Alice Paul in 1915
|Died||July 9, 1977 (aged 92)|
|Education||University of Pennsylvania|
|Political party||National Woman's Party|
|Parent(s)||William Mickle Paul I|
Alice Stokes Paul (January 11, 1885 – July 9, 1977) was an American suffragist, feminist, and women's rights activist, and one of the main leaders and strategists of the campaign for the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which prohibits sex discrimination in the right to vote. Paul initiated, and along with Lucy Burns and others, strategized events such as the Woman Suffrage Procession and the Silent Sentinels, which were part of the successful campaign that resulted in the amendment's passage in 1920.
After 1920, Paul spent a half century as leader of the National Woman's Party, which fought for the Equal Rights Amendment, written by Paul and Crystal Eastman, to secure constitutional equality for women. She won a large degree of success with the inclusion of women as a group protected against discrimination by the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Career
- 3 Personal life and death
- 4 Legacy
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Early life and education
Alice Paul was born on January 11, 1885, at Paulsdale in Mount Laurel Township, New Jersey. She was the eldest of four children of William Mickle Paul I (1850–1902) and Tacie Paul (née Parry), and a descendant of William Penn, the Quaker founder of Pennsylvania. Her siblings were Willam, Helen, and Parry. She grew up in the Quaker tradition of public service; her ancestors included participants in the New Jersey Committee of Correspondence in the Revolutionary era and a state legislative leader in the 19th century. Alice first learned about women's suffrage from her mother, a member of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA); Paul would sometimes join her mother in attending suffragist meetings.
Paul attended Moorestown Friends School, where she graduated at the top of her class. In 1901, Paul went to Swarthmore College, an institution co-founded by her grandfather. While attending Swarthmore, Paul served as a member on the Executive Board of Student Government, one experience which may have sparked her eventual excitement for political activism. Alice graduated from Swarthmore College with a bachelor's degree in biology in 1905.
Partly in order to avoid going into teaching work, Paul completed a fellowship year at a settlement house in New York City after her graduation, living on the Lower East Side at the College Settlement House. While working on settlement activities taught her about the need to right injustice in America, Alice soon decided that social work was not the way she was to achieve this goal: "I knew in a very short time I was never going to be a social worker, because I could see that social workers were not doing much good in the world... you couldn't change the situation by social work."
Paul then earned a master of arts from the University of Pennsylvania in 1907, after completing coursework in political science, sociology and economics. She continued her studies at the Woodbrooke Quaker Study Centre in Birmingham, England, and took economics classes from the University of Birmingham, while continuing to earn money doing social work. She first heard Christabel Pankhurst speak at Birmingham. When she later moved to London to study sociology and economics at the London School of Economics, she joined the militant suffrage group the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) led by Christabel and her mother, Emmeline Pankhurst. She was arrested repeatedly during suffrage demonstrations and served three jail terms. After returning from England in 1910, Paul continued her studies at the University of Pennsylvania, earning a Ph.D. in sociology. Her dissertation was entitled "The Legal Position of Women in Pennsylvania"; it discussed the history of the women's movement in Pennsylvania and the rest of the U.S., and urged woman suffrage as the key issue of the day.
Paul later received her law degree (LL.B) from the Washington College of Law at American University in 1922, after the suffrage fight was over. In 1927, she earned a master of laws degree, and in 1928, a doctorate in civil law from American University.
Early work in British woman suffrage
In 1907, after completing her master's degree at the University of Pennsylvania, Paul moved to England, where she eventually became deeply involved with the British women's suffrage movement, regularly participating in demonstrations and marches of the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU). After a "conversion experience" seeing Christabel Pankhurst speak at the University of Birmingham, Paul became enamored with the movement. She first became involved by selling a Suffragist magazine on street corners. This was a particularly difficult task considering the animosity towards the Suffragists and opened her eyes to the abuse that women involved in the movement faced. These experiences, combined with the teachings of Professor Beatrice Webb, convinced Paul that social work and charity could not bring about the needed social changes in society: this could only be accomplished through equal legal status for women.
While in London, Paul also met Lucy Burns, a fellow American activist who would become an important ally for the duration of the suffrage fight, first in England, then in the United States. The two women quickly gained the trust of prominent WSPU members and began organizing events and campaign offices. When Emmeline Pankhurst attempted to spread the movement to Scotland, Paul and Burns accompanied her as assistants.
Paul quickly gained the trust of fellow WSPU members through both her talent with visual rhetoric and her willingness to put herself in physical danger in order to increase the visibility of the suffrage movement. While at the WSPU's headquarters in Edinburgh, Paul and local suffragists made plans to protest a speech by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Sir Edward Grey. For a week prior, they spoke with people on the streets to promote knowledge about why they were protesting against the Cabinet member. At the meeting, after Grey discussed proposed legislation he claimed would lead to prosperity, Paul stood up and exclaimed: “Well, these are very wonderful ideals, but couldn’t you extend them to women?” Police responded by dragging her out of the meeting and through the streets to the police station where she was arrested. As planned, this act was viewed by many as a public silencing of legitimate protest and resulted in an increase of press coverage and public sympathy.
Later events involved even more risk of bodily harm. Before a political meeting at St. Andrew's Hall in Glasgow in August 1909, Paul camped out on the roof of the hall so that she could address the crowd below. When she was forced by police to descend, crowds cheered her effort. Later, when Paul, Burns, and fellow suffragettes attempted to enter the event, they were beaten by police as sympathetic bystanders attempted to protect them. After Paul and her fellow protesters were taken into custody, crowds gathered outside the police station demanding the women's release.
On November 9, 1909, in honor of Lord Mayor's Day, the Lord Mayor of London hosted a banquet for cabinet ministers in the city's Guild Hall. Alice Paul planned the WSPU's response; she and Amelia Brown disguised themselves as cleaning women and entered into the building with the normal staff at 9:00 am. Once in the building, the women hid until the event started that evening. It was then that they came out of hiding and "took their stand". When Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith stood to speak, Brown threw her shoe through a pane of stained glass and both women yelled "Votes for women!" Following this event, both women were arrested and sentenced to one month hard labor after refusing to pay fines and damages.
While associated with the Women's Social and Political Union, Paul was arrested seven times and imprisoned three times. It was during her time in prison that Paul learned the tactics of civil disobedience from Emmeline Pankhurst. Chief among these tactics was demanding to be treated as a political prisoner upon arrest. This not only sent a message about the legitimacy of the suffragists to the public, but also had the potential to provide tangible benefits. In many European countries, including England, political prisoners were given a special status: "[T]hey were not searched upon arrest, not housed with the rest of the prisoner population, not required to wear prison garb, and not force-fed if they engaged in hunger strikes." Though arrested suffragettes often were not afforded the status of political prisoners, this form of civil disobedience provided a lot of press for the WSPU. For example, during a London arrest (after being denied political prisoner status), Paul refused to put on prisoner's clothing. After the prison matrons were unable to forcibly undress her, they requested assistance from male guards. This shockingly improper act provided extensive press coverage for the suffrage movement.
Another popular civil disobedience tactic used by the Suffragettes was hunger striking. The first WSPU related hunger strike was conducted by sculptor Marion Wallace Dunlop in June 1909. By that fall it was being widely used by WSPU members because of its effectiveness in publicizing their mistreatment and gaining quick release from prison wardens. Refusing food worked in securing an early release for Paul during her first two arrests. However, during her third prison stint, the warden ordered twice daily force-feeding to keep Paul strong enough to finish out her month-long sentence.
Though the prisons staunchly maintained that the force-feeding of prisoners was for their own benefit, Paul and other women described the process as torturous. At the end of her month in prison, Paul had developed severe gastritis. She was carried out of prison and immediately tended to by a doctor. However, after this event, her health was permanently scarred; she often developed colds and flu which would sometimes require hospitalization.
After the ordeal of her final London imprisonment, Paul returned to the United States in January 1910 to continue her recovery and to develop a plan for suffrage work back home. Paul's experiences in England were well-publicized, and the American news media quickly began following her actions upon her return home. She drew upon the teachings of Woodbrooke and her religion and quickly decided that she wanted to embrace a single goal as a testimony. The single goal she chose was the recognition of women as equal citizens.
Paul re-enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania, pursuing her Ph.D., while speaking about her experiences in the British suffrage movement to Quaker audiences and starting to work towards United States suffrage on the local level. After completing her dissertation, a comprehensive overview of the history of the legal status of United States women, she began participating in National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) rallies, and in April 1910 was asked to speak at NAWSA's annual convention. After this major opportunity, Paul and Burns proposed to NAWSA leadership a campaign to gain a federal amendment guaranteeing the vote for women. This was wholly contrary to NAWSA's state-by-state strategy. Paul and Burns were laughed at by NAWSA leadership; the only exception was Jane Addams, who suggested that the women tone down their plan. As a response, Paul asked to be placed on the organization's Congressional Committee.
1913 Woman Suffrage Procession
One of Paul's first big projects was initiating and organizing the 1913 Woman Suffrage Procession in Washington the day before President Wilson's inauguration. Paul was determined to put pressure on Wilson, because the President would have the most influence over Congress. She assigned volunteers to contact suffragists around the nation and recruit supporters to march in the parade. In a matter of weeks, Paul succeeded in gathering roughly eight-thousand marchers, representing most of the country. However, she had much more trouble gaining institutional support for the protest parade. Paul was insistent that the parade route go along Pennsylvania Avenue before President Wilson. The goal was to send the message that the push for women's suffrage existed before Wilson and would outlast him if need be. This route was originally resisted by DC officials, and according to biographer Christine Lunardini, Paul was the only one who truly believed the parade would take place on that route. Eventually the city ceded the route to NAWSA. However, this was not the end of the parade's troubles. The City Supervisor Sylvester claimed that the women would not be safe marching along the Pennsylvania Avenue route and strongly suggested the group move the parade. Paul responded by demanding Sylvester provide more police; something that was not done. On March 13, 1913 the parade gained a boost in legitimacy as Congress passed a special resolution ordering Sylvester to prohibit all ordinary traffic along the parade route and "prevent any interference" with the suffrage marchers.
On the day of the event, the procession proceeded along Paul's desired route. The event, which was led by notable labor lawyer Inez Milholland dressed in white and riding a horse was described by the New York Times as "one of the most impressively beautiful spectacles ever staged in this country". Multiple bands, banners, squadrons, chariots, and floats were also displayed in the parade representing all women's lives. One of the most notable sights was the lead banner in the parade which declared, "We Demand an Amendment to the United States Constitution Enfranchising the Women of the Country." Some participating groups and leaders (including Alice Paul), however, wanted black and white women's organizations to be segregated; Ida B. Wells was asked not to march with the Chicago delegation.
Over half a million people came to view the parade and with insufficient police protection, the situation soon devolved into a near-riot, with onlookers pressing so close to the women that they were unable to proceed. Police largely did nothing to protect the women from rioters. A senator who participated in the march later testified that he personally took the badge numbers of 22 officers who had stood idle, including 2 sergeants. Eventually, the Massachusetts and Pennsylvania national guards stepped in and students from the Maryland Agricultural College provided a human barrier to help the women pass. Some accounts even describe Boy Scouts as stepping in and providing first aid to the injured. The incident mobilized public dialogue about the police response to the women's demonstration, producing greater awareness and sympathy for NAWSA.
After the parade, the NAWSA's focus was lobbying for a constitutional amendment to secure the right to vote for women. Such an amendment had originally been sought by suffragists Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton who, as leaders of the NWSA, fought for a federal amendment to the constitution securing women's suffrage until the 1890 formation of NAWSA, which campaigned for the vote on a state-by-state basis.
National Woman's Party
Paul's militant methods started to create tension between her and the leaders of NAWSA, who thought she was moving too aggressively in Washington. Eventually, disagreements about strategy and tactics led to a break with NAWSA. Paul formed the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage and, later, the National Woman's Party (NWP) in 1916.
The NWP began introducing some of the methods used by the suffrage movement in Britain and focused entirely on achieving a constitutional amendment for woman suffrage. Alva Belmont, a multi-millionaire socialite at the time, was the largest donor to Paul's efforts. The NWP was accompanied by press coverage and the publication of the weekly newspaper, The Suffragist.
In the US presidential election of 1916, Paul and the National Woman's Party (NWP) campaigned in western states where women could already vote against the continuing refusal of President Woodrow Wilson and other incumbent Democrats to actively support the Suffrage Amendment. Paul went to Mabel Vernon to help her organize a picketing campaign. In January 1917, the NWP staged the first political protest and picketing at the White House. Picketing had been legalized by the 1914 Clayton Antitrust Act, so the women were not doing anything illegal.The pickets, participating in a nonviolent civil disobedience campaign known as the "Silent Sentinels", held banners demanding the right to vote. Paul knew the only way they could accomplish their goal was by displaying the President's attitude toward suffrage, and picketing would achieve this in the best manner. Each day Paul would issue "General Orders", selecting women to be in charge and who would speak for the day. She was the "Commandant" and Mabel Vernon was the "Officer of the Day". In order to get volunteers for the pickets, Paul created state days, such as Pennsylvania Day, Maryland Day, and Virginia Day, and she created special days for professional women, such as doctors, nurses, and lawyers.
After the United States entered World War I in April 1917, many people viewed the picketing Silent Sentinels as disloyal. Alice made sure the picketing would continue. In June 1917, picketers were arrested on charges of "obstructing traffic". Over the next six months, many, including Alice, were convicted and incarcerated at the Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia (which later became the Lorton Correctional Complex) and the District of Columbia Jail.
When the public heard the news of the first arrests some were surprised that leading suffragists and very well-connected women were going to prison for peacefully protesting. President Wilson received bad publicity from this event, and was livid with the position he was forced into. He quickly pardoned the first women arrested on July 19, two days after they had been sentenced, but reporting on the arrests and abuses continued. The Boston Journal, for example, stated, "The little band representing the NWP has been abused and bruised by government clerks, soldiers and sailors until its efforts to attract the President's attention has sunk into the conscience of the whole nation."
Suffragists continued picketing outside the White House after the Wilson pardon, and throughout World War I. Their banners contained such slogans as "Mr. President, How Long Must Women Wait For Liberty?" and "We Shall Fight for the Things Which We Have Always Held Nearest Our Hearts—For Democracy, For The Right of Those Who Submit To Authority To Have A Voice in Their Own Governments." With the hope of embarrassing Wilson, some of the banners contained his quotes. Wilson ignored these women, but his daughter Margaret, waved in acknowledgement. Although the suffragists protested peacefully, their protests were sometimes violently opposed. While protesting, young men would harass and beat the women, with the police never intervening on behalf of the protesters. Police would even arrest other men who tried to help the women who were getting beaten. Even though they were protesting during wartime, they maintained public support by agitating peacefully. Throughout this time, more protesters were arrested and sent to Occoquan or the District Jail. Pardons were no longer offered.
Prison, hunger strikes, passage of 19th Amendment
In solidarity with other activists in her organization, Paul purposefully strove to receive the seven-month jail sentence that started on October 20, 1917. She began serving her time in the District Jail.
Whether sent to Occoquan or the District Jail, the women were given no special treatment as political prisoners and had to live in harsh conditions with poor sanitation, infested food, and dreadful facilities. In protest of the conditions at the District Jail, Paul began a hunger strike. This led to her being moved to the prison's psychiatric ward and being force-fed raw eggs through a feeding tube. "Seems almost unthinkable now, doesn't it?" Paul told an interviewer from American Heritage when asked about the forced feeding. "It was shocking that a government of men could look with such extreme contempt on a movement that was asking nothing except such a simple little thing as the right to vote."
On November 14, 1917, the suffragists who were imprisoned at Occoquan endured brutality which became known as the "Night of Terror". The National Woman's Party (NWP) went to court to protest the treatment of the women in Occoquan Prison. The women were later moved to the District Jail where Paul languished. Despite the brutality that she experienced and witnessed, Paul remained undaunted, and on November 27 and 28 all the suffragists were released from prison.
Equal Rights Amendment
Once suffrage was achieved in 1920, Paul and some members of the National Woman's Party shifted attention to constitutional guarantees of equality through the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), which was written by Paul and Crystal Eastman. Drafted and delivered to Congress in 1923, the original text of the Equal Rights Amendment—which Paul and the National Woman's Party dubbed the "Lucretia Mott Amendment" in honor of this antislavery and suffrage activist of an earlier generation—read, "Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States and every place subject to its jurisdiction." In 1943, the amendment was renamed the "Alice Paul Amendment". Its wording was changed to the version that still exists today: "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." For Paul, the ERA had the same appeal as suffrage, in that it was a constitutional amendment and a single-issue campaign that she believed could and should unite women around a common core goal. Paul understood the value of single issue politics for building coalitions and securing success.
Not everyone agreed about next steps or about the ERA, and from the start, the amendment had its detractors. While Paul's activism in the years after suffrage centered on securing legal protections for women's equality in the U.S. and abroad, other activists and some members of the NWP focused on a range of issues from birth control to educating newly enfranchised women voters. Some of Paul's earlier allies in suffrage found the ERA troubling, especially since they believed it would erode protective legislation—laws about working conditions or maximum hours that protected women in the workplace. If the ERA guaranteed equality, opponents argued, protective legislation for women would be null and void. The rival League of Women Voters (LWV), which championed workplace legislation for women, opposed the Equal Rights Amendment. Paul and her cohorts, including a small group from the NWP, thought that sex-based workplace legislation restricted women's ability to compete for jobs with men and earn good wages. In fact, Paul believed that protective legislation hurt women wage earners because some employers simply fired them rather than implement protections on working conditions that safeguarded women. Women were paid less than men, lost jobs that required them to work late nights—often a prohibition under protective legislation—and they had long been blocked from joining labor unions on par with men. She also believed that women should be treated under the law the same way men were and not as a class that required protection. To Paul, such protections were merely "legalized inequality," a position shared by suffragist Harriot Stanton Blatch. To Paul, the ERA was the most efficient way to ensure legal equality. Paul expected women workers to rally behind the ERA; some did, many did not. While early on there was hope among NWP members that they could craft a bill that would promote equality while also guaranteeing labor protection for women, to Paul, that was a contradiction. What's more, she was surprised when Florence Kelley, Ethel Smith, Jane Addams and other suffragists parted with her and aligned with protective legislation.
While Paul continued to work with the NWP, and even served as president again in the 1940s, she remained steadfastly committed to women's equality as her singular mission. Along with the ERA, Paul worked on behalf of similar efforts in state legislation and in international contexts. She helped ensure that the United Nations proclamations include equality for women and hoped that this would encourage the United States to follow suit. Paul worked to change laws that altered a woman's citizenship based on that of her husband. In the U.S., women who married men from foreign countries lost their U.S. citizenship and were considered by the U.S. to be citizens of whatever country their husbands were from. To Paul, this was a violation of equal rights, and as such, she worked on behalf of the international Equal Nationality Treaty in 1933 and in the U.S. for the successful passage of the Equal Nationality Act in 1934, which let women retain their citizenship upon marriage. Just after the founding of the United Nations in 1945, Paul wanted to ensure that women's equality was a part of the organization's charterand that its Commission on Human Rights included a focus on women's equality in its Universal Declaration of Human Rights. She prevailed: The final version of the Declaration in 1948 opened with a reference to "equal rights of men and women."
The ERA was introduced in Congress in 1923 and had various peaks and valleys of support in the years that followed, as Paul continued to push for its passage. There were favorable committee reports in Congress in the late 1930s, and with more women working in men's jobs during the war, public support for the ERA also increased. In 1946, the ERA passed by three votes in the Senate, not the majority needed for it to advance. Four years later, it would garner the Senate votes but fail in the House, thereby halting it from moving forward.
Paul was encouraged when women's movement activism gained steam in the 1960s and 1970s, which she hoped would spell victory for the ERA. When the bill finally passed Congress in 1972, Paul was unhappy about the changes in the wording of the ERA that now included time limits for securing its passage. Advocates argued that this compromise—the newly added seven-year deadline for ratification in the states—enabled the ERA's passage in Congress, but Paul correctly predicted that the inclusion of a time limit would ensure its defeat. To include a deadline meant that If the ERA was not ratified by 38 states within seven years, it would fail and supporters would effectively have to start from scratch again if they wanted to see it passed (something that was not the case with the suffrage or other proposed constitutional amendments). In addition, this version put enforcement power in the hands of the federal government only; Paul's original and 1943 reworded version required both states and the federal government to oversee its provisions. Paul's version was strategic: politicians who believed in states rights, including many Southern states, were more likely to support an ERA that gave states some enforcement authority than a version that did not. Paul proved correct: while the ERA did receive a three-year extension from Congress, it remained three states short of those needed for ratification. States continued to attempt to ratify the ERA long after the deadline passed, including Nevada in 2017 and Illinois in 2018. Virginia, however, voted down similar attempts for ratification in that state in early 2019. In 2017 and again in 2019, the Senate and House introduced resolutions to remove the deadline from the ERA, measures that, if passed, would make the amendment viable again.
1964 Civil Rights Act
Paul played a major role in adding protection for women in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, despite the opposition of liberals who feared it would end protective labor laws for women. The prohibition on sex discrimination was added to the Civil Rights Act by Howard W. Smith, a powerful Virginia Democrat who chaired the House Rules Committee. Smith's amendment was passed by a teller vote of 168 to 133. For twenty years Smith had sponsored the Equal Rights Amendment in the House because he believed in equal rights for women, even though he opposed equal rights for blacks. For decades he had been close to the National Woman's Party and especially to Paul. She and other feminists had worked with Smith since 1945 trying to find a way to include sex as a protected civil rights category.
Personal life and death
Paul had an active social life until she moved to Washington in late 1912. She enjoyed close relationships with women and befriended and occasionally dated men. Paul did not preserve private correspondence for the most part, so few details about her personal life are available. Once Paul devoted herself to winning the vote for women, she placed the suffrage effort first in her life. Nevertheless, Elsie Hill and Dora Kelly Lewis, two women whom she met early in her work for NAWSA, remained close to her all their lives. She knew William Parker, a scholar she met at the University of Pennsylvania, for several years; he may have tendered a marriage proposal in 1917. A more thorough discussion of Paul's familial relations and friendships is found in J.D. Zahniser's biography.
Paul died at the age of 92 on July 9, 1977, at the Greenleaf Extension Home, a Quaker facility in Moorestown, New Jersey, less than a mile from her birthplace and childhood home at Paulsdale. She is buried at Westfield Friends Burial Ground, Cinnaminson, New Jersey, U.S.
Her alma mater, Swarthmore College, named a dormitory Alice Paul Residence Hall in her honor. Montclair State University in New Jersey has also named a dormitory (Alice Paul Hall) in her honor. On April 12, 2016, President Barack Obama designated Sewall-Belmont House as the Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument, named for Alice Paul and Alva Belmont.
Paul appeared on a United States half-ounce $10 gold coin in 2012, as part of the First Spouse Gold Coin Series. A provision in the Presidential $1 Coin Program directs that Presidential spouses be honored. As President Chester A. Arthur was a widower, Paul is shown representing "Arthur's era". The U.S. Treasury Department announced in 2016 that an image of Alice Paul will appear on the back of a newly designed $10 bill along with Lucretia Mott, Sojourner Truth, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and the 1913 Woman Suffrage Procession that Paul initiated and organized. Designs for the new $5, $10, and $20 bills will be unveiled in 2020 in conjunction with the 100th anniversary of American women winning the right to vote via the 19th Amendment.
In 1987, a group of New Jersey women raised the money to purchase Alice Paul's papers when they came up for auction, so that an archive could be established. Her papers and memorabilia are now held by the Schlesinger Library at Harvard University, and the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C. In 1990, the same group, now the Alice Paul Institute, purchased the brick farmhouse, Paulsdale, in Mount Laurel, New Jersey where Paul was born. Paulsdale is a National Historic Landmark, and is on the New Jersey and National Registers of Historic Places. The Alice Paul Institute keeps her legacy alive with their mission to promote gender equality.[non-primary source needed]
Hilary Swank played Paul in the 2004 movie Iron Jawed Angels, which portrayed the 1910 women's suffrage movement for passage of the 19th Amendment. In 2018, Alice Paul was a central character in an episode of Timeless (Season 2, Episode 7) which alludes to Paul giving an impassioned speech to President Woodrow Wilson during a march that ends in police violence upon the suffragist marchers. According to history, Paul was at the event, and was arrested, but there is no evidence that she spoke to Wilson on that day.
- Iron Jawed Angels, 2004 film about Alice Paul and Lucy Burns and their movement which resulted in the passage of the 19th Amendment.
- List of civil rights leaders
- List of suffragists and suffragettes
- List of women's rights activists
- Timeline of women's suffrage
- Women's suffrage organizations
- Baker, Jean H., "Placards At The White House," American Heritage, Winter 2010, Volume 59, Issue 4.
- "Alice Paul". National Women's History Museum. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
- Kahn, Eve M. "Group Seeks to Buy a Suffragist's Home", The New York Times, July 13, 1989. Accessed July 12, 2008. "The Alice Paul Centennial Foundation plans to buy the house in Mount Laurel, but first the organization must raise $500,000 by Sept. 8.... The 2½-story, stucco-clad brick farmhouse was built in 1840 and once overlooked the Paul family's 173-acre Burlington County farm, east of Camden. Miss Paul was born in an upstairs bedroom in 1885 and lived in the house until she left for Swarthmore College in 1901."
- "Who Was Alice Paul". Alice Paul Institute. Archived from the original on September 9, 2014.
- "Paul, Alice Stokes". Social Welfare History Project.
- Alice Paul in oral history compiled by Amelia Fry, Online Archive of California, quoted in Adams & Keene (2008), p. 7.
- Adams, Katherine; Keene, Michael (2008). Alice Paul and the American Suffrage Campaign. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07471-4.
- Adams & Keene (2008), pp. 12–14
- "Honoring Alice Paul". Washington College of Law. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- "Alice Paul Biography". Lakewood Public Library: Women in History. Archived from the original on June 19, 2006. Retrieved May 1, 2006.
- Fotheringham, Ann. "Thanks for the Memories: Glasgow's Votes for Women celebration at Mitchell". Evening Times. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- Dodd, Lynda G. (2008). "Parades, pickets, and prison: Alice Paul and the virtues of unruly constitutional citizenship". Journal of Law & Politics. 24 (4): 339–443. SSRN 2226351.
- Lunardini, Christine (2012). Alice Paul: Equality for Women. Westview Press. ISBN 9780813347615.
- Sklar, Kathryn Kish; Dias, Jill (1997). "How Did the National Woman's Party Address the Issue of the Enfranchisement of Black Women, 1919–1924?". Retrieved December 18, 2018 – via https://search.alexanderstreet.com/view/work/bibliographic_entity%7Cweb_collection%7C2497020.
- Zahniser & Fry (2014), pp. 178–231.
- Lunardini, Christine (2013). Alice Paul: Equality for Women. Boulder: Westview Press.
- Walton, Mary (2010). A Woman's Crusade: Alice Paul and the Battle for the Ballot. New York: St. Martin's Press.
- Walton, Mary (2010). A Woman's Crusade: Alice Paul and the Battle for the Ballot. New York: St. Martin's Press.
- Bernikow, Louise (October 30, 2004). "Night of Terror Leads to Women's Vote in 1917". Women's eNews.
- Berg, A. Scott (2013). Wilson. New York: Penguin Group.
- "Who Was Alice Paul?". Alice Paul Institute. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- Zahniser & Fry (2014), pp. 279–281.
- "Miss Alice Paul on Hunger Strike", The New York Times, November 7, 1917. Accessed June 25, 2012.
- Gallagher, Robert S., "I Was Arrested, Of Course…", American Heritage, February 1974, Volume 25, Issue 2. Interview of Alice Paul.
- "Alice Paul Biography". Lakewood Public Library: Women in History. Archived from the original on June 19, 2006. Retrieved May 1, 2006.
- "Women of Protest: Photographs of the National Woman's Party". Library of Congress.
- Mansbridge, Jane (1984). Why We Lost the ERA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-226-50358-5.
- "Alice Paul Institute: History of the Equal Rights Amendment". www.alicepaul.org/era/. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- Cott, Nancy F. (June 1984). "Feminist Politics in the 1920s: The National Woman's Party". Journal of American History: 7.
- Scharf, Lois (1983). Decades of Discontent: The Women's Movement, 1920–1940. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. 223. ISBN 0313226946.
- Fry, Amelia R. (September 1995). "Alice Paul and the ERA". Social Education: 285–289 – via ProQuest Central.
- Becker, Susan D. (1981). The Origins of the Equal Rights Amendment: American Feminism Between the Wars. Westport: Greenwood Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 0-313-22818-3.
- Cott, Nancy F. (1987). The Grounding of Modern Feminism. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 120–125. ISBN 0-300-04228-0.
- Gallagher, Robert S. (February 1974). "Alice Paul: 'I Was Arrested, Of Course...'". American Herritage. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Willis, Joan L. (1983). Spender, Dale (ed.). Alice Paul: The Quintessential Feminist. Feminist Three Centuries of Key Women Thinkers. New York: Pantheon Books. pp. 289–290. ISBN 0-394-72197-7.
- "Alice Paul". National Park Service; Belmont-Paul Women's Equality. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
- Hartmann, Susan M. (February 2000). "Paul, Alice". American National Biography. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
- Kops, Deborah (2017). Alice Paul and the Fight for Women's Rights: From the Vote to the Equal Rights Amendment. Calkins Creek. ISBN 9781629793238.
- "Chronology of the Equal Rights Amendment, 1923–1996". National Organization for Women. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Fry, Amelia (September 1995). "Alice Paul and the ERA". Social Education: 285–286 – via ProQuest Central.
- Kyvig, David E. (1996). "Historical Misunderstandings and the Defeat of the Equal Rights Amendment". The Public Historian. 18 (1): 54–55. doi:10.2307/3377881. JSTOR 3377881.
- Haag, Matthew (May 31, 2018). "The Equal Rights Amendment Was Just Ratified by Illinois. What Does That Mean?". New York Times. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
- Dwyer, Colin (March 21, 2017). "Nevada Ratifies The Equal Rights Amendment ... 35 Years After The Deadline". NPR.
- Bomboy, Scott (May 31, 2018). "Can a dormant proposed constitutional amendment come back to life?". Constitution Daily. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Portnoy, Jenna (February 21, 2019). "ERA bill dies for good in GOP-controlled Virginia House of Delegates". Washington Post. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
- Epps, Garrett (January 20, 2019). "The Equal Rights Amendment Strikes Again". Atlantic. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- North, Anna (February 5, 2019). "Why women are wearing 'ERA Yes' buttons at the State of the Union". Vox. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
- Freeman, Jo (March 1991). "How 'Sex' Got into Title VII: Persistent Opportunism as a Maker of Public Policy". Law and Inequality. 9 (2): 163–184.
- Zahniser & Fry (2014).
- Greenleaf Extension Home
- Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Locations 36467-36468). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition
- "Alice Paul". National Women's Hall of Fame.
- "Alice Paul inducted into NJ hall of fame alongside historic nemesis Woodrow Wilson". NJ.com. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
- Hirschfeld, Julie (April 12, 2016). "House With Long Activist History Is Now Monument to Equality". The New York Times. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
- Eilperin, Juliet (April 12, 2016). "A new memorial to tell 'the story of a century of courageous activism by American women'". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- Hefler, Jan (April 14, 2016). "White House honors Alice Paul's Washington headquarters". Philly.com.
- Macaulay, Susan. "Alice Paul (Suffragette/Political Activist)". amazingwomenrock.com. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
- "78-Cent Paul". Arago: People, Postage & The Post. July 6, 1995. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
- see Pub.L. 109–145, 119 Stat. 2664, enacted December 22, 2005)
- Alice Paul is explicitly specified in
- "Treasury Secretary Lew Announces Front of New $20 to Feature Harriet Tubman, Lays Out Plans for New $20, $10 and $5". Dept. of the Treasury. April 20, 2016. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- "Alice Paul". Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University. April 12, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
- "Iron Jawed Angels, a Film About Suffragist Alice Paul". Women's Suffrage and the Media. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
- Aarniokoski, Douglas (April 29, 2018), Mrs. Sherlock Holmes, Abigail Spencer, Matt Lanter, Malcolm Barrett, retrieved May 1, 2018
- Kaufman, Rachel. "An Elementary Lesson in Women's Suffrage: 'Timeless' Season 2, Episode 7, Recapped". Smithsonian. Retrieved May 1, 2018.
- Adams, Katherine H.; Keene, Michael L. (2008). Alice Paul and the American Suffrage Campaign. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07471-4. online review
- Baker, Jean H. Sisters: The Lives of American Suffragists. New York: Hill and Wang, 2005.
- _____. Votes for Women: The Struggle for Suffrage Revisited. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
- Butler, Amy E. Two Paths to Equality: Alice Paul and Ethel M. Smith in the ERA Debate, 1921–1929. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002.
- Cahill, Bernadette. Alice Paul, the National Woman's Party and the Vote: The First Civil Rights Struggle of the 20th Century. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2005.
- Cott, Nancy F. (1984). "Feminist politics in the 1920's: The National Woman's Party". The Journal of American History. 71 (1): 43–68. doi:10.2307/1899833. JSTOR 1899833.
- Cullen-Dupont, Kathryn. American Women Activists' Writings: An Anthology, 1637–2002. New York: Cooper Square Press, 2002.
- Evans, Sara M. Born for Liberty: A History of Women in America. New York: The Free Press, 1989.
- Graham, Sally Hunter. "Woodrow Wilson, Alice Paul, and the Woman Suffrage Movement" (PDF). Political Science Quarterly. 98 (4): 665–679. doi:10.2307/2149723. JSTOR 2149723. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 6, 2014.
- Hartmann, Susan M. "Paul, Alice"; American National Biography Online Feb. 2000 Access June 5, 2014
- Hawranick, Sylvia; Doris, Joan M.; Daugherty, Robert (2008). "Alice Paul: Activist, advocate, and one of ours". Affilia. 23 (2): 190–196. doi:10.1177/0886109908314332.
- Hill, Jeff. Defining Moments: Women's Suffrage. Detroit: Omnigraphics, Inc., 2006.
- Irwin, Inez Haynes. The Story of Alice Paul and the National Woman's Party. Fairfax: Denlinger's Publishers, LTD, 1964.
- Leleux, Robert. "Suffragettes March on Washington." The American Prospect 24 (2013): 81.
- Lunardini, Christine. Alice Paul: Equality for Women. Boulder: Westview Press, 2013.
- _______. From Equal Suffrage to Equal Rights: Alice Paul and the National Woman's Party, 1910–1928. New York: New York University Press, 1986.
- McGerr, Michael (1990). "Political Style and Woman's Power, 1830–1930". The Journal of American History. 77 (3): 864–885. doi:10.2307/2078989. JSTOR 2078989.
- Olson, Tod. "One Person, One Vote." Scholastic Update 127 (1994): 15
- Stevens, Doris. Jailed for Freedom. New York: Liverwright Publishing Corporation, 1920.
- Stillion Southard, Belinda Ann. "The National Woman's Party's Militant Campaign for Woman Suffrage: Asserting Citizenship Rights through Political Mimesis." (2008). PhD thesis, U of Maryland online
- Walton, Mary (2010). A Woman's Crusade: Alice Paul and the Battle for the Ballot. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-61175-7.
- Ware, Susan (2012). "The book I couldn't write: Alice Paul and the challenge of feminist biography". Journal of Women's History. 24 (2): 13–36. doi:10.1353/jowh.2012.0022.
- Willis, Jean L. "Alice Paul: The Quintessential Feminist," in Feminist Theorists, ed. Dale Spender (1983).
- Zahniser, J. D.; Fry, Amelia R. (2014). Alice Paul: Claiming Power. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-019-9958429.
- Deborah Kops (February 28, 2017). Alice Paul and the Fight for Women's Rights: From the Vote to the Equal Rights Amendment. Boyds Mills Press. pp. 96–. ISBN 978-1-62979-795-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alice Paul.|
- R.Digati (March 23, 2002). "Alice Paul". Social Reformer, Suffragette. Find a Grave. Retrieved August 17, 2011. (Westfield Friends Burial Ground, Cinnaminson, New Jersey)
- The Alice Paul Institute
- Alice Paul at Lakewood Public Library: Women In History
- The Sewall-Belmont House & Museum—Home of the historic National Woman's Party
- Biographical sketch at the University of Pennsylvania
- Papers, 1785–1985. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.
- "I Was Arrested, Of Course…", American Heritage, February 1974, Volume 25, Issue 2. Interview of Alice Paul by Robert S. Gallagher.
- Conversations with Alice Paul: Woman Suffrage and the Equal Rights Amendment, An Interview Conducted by Amelia R. Fry, 1979, The Bancroft Library
- Michals, Debra. "Alice Paul". National Women's History Museum. 2015.