|Member of the|
U.S. House of Representatives
|Assumed office |
January 3, 1993
|Preceded by||Tom Campbell|
|Constituency||14th district (1993–2013)|
18th district (2013–present)
Anna A. Georges
December 13, 1942
New Britain, Connecticut, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||George Eshoo (Divorced)|
Anna A. Georges Eshoo // (born December 13, 1942) is the U.S. Representative from California's 18th congressional district, serving since 1993. She is a member of the Democratic Party. The district, numbered as the 14th District from 1993 to 2013 is based in Silicon Valley, including the cities of Redwood City, Sunnyvale, Mountain View, and Palo Alto, as well as part of San Jose. She is the only Assyrian American in Congress, and is also one of only two congresswomen of Armenian descent, with Jackie Speier being the other. She is Assyrian paternally and Armenian maternally.
- 1 Early life, education, and business career
- 2 Early political career
- 3 U.S. House of Representatives
- 4 Personal life
- 5 Electoral history
- 6 Organizations
- 7 Awards and honors
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Early life, education, and business career
Anna Eshoo was born in New Britain, Connecticut, of Assyrian and Armenian heritage. Her mother fled from Armenia to Iraq, and subsequently to the United States. Her father, Fred Georges, a jeweler and watchmaker, was a Chaldean Christian. She is a Chaldean Catholic. Eshoo graduated from New Britain High School in 1960, and later moved to California. She received an associate of arts degree from Cañada College in 1975.
Early political career
Eshoo was Chair of the San Mateo Democratic Party from 1978 to 1982. She was also a member of the Democratic National Committee in the 1980s. She was chief of staff to Speaker pro tempore Leo McCarthy of the California State Assembly in 1981–82. Eshoo was elected to the San Mateo County Board of Supervisors in 1982 and served until 1992. She was president of the board in 1986.
U.S. House of Representatives
In the middle of Eshoo's second term on the San Mateo Board of Supervisors, she ran for Congress in California's 12th congressional district. She won the Democratic primary with a plurality of 43%, but lost the general election to Republican Stanford law professor Tom Campbell, 51–46%.
Campbell gave up his congressional seat to make an unsuccessful bid for the United States Senate, and Eshoo entered the Democratic primary for the open seat, which had been renumbered as the 14th District. She won the seven-way primary with a plurality of 40%. In the general election, she defeated Republican nominee Tom Huening, 57–39%.
She won reelection against Republican Ronny Santana, 70–22%.
She won reelection against Republican Dave Chapman, 69–28%.
After a bitter race that brought to the fore some dissatisfaction over party leadership, regarded as a proxy battle between Steny Hoyer and Nancy Pelosi, Eshoo lost a party vote to Frank Pallone for ranking member of the House Energy and Commerce Committee. Nancy Pelosi had said Eshoo's elevation to the top Democratic spot on that committee would be important for the Democrats, allowing Eshoo "to tap into lucrative fundraising interests in Silicon Valley and elsewhere that the committee has jurisdiction."
In 2005, Eshoo worked with Nancy Pelosi to develop the Democratic Innovation Agenda, which called for America to achieve independence from Middle East oil over the next ten years. She has led efforts to raise fuel standards for automakers, and pursued reliance on alternative energy sources both in California and nationally. Legislation includes:
- H.R. 6, Creating Long-Term Energy Alternatives for the Nation (CLEAN) Energy Act, co-sponsor – Repeals $14 billion in subsidies to the gas and oil industries, and commits that money to renewable resources.
- H.R. 1506, Fuel Economy Reform Act, co-sponsor – Raises fuel economy standards, with a target goal of 35 miles per gallon by 2018.
- H.R. 1590, Safe Climate Act, co-sponsor – An emissions reduction bill which includes a provision calling for 20% of all electricity generated in the United States to come from renewable resources by 2008.
- H.R. 550, Securing America's Energy Independence Act, co-sponsor – Extends tax credits for homeowners and business using solar energy.
- S. 2598, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Fill Suspension and Consumer Protection Act – Temporarily suspends filling of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, in order to lower the cost of petroleum to consumers.
- H.R. 6074, Gas Price Relief for Consumers Act – Authorizes lawsuits against oil cartel members for price fixing.
- H.R. 1742, A bill to establish a program to deploy and integrate plug-in electric drive vehicles in multiple regions, which was ultimately incorporated into the body of H.R. 2454, the American Clean Energy and Security Act, which was the primary energy bill for 2009.
Click here to download a copy of Eshoo's floor statement on H.R. 3321, the New Direction for Energy Independence Act.
Eshoo is a strong supporter of the gay rights movement. In 1992, when a gay-bashing mailer was directed at Supervisor Tom Nolan (the first openly gay supervisor in San Mateo and her opponent for her congressional seat), Eshoo stood fast in defending him, his record and years of service. She opposed the Marriage Protection Amendment and the Marriage Protection Act. Her website called the bill "discriminatory, singling out for the first time a minority to prevent their interests from being considered by the highest courts in the land."
As one of just two Assyrian members of Congress, Eshoo has worked hard to protect indigenous Assyrian Christians in Iraq from continuing religious persecution and political exclusion. She authored an amendment to H.R. 2601, the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, stating that "special attention should be paid to the welfare of Chaldo-Assyrians and other indigenous Christians in Iraq."
Eshoo has been a strong supporter of the Congressional resolution recognizing the Armenian genocide. She also supports closer ties between Armenia and the U.S.
Eshoo has fought strongly against certain provisions of the Patriot Act, particularly Section 215 (Access to Business Records), which gives federal investigators the right to obtain any tangible business record without a subpoena.
Eshoo also introduced "Kevin's Law," which would have given the U.S. Department of Agriculture the power to close down plants that produce contaminated meat.
As an Assyrian and Armenian American, Eshoo is co-chair and co-founder of the Religious Minorities in the Middle East Caucus. She also serves on the Board of Advisors of THE INSTITUTE on Religion and Public Policy, a freedom of religion organization.
Eshoo has worked to create a legal "pathway to citizenship" for foreign workers of all kinds, from doctors and computer programmers to migrant farm workers. She has voted to increase the annual cap on H-1B visas to allow more temporary foreign professionals to work in the United States (especially those with Master's Degrees or higher).
In California, where as much as 90% of the agricultural workforce is composed of illegal immigrants, Eshoo cosponsored H.R. 371, the Agricultural Jobs Act, which would confer blue-card status on illegal immigrants who had worked an agricultural job in the United States for 150 days or more. This bill never became law.
On July 29, 2015, Eshoo co-introduced H.R. 3299, the Strengthening Public Health Emergency Response Act of 2015, which would streamline government decisions and provide incentives for vaccines and treatment of dangerous pathogens and diseases. Eshoo co-sponsored the legislation with lead sponsor Rep. Susan Brooks in response to an October 2015 report by the Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense.
Other legislation includes:
- H.R. 1275, American Dream Act, cosponsor – Allows states to provide tuition to students that are illegal immigrants, provided they meet certain criteria.
- H.R. 1379, Citizen Promotion Act, cosponsor – Assists lawfully admitted aliens in becoming permanent citizens of the United States.
- H.R. 2221, Uniting American Families Act, cosponsor – Amends the Immigration and Nationality Act to include "or permanent partner" where spouse occurs.
On July 16, 2018, Eshoo introduced H.R. 6378, the Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness and Advancing Innovation Act (PAHPA), along with Representative Susan Brooks (R-IN), Energy and Commerce Committee Chairman Greg Walden (R-OR) and Ranking Member Frank Pallone (D-NJ). The September 11 attacks and the deadly anthrax attacks that followed motivated Eshoo and former Rep. Richard Burr (R-NC) to create the original PAHPA law, which coordinated responses to public health emergencies and developed medical countermeasures.
H.R. 6378 improves preparedness nationwide and response for public health emergencies by speeding up research and development on medical countermeasures. The bill also focuses on the needs of special populations such as seniors, the disabled, and children.
In March 2018, Eshoo and Brooks launched the Congressional Biodefense Caucus. Within a week, 21 members of Congress had joined. The caucus is “dedicated to strengthening our nation’s biodefense enterprise and national security.” It will focus on chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) threats and pandemic outbreaks.
In November 2005, Eshoo led the House Democratic Caucus in introducing the "Innovation Agenda." She developed this comprehensive policy in conjunction with Nancy Pelosi and others after extensive consultation with Silicon Valley, tech leaders, venture capitalists, and scholars.
Eshoo authored two bills authorizing electronic signatures that became law, The Government Paperwork Elimination Act of 1998 (GPEA) and ESIGN. She also introduced controversial legislation to alleviate the proliferation of unsolicited email, known as spam. The U.S. House of Representatives passed The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 (S. 877), which authorizes a “Do Not Spam” list, regulates commercial email, and imposes fines on spammers. Eshoo authored the Consumer Internet Privacy Enhancement Act of 2001 (H.R. 237), created a program to provide discounts to schools and libraries for Internet access, and authored the Computer Donation Incentive Act.
Eshoo introduced HR 2428, the Broadband Conduit Deployment Act of 2009. The bill would require new federal road projects to include plastic conduits buried along the side of the roadway, and enough of them to "accommodate multiple broadband providers." "According to industry experts, more than half of the cost of new broadband deployment is attributable to the expense of tearing up and repaving roads," Eshoo said. "By putting the broadband conduit in place while the ground beneath the roadways is exposed, we will enable any authorized communications provider to come in later and install fiber-optic cable at far less cost." The bill is supported by Google.
Eshoo is co-chair of the Congressional Internet Caucus, a bipartisan group of over 150 members of the House and Senate working to educate their colleagues about the promise and potential of the Internet.
Eshoo supported the Federal Communications Commission Process Reform Act of 2013 (H.R. 3675; 113th Congress), a bill that would make a number of changes to procedures that the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) follows in its rulemaking processes. The FCC would have to act more transparently as a result of this bill, forced to accept public input about regulations. Eshoo expected Senate support for the bill, saying that they "shouldn't find it menacing" and arguing that the bill was "about the functioning of the FCC in the 21st century."
- Committee on Energy and Commerce
- Congressional E-911 Caucus, Co-Chair
- Arthritis Caucus, Co-Chair
- Caucus on Religious Minorities in the Middle East, Co-Chair and Founding Member
- Cancer Care Working Group, Co-Chair
- House 21st Century Health Care Caucus, Vice Chair
- House Information Technology Working Group, Co-Chair
- Congressional Internet Caucus, Founding Member and Co-Chair
- House Medical Technology Caucus, Co-Chair
- Ahmadiyya Muslim Caucus
- Bipartisan Congressional Task Force on Alzheimer's Disease
- California Democratic Congressional Delegation
- Armenian Caucus
- Coalition for Autism Research and Education (CARE)
- Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus
- Congressional Biomedical Research Caucus
- Congressional Caucus for Women's Issues
- Congressional Caucus on Armenian Issues
- Congressional Coalition on Adoption
- Congressional Diabetes Caucus
- Congressional Food Safety Caucus
- Congressional Kidney Caucus
- Congressional Organic Caucus
- Congressional Prevention Coalition
- Congressional Shipbuilding Caucus
- Congressional Taiwan Caucus
- Congressional Wildlife Refuge Caucus
- House Biotechnology Caucus
- House Cancer Caucus
- House National Marine Sanctuary Caucus
- House Oceans Caucus
- House Recycling Caucus
- Long-Term Care Caucus
- United States-Philippines Friendship Caucus
- Congressional Arts Caucus
- Congressional NextGen 9-1-1 Caucus
- Climate Solutions Caucus
|Democratic||Anna Eshoo (incumbent)||225,142||74.4|
|Democratic||Anna Eshoo (incumbent)||230,460||71.1|
|Democratic||Anna Eshoo (incumbent)||132,726||68.2|
|Democratic||Anna Eshoo (incumbent)||133,060||67.8|
|Republican||Richard B. Fox||63,326||32.2|
|Democratic||Anna Eshoo (incumbent)||212,831||70.5|
|Democratic||Anna Eshoo (incumbent)||150,542||69.1|
|Democratic||Anna Eshoo (incumbent)||190,301||69.8|
|Democratic||Anna Eshoo (incumbent)||141,153||71.1|
|Democratic||Anna Eshoo (incumbent)||182,712||69.8|
|No party||Dennis Mitrzyk (write-in)||24||0.01%|
|Democratic||Anna Eshoo (incumbent)||117,055||68.2|
|Libertarian||Andrew B. Carver||6,277||3.6|
|Democratic||Anna Eshoo (incumbent)||161,720||70.3|
|Libertarian||Joseph W. Dehn III||4,715||2.0|
|Natural Law||John Black||4,489||1.9|
|Democratic||Anna Eshoo (incumbent)||129,663||68.64|
|Libertarian||Joseph W. Dehn III||3,166||1.68|
|Natural Law||Anna Currivan||2,362||1.25|
|Democratic||Anna Eshoo (incumbent)||149,313||64.9|
|Peace and Freedom||Timothy Thompson||3,653||1.6|
|Natural Law||Robert Wells||2,144||0.9|
|Democratic||Anna Eshoo (incumbent)||130,713||60.60|
|Peace and Freedom||David Wald||3,912||1.5|
|No party||Sims (write-in)||12||0.01%|
|No party||Maginnis (write-in)||3||0.003%|
|Democratic gain from Republican|
- Chair, San Mateo County General Hospital Board of Directors, 1984–1992
- Member, American Association of University Women
- Former Chair, Bay Area Air Quality Management District
- Former Member, Bay Conservation and Development Commission
- Democratic Activists for Women Now
- Junior League of Palo Alto
- League of Conservation Voters
- Member, League of Women Voters
- Co Founder, San Mateo Women's Hall of Fame.
Awards and honors
- 1989 Legislator of the Year Award from the California's Governor's Committee on the Employing of the Disabled
- 1991 Margaret Sanger Community Service Award from San Mateo County Planned Parenthood
- 1990 Friend of BAYMEC Award
- 1989 Public Official of the Year by the State Commission on Aging
- 1987 Humanitarian of the Year by Easter Seal
- First woman to join her local chapter of Kiwanis International.
- Honorary doctorate, Humane Letters, Menlo College
- List of Arab and Middle-Eastern Americans in the United States Congress
- Women in the United States House of Representatives
- California Marriage Index
- Kreitman, K. (October 27, 2006) "Anna Eshoo has come a long way in Congress," Archived November 15, 2006, at the Wayback Machine Daily Journal (San Mateo County, Calif.)
- Allen-Ebrahimian, Bethany. "The Real War on Christianity". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2016.
- Brown, L. (9/10/2015) "Bipartisan Resolution Introduced: Persecution of Mideast Christians is ‘Genocide’"
- "Our Campaigns - CA District 12 - D Primary Race - Jun 07, 1988". Retrieved November 19, 2014.
- "Our Campaigns - CA District 12 Race - Nov 08, 1988". Retrieved November 19, 2014.
- "Our Campaigns - CA District 14 - D Primary Race - Jun 02, 1992". Retrieved November 19, 2014.
- "Our Campaigns - CA District 14 Race - Nov 03, 1992". Retrieved November 19, 2014.
- "Our Campaigns - CA District 14 Race - Nov 08, 1994". Retrieved November 19, 2014.
- "Our Campaigns - CA - District 14 Race - Nov 04, 2008". Retrieved November 19, 2014.
- "Our Campaigns - CA - District 14 Race - Nov 02, 2010". Retrieved November 19, 2014.
- "Anna Eshoo for Congress". Retrieved November 19, 2014.
- "Pelosi ally Anna Eshoo loses party vote for key committee post". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 29, 2014.
- Bay Area News Group (January 30, 2008). "Anna Eshoo endorses Obama - Political Blotter - Politics in the Bay Area and beyond". ibabuzz.com. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
- "Energy - Congresswoman Anna Eshoo". eshoo.house.gov.
- "Statement on H.R. 3221, the New Direction for Energy Independence, National Security, and Consumer Protection Act". Archived from the original on January 19, 2009. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
- Anna Eshoo's stance on civil rights
- Amendment 483 to Hr. 2601 Archived December 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- Study by the Department of Labor
- "Health Subcommittee holds markup on the Strengthening Public Health Emergency Response Act". Homeland Preparedness News. June 8, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
- Memo to Members of the Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Health from the Majority Committee staff. U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce. docs.house.gov. May 17, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
- "Eshoo, Brooks Introduce Legislation to Combat Biodefense Threats". Retrieved November 30, 2018.
- "New Congressional Biodefense Caucus launched". Congresswoman Susan W. Brooks. March 5, 2018. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
- "Summary: Digital Signatures Bills: HR 2991 and S 2107". www.techlawjournal.com. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
- Anna Eshoo. "Rep. Eshoo Introduces Broadband Conduit Legislation".
- Nate Anderson (May 20, 2009). "New bill wants fiber conduit built into every road project". arstechnica.
- Richard Whitt, Washington Telecom and Media Counsel, Google (June 8, 2009). "Google submits initial comments supporting a National Broadband Plan".CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Richard Whitt, Google (June 8, 2009). "Submit your ideas for a National Broadband Plan". Archived from the original on July 28, 2009. Retrieved October 29, 2017.
- Anna Eshoo (n.d.). "Reps. Eshoo and Markey Introduce Bill to Preserve Free and Open Internet".
- Free Press (August 3, 2009). "Two Million for Internet Freedom".
- Congressional Internet Caucus Advisory Committee (January 11, 2011). "U.S. Congressional Internet Caucus: Membership in the 112th Congress".
- "H.R. 3675 – CBO". Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Kasperowicz, Pete (March 11, 2014). "House votes for more transparency at the FCC". The Hill. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
- Bachman, Katy (December 11, 2013). "Bipartisan FCC Process Reform Bill Gains Momentum". Ad Week. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
- "Congresswoman Anna Eshoo". Congresswoman Anna Eshoo.
- "Congressional NextGen 9-1-1 Caucus - National Emergency Number Association". www.nena.org. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
- "Arthritis Caucus Members". www.arthritis.org. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
- "Members". Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
- "Membership". Congressional Arts Caucus. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
- "Members". Congressional NextGen 9-1-1 Caucus. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
- "90 Current Climate Solutions Caucus Members". Citizen´s Climate Lobby. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
- "Statement of Vote, November 8th 2016 General Election" (PDF). Office of the California Secretary of State. November 8, 2016. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
- "Statement of Vote, June 7th 2016 Presidential Primary Election" (PDF). Office of the California Secretary of State. June 7, 2016. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
- "Statement of Vote, November 4th, 2012 General Election" (PDF). Office of the California Secretary of State. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
- "United States Representative" (PDF). Office of the California Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2013.
- "U.S. Congress District 14 - Districtwide Results". Office of the California Secretary of State. Archived from the original on November 9, 2010.
- "United States Representative" (PDF). Office of the California Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 21, 2008.
- "Representative In Congress" (PDF). Office of the California Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 27, 2008.
- "Representative in Congress" (PDF). Office of the California Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 21, 2008.
- "Representative in Congress" (PDF). Office of the California Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 3, 2009.
- "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 7, 2000" (PDF). Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
- "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 3, 1998" (PDF). Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
- "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 5, 1996" (PDF). Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
- "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 8, 1994" (PDF). Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
- "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 3, 1992" (PDF). Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
- "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 8, 1988" (PDF). Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:|
- Congresswoman Anna G. Eshoo official U.S. House website
- Anna Eshoo for Congress
- Anna Eshoo at Curlie
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress
|U.S. House of Representatives|
|Preceded by |
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives |
from California's 14th congressional district
|Preceded by |
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives |
from California's 18th congressional district
|U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)|
|Preceded by |
| United States Representatives by seniority |