Apache CloudStack

Apache CloudStack Logo
Original author(s)Cloud.com, Citrix
Developer(s)Apache Software Foundation
Stable release / August 20, 2019; 5 months ago (2019-08-20)[1]
RepositoryCloudStack Repository
Written inJava (primarily), Python
TypeCloud computing
LicenseApache License 2.0

CloudStack is open-source cloud computing software for creating, managing, and deploying infrastructure cloud services. It uses existing hypervisors such as KVM, VMware vSphere, VMware ESXi, VMware vCenter, and XenServer/XCP for virtualization. In addition to its own API, CloudStack also supports the Amazon Web Services (AWS) API[2] and the Open Cloud Computing Interface from the Open Grid Forum.[3]


Cloud.com was originally a Star Wars themed Galacticomm BBS in 1991, operating out of Lake Zurich, Illinois by system operator John Bilik. The domain name was hosted by Network Solutions, and registration ended when the BBS was shut down.

CloudStack was originally developed by Cloud.com, formerly known as VMOps.[4]

VMOps was founded by Sheng Liang, Shannon Williams, Alex Huang, Will Chan, and Chiradeep Vittal in 2008.[5][6] The company raised a total of $17.6M in venture funding[7] from Redpoint Ventures, Nexus Ventures and Index Ventures (Redpoint and Nexus led the initial Series A funding round). The company changed its name from VMOps to Cloud.com on May 4, 2010, when it emerged from stealth mode by announcing its product.[8][4][9] Cloud.com was based in Cupertino, California.

In May 2010, Cloud.com released most of CloudStack as free software under the GNU General Public License, version 3 (GPLv3).[10] They kept about 5% proprietary.[11] Cloud.com and Citrix both supported OpenStack, another Apache-licensed cloud computing program, at its announcement in July 2010.[12][13][14]

In October 2010, Cloud.com announced a partnership with Microsoft to develop the code to provide integration and support of Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V to the OpenStack project.[15]

Citrix Systems purchased Cloud.com on July 12, 2011, for approximately $200 million.[16][17][18] In August 2011, Citrix released the remaining code under the Apache Software License with further development governed by the Apache Foundation.[11] In February 2012, Citrix released CloudStack 3.0. Among other features, this added support for Swift, OpenStack's S3-like object storage solution.[19] In April 2012, Citrix donated CloudStack to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF), where it was accepted into the Apache Incubator; Citrix changed the license to the Apache License version 2. As part of this change, Citrix also ceased their involvement in OpenStack.[20] On November 6, 2012, CloudStack 4.0.0-incubating was announced,[21] the first stable release after joining ASF. On March 20, 2013, CloudStack graduated from Apache Incubator and became a Top-Level Project (TLP) of ASF.[22] The first stable (maintenance) release after graduation is CloudStack 4.0.2.[23]

Key features[24][edit]

  • Built-in high-availability for hosts and VMs
  • AJAX web GUI for management
  • AWS API compatibility
  • Hypervisor agnostic
  • Snapshot management
  • Usage metering
  • Network management (VLAN's, security groups)
  • Virtual routers, firewalls, load balancers
  • Multi-role support

Supported hypervisors[edit]

  • LXC Host Containers on RHEL 7
  • Windows Server 2012 R2 (with Hyper-V Role enabled)
  • Hyper-V 2012 R2
  • CentOS 6.2+ and 7.1 with KVM
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 and 7.1 with KVM
  • Ubuntu 14.04 with KVM
  • XenServer versions 6.1, 6.2 SP1 and 6.5 with latest hot fixes
  • VMware vSphere versions 5.0 Update 3a, 5.1 Update 2a, and 5.5 Update 2

BareMetal hosts[edit]

  • RHEL or CentOS, v6.2 or 6.3 and 7.1
  • Fedora 17
  • Ubuntu 12.04

Deployment architecture[edit]

The minimum production installation consists of one machine running the CloudStack Management Server and another machine to act as the cloud infrastructure (in this case, a very simple infrastructure consisting of one host running hypervisor software). In its smallest deployment, a single machine can act as both the Management Server and the hypervisor host (using the KVM hypervisor).[25]

Multiple management servers can be configured for redundancy and load balancing, all pointing to a common MySQL database.


In July 2012 it was reported that Datapipe launched the largest international public cloud to be built on CloudStack, which included 6 data centers in the US, Britain, and Asia.[26]

Apache CloudStack has a number of users:[27][28]


  1. ^ "ASF Git Repos - cloudstack.git/commit". Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  2. ^ "Supported AWS API Calls". Archived from the original on June 26, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
  3. ^ "OCCI Interface to CloudStack". Retrieved Feb 26, 2014.
  4. ^ a b Timothy Prickett Morgan (May 4, 2010). "Cloud.com takes on virty infrastructure". The Channel. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  5. ^ John Fontana (January 28, 2009). "Start-up VMOps aims to ease cloud deployments". Network World. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  6. ^ "Company Overview". VMOps web site. Archived from the original on January 22, 2009. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  7. ^ "More Cash for Hot New Cloud Startup, VMOps". Gigaom.com. February 18, 2010. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
  8. ^ "Cloud.com Launches, Extends Leadership Team and Announces New Funding" (Press release). Cloud.com. May 4, 2010. Archived from the original on September 19, 2010.
  9. ^ Dave Rosenberg (May 4, 2010). "Cloud.com software stack goes open source". Software, Interrupted. CNET News. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
  10. ^ "Cloud.com launches, announces funding, open source" (Press release). May 4, 2010. Archived from the original on September 18, 2010.
  11. ^ a b "CloudStack Process Changes: Working the Apache Way". CloudStack. April 17, 2012. Archived from the original on April 29, 2012.
  12. ^ "NASA and Rackspace open source cloud fluffer". The Register. July 19, 2010. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  13. ^ Peder Ulander (July 22, 2010). "You Are Now Free to Move About in the Cloud". OpenStack blog. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  14. ^ Clark, Jack (July 19, 2010). "Nasa, Rackspace launch OpenStack cloud interoperability scheme | Cloud | ZDNet UK". Zdnet.co.uk. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
  15. ^ Harris, Derrick Harris (October 22, 2010). "Microsoft Joins OpenStack to Add Hyper-V Support." Gigaom.com. Retrieved November 2011.
  16. ^ "Citrix & Cloud.com". Citrix.com. July 12, 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
  17. ^ "Citrix Makes a Run at the Cloud". BusinessWeek. July 14, 2011. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  18. ^ "Citrix Buys Cloud.com for More Than $200 Million; Redpoint Is on a Roll". TechCrunch. July 12, 2011. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  19. ^ "Citrix CloudStack 3 Brings the Power of Amazon-Style Clouds to Customers of All Sizes". Citrix. February 13, 2012. Archived from the original on May 11, 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  20. ^ "Citrix Splits With OpenStack, Takes Cloud to Apache". Wired. April 4, 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  21. ^ "Apache CloudStack 4.0.0-incubating Released". Apache Software Foundation. November 6, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
  22. ^ "CloudStack Project Incubation Status". Apache Software Foundation. March 20, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
  23. ^ "Apache CloudStack 4.0.2 Released". Apache Software Foundation. April 24, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
  24. ^ "Features". CloudStack. Retrieved 2016-09-02.
  25. ^ "Deployment Architecture Overview". CloudStack. Archived from the original on May 4, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
  26. ^ "Datapipe launches largest CloudStack deployment". NetworkWorld. July 17, 2012. Retrieved Jan 31, 2013.
  27. ^ "Are these people really all using CloudStack?".
  28. ^ "CloudStack Users Apache Wiki".

External links[edit]