|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Illinois's 1st district
|Assumed office |
January 3, 1993
|Preceded by||Charles Hayes|
|Member of the Chicago City Council|
from the 2nd Ward
|Preceded by||William Barnett|
|Succeeded by||Madeline Haithcock|
Bobby Lee Rush
November 23, 1946
Albany, Georgia, U.S.
(m. 1965; div. 1973)
(m. 1980; died 2017)
Paulette Holloway (m. 2018)
|Education||Roosevelt University (BGS)|
University of Illinois at Chicago (MA)
McCormick Theological Seminary (MA)
|Branch/service||United States Army|
|Years of service||1963–1968|
Bobby Lee Rush (born November 23, 1946) is an American politician, activist, pastor, and the U.S. Representative for Illinois's 1st congressional district, serving in Congress for more than two decades.
Rush was first elected to Congress in 1992 and took office in 1993. He has since won consecutive re-election. The district was located principally on the South Side of Chicago, with a population from 2003 to early 2013 that was 65% African-American, a higher proportion than any other congressional district in the nation. In 2011 the Illinois General Assembly redistricted this area following the 2010 census. While still minority-majority, since early 2013 it is 51.3% African American, 9.8% Latino and 2% Asian. He was re-elected in 2016. A member of the Democratic Party, Rush is the only politician to have defeated Barack Obama in an election, which he did in the 2000 Democratic primary for Illinois' 1st congressional district.
- 1 Early life, education, and activism
- 2 Formal education
- 3 Politics
- 4 U.S. House of Representatives
- 5 Beloved Community Christian Church
- 6 Unpaid taxes and wage garnishment
- 7 Personal life
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Early life, education, and activism
Rush was born on November 23, 1946 in Albany, Georgia. After his parents separated when Rush was 7 years old, his mother took him and his siblings to Chicago, Illinois, joining the Great Migration of African Americans out of the South in the first part of the 20th century. In 1963 Rush dropped out of high school before graduating; he joined the U.S. Army. While stationed in Chicago in 1966, he joined the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, which had helped obtain national civil rights legislation passed in 1964 and 1965. In 1968, he went AWOL from the Army and co-founded the Illinois chapter of the Black Panthers. He later finished his service, receiving an honorable discharge from the Army.
Throughout the 1960s, Rush was involved in the civil rights movement and worked in civil disobedience campaigns in the southern United States. After co-founding the Illinois chapter of the Black Panther Party in 1968, he served as its defense minister. After Black Panther Fred Hampton was killed in a police raid, Rush said, "We needed to arm ourselves", and referred to the police as "pigs". Earlier that same year Rush had discussed the philosophy of his membership in the Black Panthers saying, "Black people have been on the defensive for all these years. The trend now is not to wait to be attacked. We advocate offensive violence against the power structure." After Hampton's death, Rush became acting chairman of the Illinois Black Panther Party.
Rush worked on several non-violent projects that built support for the Black Panthers in African-American communities, such as coordinating a medical clinic which offered sickle-cell anemia testing on an unprecedented scale. Rush's own apartment was raided in December 1969, where police discovered an unregistered pistol, rifle, shotgun, pistol ammunition, training manuals on explosives, booby traps, an assortment of communist literature, and a small amount of marijuana. Rush was imprisoned for six months in 1972 on a weapons charge, after carrying a pistol into a police station. In 1974, he left the Panthers, who were already in decline. "We started glorifying thuggery and drugs", he told People magazine. Rush, a deeply religious born-again Christian, said, "I don't repudiate any of my involvement in the Panther party—it was part of my maturing."
In 1973, Rush earned his Bachelor of General Studies with honors from Roosevelt University, and a Master's degree in political science from University of Illinois at Chicago in 1974. He completed a degree in theological studies at McCormick Theological Seminary in 1978. On May 13, 2017 Rush received an Honorary Doctorate of Humanities, honoris causa, from the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) for his outstanding contributions to Chicago.
In 1974, Rush ran for a seat on the Chicago City Council, the first of several black militants to seek political office, and was defeated. Rush's allies in the black-power movement abandoned the Democrats in the wake of the political turmoil that followed Washington's sudden death in 1987 and formed their own political party, naming it after the late mayor. Rush infuriated Harold Washington Party leaders by spurning their candidates for local offices and, on occasion, backing white Democrats instead. Rush worked with the regular Democrats and was rewarded with the deputy chairmanship of the state party.
In 1999, Rush ran for Mayor of Chicago, but lost to incumbent Richard M. Daley, an ethnic Irish American whose father had long controlled the city as mayor. He remained active in city and regional politics.
In 2013, Rush criticized a proposal by former Republican Senator Mark Kirk who suggested that 18,000 members of the Chicago gang "Gangster Disciples" be arrested. Rush called Kirk's approach "headline grabbing", and said it was an "upper-middle-class, elitist white boy solution to a problem he knows nothing about". A spokesman for Kirk said the Congressman had dealt with the issues for decades.
Also in 2013, Alex Clifford was forced to resign as CEO of Metra, but soon after he left, a memo was released indirectly accusing Rush of using his political power to steer a $50,000 contract to a Washington based business group.
Endorsement of Obama for President
Though a very close friend to former President Bill Clinton and his wife, politician Hillary Clinton, Rush announced early on in the 2008 Democratic primaries that he would support Barack Obama. After Obama won the Presidency and vacated his Senate seat, Rush proposed that an African American should be appointed to fill that seat. During a press conference, Rush said, "With the resignation of President-elect Obama, we now have no African-Americans in the United States Senate, and we believe it will be a national disgrace to not have this seat filled by one of the many capable African-American Illinois politicians." Rush said he did not support any particular person, and he was not interested in the seat. On December 30, 2008, Governor Rod Blagojevich announced his appointment of Roland Burris, the former Attorney General of Illinois; Rush was present at the press conference and spoke in support of Burris.
U.S. House of Representatives
After redistricting in 1992, Rush decided to run in the newly redrawn Illinois' 1st congressional district, which included much of the South Side of Chicago. The district had a high proportion of African-American residents. Rush defeated incumbent U.S. Congressman Charles Hayes and six other candidates in the Democratic primary election in 1992. He won the general election with 83% of the vote. In the 2000 Democratic primary for the Illinois' 1st congressional district, Rush was challenged by young Illinois State Senator Barack Obama. During the primary, Rush said, "Barack Obama went to Harvard and became an educated fool. Barack is a person who read about the civil rights protests and thinks he knows all about it."
Rush claimed Obama was insufficiently rooted in Chicago's black neighborhoods to represent constituents' concerns. For his part, Obama said Rush was a part of "a politics that is rooted in the past" and said he could build bridges with whites to get things done. But while Obama did well in his own Hyde Park base, he did not get enough support from the surrounding black neighborhoods. Starting with 10% name recognition, Obama eventually gained 30% of the vote, losing by a more than 2-to-1 margin despite winning among white voters. Rush won 61% of the votes overall. Rush won the general election for the district with 88% of the vote.
Rush has been considered a loyal Democrat during his tenure; in the 110th Congress, he voted with his party 97.8% of the time. Rush is a member of the Congressional Black Caucus and the House Baltic Caucus.
Rush initiated the Chicago Partnership for the Earned Income Tax Credit, an ongoing program designed to help low-income working Chicago resident to receive the Earned Income Tax Credit, a federal income tax credits.
Rush sponsored the Nursing Relief for Disadvantaged Areas Act passed in 1999. The law temporarily addressed the nursing shortage by providing non-immigrant visas for qualified foreign nurses in the Englewood neighborhood of Chicago and was reauthorized in 2005. Rush sponsored the Melanie Blocker-Stokes Postpartum Depression Research and Care Act, named for Melanie Blocker-Stokes, a Chicago native who jumped to her death from a 12th-story window due to postpartum depression. The bill would provide for research on postpartum depression and psychosis and services for individuals suffering from these disorders. The Children's Health Act, passed in 2000, incorporated Rush's Urban Asthma Reduction Act of 1999, amending the Preventive Health and Health Services Block Grant program and including an integrated approach to asthma management.
Rush was very outspoken against the GOP's "No More Solyndras" Bill, which would override a loan guarantee by the Energy Department to encourage research and development. The Energy Department provided a federal loan guarantee to the solar manufacturing company Solyndra to help with R&D. He said the "No More Solyndras Bill" would be better named as the "No More Innovation Bill".
Rush introduced the "Blair Holt's Firearm Licensing and Record of Sale Act of 2009" on January 6, 2009. The bill would require all owners of handguns and semiautomatic firearms to register for a federal firearms license. All sales of the subject firearms would have to go through a licensed dealer. It would also make it a criminal act not to register as an owner of a firearm.
- Darfur genocide
On July 15, 2004, Rush became the second sitting member of Congress, following Charles Rangel and preceding Joe Hoeffel, to be arrested for trespassing while protesting the genocide in Darfur and other violations of human rights in Sudan in front of the Sudanese Embassy.
- Armed forces
On February 13, 2007, Rush opposed President George W. Bush's proposed 20,000-serviceman troop surge in Iraq. He said the presence of the troops in Iraq was the greatest catalyst of violence in Iraq, and advocated a political resolution of the situation. Rush stated that the troop surge would only serve to make the Iraqi situation more volatile.
- Trayvon Martin
On March 28, 2012, Rush addressed the House while wearing a hoodie in honor of Trayvon Martin, a teenager who was shot in Florida by a local resident. He spoke against racial profiling. As the House forbids its members from wearing headgear, Rush was called out of order and escorted from the chamber.
On September 5, 2017, Rush became the sole co-sponsor of H.R. 1697 to withdraw his support of the bill, which would require the United States to side with Israel against a United Nations resolution sanctioning Israel for human rights abuses.
In July 2019, Rush voted against H. Res. 246 - 116th Congress, a House resolution introduced by Congressman Brad Schneider (D-IL) opposing efforts to boycott the State of Israel and the Global Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions Movement targeting Israel. The resolution passed 398-17.
In the 115th United States Congress (January 3, 2017, to January 3, 2019):
- Committee on Energy and Commerce
Rush's career average missed vote percentage is 15.7, which is high compared to the median missed vote percentage of 2.2 for members of the U.S. House of Representatives. However, most of his absences were between 2014 and 2016 and he asserts that serious health problems kept him from D.C. In the first session of the 114th session of Congress (January 2015 to December 2015), Rush missed 15.6% of the votes and ranked #12 in most missed votes. Rush had the distinction of missing more votes than any other member of the House of Representatives between 2007 and 2015: out of 6,906 votes, Rush missed 1,549 or 22.4%. Health issues for Rush and his wife were his main explanations for his high number of missed votes.
The Office of Congressional Ethics referred a matter involving Rush to the House Ethics Committee in 2014. The Office of Congressional Ethics report found he did not pay about $365,000 in rent for longtime use of an office to conduct politics. Rush has paid family members for years in questionable practices. Rush had a family member who for years worked for his church but was paid by a campaign supporter and friend. The Federal Election Commission questioned Rush's campaign over a campaign-finance report that showed thousands of dollars spent on vague categories such as "campaign visibility" and "services rendered." His campaign paid his wife, Carolyn, $50,000 in 2015 for consulting, and his brother, Marlon Rush of Lansing, $13,000 in 2016 for two months' work as campaign manager, according to FEC reports. Oxford Media Group Inc., an Oak Brook company owned by multimillionaire businessman Joseph Stroud, paid the Commonwealth Edison bill — which was well past due, totaling $17,900 for Rush's Beloved Community Christian Church in 2010. Rush had personally been named in a ComEd lawsuit over the church's previous unpaid bills. Stroud was trying to break into the wireless phone industry dominated by Verizon and AT&T, and Rush was pushing for federal tax incentives that would give one of Stroud's other companies a leg up as a minority-owned business. A nonprofit Rush started got $1 million from the charitable arm of what's now AT&T for what turned out to be a failed effort to create a "technology center" in Englewood. At the time, the telecom giant was seeking support for legislation in a House committee on which Rush was a key member.
|1992||Bobby Rush||Democratic||82%||Jay Walker||Republican||17%|
|1994||Bobby Rush (inc.)||Democratic||75%||William J. Kelly||Republican||24%|
|1996||Bobby Rush (inc.)||Democratic||85%||Noel Naughton||Republican||12%||Tim M. Griffin||Libertarian||1%|
|1998||Bobby Rush (inc.)||Democratic||87%||Marlene W. Ahimaz||Republican||10%||Maggie Kohls||Libertarian||2%|
|2000||Bobby Rush (inc.)||Democratic||87%||Raymond G. Wardingley||Republican||12%|
|2002||Bobby Rush (inc.)||Democratic||81%||Raymond G. Wardingley||Republican||16%||Dorothy Tsatsos||Libertarian||2%|
|2004||Bobby Rush (inc.)||Democratic||84%||Raymond G. Wardingley||Republican||15%|
|2006||Bobby Rush (inc.)||Democratic||84%||Jason E. Tabour||Republican||15%|
|2008||Bobby Rush (inc.)||Democratic||85%||Antoine Members||Republican||14%|
|2010||Bobby Rush (inc.)||Democratic||80%||Raymond G. Wardingley||Republican||15%||Jeff Adams||Green||3%|
|2012||Bobby Rush (inc.)||Democratic||73%||Donald Peloquin||Republican||26%|
|2014||Bobby Rush (inc.)||Democratic||73%||Jimmy Tillman||Republican||27%|
|2016||Bobby Rush (inc.)||Democratic||74%||August Deuser||Republican||26%|
|2018||Bobby Rush (inc.)||Democratic||73%||Jimmy Lee Tillman, II||Republican||20%||Thomas Rudbeck||Libertarian||7%|
Beloved Community Christian Church
Rush is pastor of the Beloved Community Christian Church in the Englewood neighborhood of Chicago. Leaders of other Englewood non-profit organizations complained that the church's programs—a community development corporation Rebirth of Englewood, a public health center, and a group serving teens convicted of crimes—received an inordinate amount of government aid and weighed heavily on their own efforts for renewal.
Unpaid taxes and wage garnishment
In 2013, Rush and his wife, the Beloved Community Christian Church of which Rush is pastor, and another nonprofit organization operating out of the church had tax delinquencies that added up to $195,000, and the pattern of tax delinquency was a decade old. Unpaid taxes included property taxes, income taxes, and employee withholding taxes. New City Bank sued Rush and his wife for $500,000, claiming they failed to pay their property taxes in 2009. In 1994, Rush owed the Internal Revenue Service $55,000 in federal income taxes, according to Cook County records.
Beginning in 2018, 15 percent of Rush's congressional salary is being garnished to repay more than $1 million he owes on a delinquent loan for the now-closed church he founded in Chicago. Cook County Circuit Judge Alexander White ordered Rush to repay the $550,000 loan that New City Bank granted him and seven other co-signers in 2005. With the money, Rush bought the former Our Redeemer Lutheran Church in Chicago's Englewood neighborhood and restyled it as the Beloved Community Church of God in Christ.
Rush has been married three times. His first marriage was to Sandra Milan, from when he was 19 years old until their divorce in 1973. They had two children together. He was later married to community organizer, precinct captain and political strategist Carolyn Thomas from 1980 or 1981 until her death from congestive heart failure on March 13, 2017. They had a blended family with seven surviving children at the time of her death. On June 30, 2018 he married his third wife, minister and author Paulette Holloway.
Rush had a son, Huey Rich, who in November 1999, was murdered on the South Side of Chicago at the age of 29. He was named after Black Panther co-founder Huey P. Newton. Rich's mother was Saundra Rich, who Rush never married. On October 18, 1999, Rich was approached outside his apartment building by Leo Foster and Darcell Prince, who falsely claimed to be police officers. They had bulletproof vests, walkie-talkies, guns and badges, but Rich didn't believe them and ran. Foster and Prince chased and shot Rich, then stole several hundred dollars and keys from his pockets. He died in hospital four days later from extensive blood loss. Foster told police that he and Prince were coming to collect $110,000 worth of cocaine that Rich had been paid to procure but hadn't delivered. Rich's friends didn't believe Foster's story, with some suggesting it may have been a case of mistaken identity. Rush said Rich "was involved in positive—as far as I know—endeavors", adding "as parents, we don't always know". Foster was sentenced to 60 years in prison for Rich's murder, and Prince was sentenced to 50 years. The murder prompted Rush to prioritize efforts to reduce gun violence.
In 2008, Rush had a rare type of malignant tumor removed from his salivary gland. Rush is a member of Iota Phi Theta. According to a DNA analysis conducted under the auspices of the TV program, Know Your Heritage, he is descended mainly from the Ashanti people of Ghana. Rush attributed his election to congress to Tony Robbins. His heroes include Abraham Lincoln, Kit Carson and Huey P. Newton.
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- Koziol, Ronald (December 11, 1969). "Bobby Rush Acting Chief of Panthers: Succeeds Slain Leader Hampton". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 28, 2017.
- "Washington Times report on Rush's sickle-cell anemia program". Washington Times. Archived from the original on February 21, 2009. Retrieved November 23, 2016.
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- Lizza, Ryan (July 21, 2008). "Making It: How Chicago Shaped Obama". The New Yorker.
- June, Daniel, "Bobby Rush Condemns Mark Kirk's Mass Gang Arrest Plan as 'Elitist White Boy Solution'", jdjournal.com, May 30, 2013.
- "Rep. Bobby Rush Denies Allegations Made By Former Metra CEO Alex Clifford". CBS Chicago. August 6, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
- Bosman, Julie, "Struggles to Unite Latinos and Blacks", New York Times, April 3, 2015.
- Fornek, Scott (January 27, 2008). "Clinton pal Bobby Rush: I'm supporting Obama". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved January 2, 2009.
- Flournoy, Tasha (December 2, 2008). "Rush Petitions For African-American To Replace Obama in the Senate". Chicago Public Radio.[permanent dead link]
- "Cong. Bobby Rush urges governor to choose Black Senate replacement". Chicago Defender. December 3, 2008. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved December 3, 2008.
- "Blagojevich names Obama successor despite warnings". CNN.com. December 30, 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2008.
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- Gonyea, Don (September 19, 2007). "Obama's loss may have aided White House bid". Morning Edition. NPR. Retrieved April 22, 2008.
- Scott, Janny (September 9, 2007). "A streetwise veteran schooled young Obama". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
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- Tsukayama, Hayley. "Who Runs Gov Bobby Rush Profile". Who Runs Gov. The Washington Post. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
- "Membership". Congressional Black Caucus. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
- "Members". House Baltic Caucus. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
- Rush, Bobby (October 18, 1995). "Voice of the People (Letter): Rep. Rush's Record Speaks For Itself". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "H.R.441". Congress.gov. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- "H.R.20". Congress.gov. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- Barber, John T. (2006). The Black Digital Elite: African American Leaders of the Information Revolution. Praeger. p. 50. ISBN 0-275-98504-0.
- Andrew Restuccia (July 25, 2012). "GOP on House panel OKs 'no more Solyndras' bill". Politico. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
- "Rep. Bobby Rush: GOP's "No More Solyndras Bill" should be called "No More Innovation Bill"". Washington Examiner. July 25, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
- "H.R. 45: Blair Holt's Firearm Licensing and Record of Sale Act of 2009". GovTrack.us. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- "U.S. lawmaker arrested at Sudanese embassy in Washington". Sudan Tribune. Associated Press. July 15, 2004.
- "U.S. Rep. Bobby Rush Arrested at Sudanese Embassy" (Press release). Office of Congressman Bobby Rush. July 15, 2004.
- "Retrieve Pages". Frwebgate.access.gpo.gov. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- "Congressman Bobby Rush wears hoodie on House floor". BBC News. March 28, 2012.
- Madison, Lucy (March 28, 2012). "Dem Rep. Bobby Rush escorted from House floor for wearing hoodie in honor of Trayvon Martin". CBS News.
- Peter, Roskam (June 28, 2018). "Cosponsors - H.R.1697 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): Israel Anti-Boycott Act". www.congress.gov. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
- Schneider, Bradley Scott (July 23, 2019). "H.Res.246 - 116th Congress (2019-2020): Opposing efforts to delegitimize the State of Israel and the Global Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions Movement targeting Israel". www.congress.gov. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
- "Members". Afterschool Alliance. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
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- Boyce, Tessa. "Members of Congress Who Miss the Most Votes: #12: Bobby Rush" (January 25, 2016). InsideGov.com. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
- Willis, Derek (November 10, 2015). "Personal Explanations: When Members of Congress Miss Votes, and Why". ProPublica. Retrieved February 28, 2017.
- Connolly, Colleen (November 11, 2015). "Study: Illinois Reps. Bobby Rush, Luis Gutierrez Miss Most Votes in House". NBC Chicago. Retrieved February 28, 2017.
- Skiba, Katherine (July 25, 2014). "House Ethics Committee continuing Rush investigation". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
- Skiba, Katherine (November 10, 2014). "Report spells out alleged ethics misconduct by Rep. Rush". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
- Hess, Hannah (November 10, 2014). "In Bobby Rush Case, Was the Rent Too Darn Low?". RollCall.com. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
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- Olivo, Antonio (January 1, 2006). "Pastor Rush stirs hope, skeptics in Englewood: Bold vision for area's rebirth draws questions". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- Neubauer, Chuck (December 14, 2013). "No Rush to Payment". Better Government Association. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- Roe, David (November 4, 2010). "Bank Sues Cong. Rush, Claims Unpaid Property Tax". WBBM CBS Chicago. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
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- Connolly, Griffin (March 15, 2018). "Rep. Bobby Rush Faces Wage Garnishment on $1 Million Debt". Roll Call. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
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- Ihejirika, Maudlyne (July 5, 2018). "Congressman Bobby Rush remarries". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on July 12, 2018. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
- "Bobby Rush". NNDB. 2014. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
- Skiba, Katherine (March 13, 2017). "Carolyn Rush, wife of U.S. Rep. Bobby Rush, dies at 67". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on November 17, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
- "Rush Announces the Passing of His Wife Carolyn Rush, 67". United States House of Representatives: Congressman Bobby L. Rush. March 13, 2017. Archived from the original on September 22, 2018. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
- McCormick, John (November 28, 1999). "A Father's Anguished Journey". Newsweek. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
- Loven, Jennifer (December 19, 1999). "Son's Slaying Transforms Congressman's Priorities". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 28, 2018. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
- Wilson, Terry; Hill, James (October 26, 1999). "Suspect Charged in Slaying of Rush's Son". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
- Madhani, Aamer (March 15, 2002). "2 Found Guilty of Murdering Rush's Son". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on September 28, 2018. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
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- "Man Convicted of Killing Rush's Son Sentenced". The Times of Northwest Indiana (NWI). Associated Press. July 27, 2002. Archived from the original on September 28, 2018. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
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- on YouTube
- Congressman Bobby Rush official U.S. House website
- Bobby Rush at Curlie
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress
- Appearances on C-SPAN
|U.S. House of Representatives|
|Preceded by |
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives |
from Illinois's 1st congressional district
|U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)|
|Preceded by |
| United States Representatives by seniority |