.ro. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
- B.politiaromano.ro Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "Worldwide Street Children statistics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2011. (20.5 KB), Conrad N. Hilton Humanitarian Prize/Council of Europe
- "Worldwide Quality of Living Survey". Expat.or.id. 11 March 2002. Archived from the original on 15 April 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- "Bucharest keeps 108 in the Mercer top dedicated to life quality". Actmedia.eu. 30 April 2009. Archived from the original on 6 October 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- "2010 Quality of Living global city rankings – Mercer survey" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2012.
- "Conceptul Strategic București 2035 ETAPA I – see page 44 ref. to quality of life in Bucharest" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
- De ce e nevoie de Legea Bucureștiului. Arhitecții au lansat Raportul pentru București 2016 Romania Curata, 03.08.2016 Archived 18 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Marica, Irina (22 June 2015). "Green is good: Ten large parks in Bucharest – Romania Insider". Romania-insider.com. Archived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
- Chambers's Encyclopaedia Archived 25 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Vol. II, 1861 based on Brockhaus Enzyklopädie, 10th Edition
- Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
- George Milea, Contribuții la demografia Municipiului București. Volumul 1 : Populația după recensăminte. Natalitatea. Mortalitatea, 1933, Tipografia Curții Regale F. Göbl Fii
- Laurențiu Rădvan, At Europe's Borders: Medieval Towns in the Romanian Principalities, Brill, 2010, p.260
- Florian Georgescu et al. Istoria Orașului București, Muzeul de Istorie a Orașului București, 1965, p. 121
- "Orașele care își pierd locuitorii. Bucureștiul, în topul localitatilor lumii cu cea mai mare rată de scădere a populației". inCont.ro. 9 February 2014. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "One out of three Bucharest employees is a commuter". 25 August 2008. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Semnele vitale în București și Iași. Localnici în acte și în suflet?". Archived from the original on 8 December 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
- "România e în plin boom de muncitori asiatici. Dar cine sunt ei?". Archived from the original on 8 December 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Open Society Institute's Survey into Religiosity in Romania". Archived from the original on 23 June 2006. Retrieved 23 June 2006. (Microsoft Word document)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 September 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Joint Inclusion Memorandum of Romania". Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 6 March 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- (in Romanian) "AMOFM: Rata șomajului în București a fost de 2,05%, la sfârșitul lunii ianuarie", capital.ro, 8 February 2013; accessed 22 April 2013
- (in Romanian) Situația statistică a șomajului înregistrat la 31 ianuarie 2013 Archived 8 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Agenția Națională Pentru Ocuparea Forței de Muncă; accessed 22 April 2013
- "Toti bucureștenii vor avea dosar fiscal din 2006". Retrieved 1 June 2016.[dead link], Averea, 15 December 2005
- "ANALIZĂ INFOGRAFIC Topul mallurilor cu cele mai mari afaceri din România" (in Romanian). Profit TV. 24 June 2019. Archived from the original on 25 August 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- "TOP 5 MALLS TO VISIT IN BUCHAREST". Profit TV. 23 October 2017. Archived from the original on 25 August 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- "Oracle, Microsoft, IBM, among most wanted employers in Romania". romania-insider.com. 18 July 2017. Archived from the original on 25 August 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- "Amazon a deschis centrul din București și pregătește angajări" (in Romanian). Profit TV. 9 May 2019. Archived from the original on 25 August 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- "Săptămâna Financiară | Anchete | Atacul clonelor în taximetria bucureșteană". Sfin.ro. Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
- Răduță, Cristina (8 March 2014). "Poveștile gărilor din Bucureşti. Cum a vrut Ceauşescu să demoleze Gara de Nord, ridicată din ordinul Regelui Carol I. Filaret, prima gară din București". Adevărul (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "CNAB" (PDF). bucharestairports.ro.
- "O mașină, la doi bucureșteni. Cum arată parcul auto din Capitală". Adevărul. Archived from the original on 14 February 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "Rehabilitation of Urban Roads, Phase II". Archived from the original on 11 January 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2008.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), from the site of the General Mayor of Bucharest, Adriean Videanu
- Noutati (28 April 2007). "Bucureștenii beneficiază de cel mai mare punct intermodal din România! " Pasajul Basarab". Pasajulbasarab.ro. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "VIDEO Primele efecte ale Pasajului Basarab: Cum s-a degrevat traficul de pe Podul Grant și din zona Gării de Nord – Esențial". HotNews.ro. July 2011. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Bucharest main boulevard Magheru among the most expensive in European commercial rents top". Hotnews.ro (in Romanian). 5 November 2008. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
- "Danube-Bucharest Canal vs. the Global Crisis". 13 December 2010. Archived from the original on 11 September 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
- "Memorialul Renasterii", ce oribilitate! Archived 17 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine ("The Monument of Rebirth – how horrible!"), Săptămâna Financiară, August 2005 (in Romanian)
- Romanian Athenaeum awarded Label of European Heritage Archived 15 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Romania's Permanent Delegation to NATO
- Hotel Intercontinental Bucharest Archived 12 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine (" 5 star hotel "), Hotel-bucuresti.com,(in Romanian)
- "Despre Sky Tower". skytower.ro (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 31 July 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
- "CMUZEUL NAŢIONAL de ISTORIE NATURALĂ GRIGORE ANTIPA". Gândul. Archived from the original on 24 August 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
- Chinese New Year's Eve celebrated in Bucharest Archived 19 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine, Bucharest Daily News, 7 February 2005
- "Poveste". BIFF. Archived from the original on 20 May 2014.
- "Vizitează muzeul". Muzeul Național al Satului "Dimitrie Gusti". Archived from the original on 21 May 2014.
- "Prezentare muzeu". Muzeul Național al Țăranului Român. Archived from the original on 20 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- Stanciulescu, Anda (1–31 March 2014). "La Pas Prin Sinagogile Bucureștene" (PDF). Realitatea Evreiască. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- Ebru Şengül (24 June 2015). "Turkey to build mosque in Romania in exchange for land for a church". Daily Sabah. Archived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
- "Moscheea de la București nu se mai construiește. Proiectul a fost abandonat din motive financiare". TVR. 12 July 2018. Archived from the original on 4 October 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "Lipscani, zonă protejată" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 August 2015.
- Smith, Harrison. Obituaries: Eugeniu Iordachescu, Romanian engineer who saved condemned churches under communist rule, dies at 89. Archived 10 January 2019 at the Wayback Machine Washington Post
- "Stilul arhitectural național romantic și Art Nouveau în București". Unknown Bucharest. 20 June 2010. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- Economy, Redactia Great (14 September 2015). "Fabrici comuniste, transformate in mall-uri sau apartamente". Greateconomy.ro. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
- "Bucureștiul nu este un oraș pentru zgârie-nori, e mai degrabă un oraș pe orizontală". Știrile TVR. 7 May 2014. Archived from the original on 20 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- "Cum a ajuns "Spiru Haret" cea mai mare universitate din lume | Financiarul". Financiarul.ro. 13 July 2009. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "EXCLUSIV Universitățile "Spiru Haret" și "Petre Andrei" au fost scoase în afara legii. 56.000 de absolvenți, în aer. Andronescu, pentru Gândul: "Aceste diplome nu respectă legea" – Gandul". Gandul.info. 11 July 2009. Archived from the original on 24 September 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
- "Andrei Marga: "Universitățile din țară, cele mai corupte din UE"". Adevarul.ro. Archived from the original on 19 January 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
- "Trei universități din România dispar din Clasamentul internațional al universităților QS. Babeș-Bolyai și Universitatea din București rămân în categoria 801+" (in Romanian). g4media.ro. 21 June 2019. Archived from the original on 24 August 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
- "Numărul studenților străini din România s-a dublat – Cotidianul". Cotidianul.ro. 28 April 2008. Archived from the original on 3 May 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
- "Cele mai bune universități și specializări din România". Realitatea.Net. Archived from the original on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- ""Sf. Sava" din București, cel mai bun liceu din țară / 9.93 ultima medie de intrare la liceu". Adevarul.ro. 1 July 2010. Archived from the original on 11 September 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- Coltea H. Archived 20 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine (in Romanian)
- Adi Dobre. "Mircea Sandu: "Facem inaugurarea stadionului Național cu Franța" – Naționala >". EVZ.ro. Archived from the original on 18 May 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Oprescu: "Stadionul Național va fi gata în decembrie 2010!" | ProSport". Prosport.ro. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Bucharest GP în iulie 2011". Motorsportnews.ro. 28 September 2010. Archived from the original on 8 December 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- "Ferrari Store Opened in Bucharest, Romania". autoevolution.com. 7 December 2009. Archived from the original on 24 August 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
- "Cel mai mare magazin Ferrari pe Calea Victoriei" (in Romanian). bucuresti.tourneo.ro. 25 November 2009. Archived from the original on 24 August 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
- "Cu cine este înfrățit Bucureștiul?". Adevărul (in Romanian). 21 February 2011. Archived from the original on 18 November 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- "Academy of Economic Studies – Short History of Bucharest". Ase.edu.ro. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
- "Sister Cities". Beijing Municipal Government. Archived from the original on 17 January 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
- "Pesquisa de Legislação Municipal – No 14471" [Research Municipal Legislation – No 14471]. Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo [Municipality of the City of São Paulo] (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 18 October 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- "Videanu, primarul care dă în gropi". Gândul (in Romanian). 26 August 2006. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
- "About Manila: Sister Cities". City of Manila. Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- "Orașe înfrățite (Twin cities of Minsk) [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Romanian). Primăria Municipiului Chişinău. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "Yerevan.am: Partner Cities". Yerevan Municipal Government. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- Modern history of Bucharest, City Hall of Bucharest
- Șerban Cantacuzino, Două Orașe Distincte. Revista Secolul XX 4/6 (1997): 11–40
- Ernie Schoffham, Luminița MacHedon, Șerban Cantacuzino, Romanian Modernism: The Architecture of Bucharest, 1920–1940
- Romania: Arts & Architecture, Romanian Tourist Office
- Tatiana Murzin, Romanian Education, 2005
- Romanian Education Portal, Site for the Ministry of Education containing lists of all educational establishments.
- Bucharest, the small Paris of the East, on the Museums from Romania web site.
- Bucica, Cristina. "Legitimating Power in Capital Cities: Bucharest – Continuity Through Radical Change?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 October 2005. (39.0 KB), 2000.