Alice Catherine Evans

Alice C. Evans
Alice C. Evans, National Photo Company portrait, circa 1915.jpg
BornJanuary 29, 1881
DiedSeptember 5, 1975(1975-09-05) (aged 94)
NationalityAmerican
Alma materSusquehanna Collegiate Institute
Cornell University
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Known forDemonstrating that bacillus abortus caused Brucellosis
Scientific career
InstitutionsUS Department of Agriculture
United States Public Health Service

Alice Catherine Evans (January 29, 1881 – September 5, 1975) was a pioneering American microbiologist.[1] She became a researcher at the US Department of Agriculture. There she investigated bacteriology in milk and cheese. She later demonstrated that Bacillus abortus caused the disease Brucellosis (undulant fever or Malta fever) in both cattle and humans.

Early life and education[edit]

Alice C. Evans, in graduation dress

Evans was born on a farm in Neath, Bradford County, Pennsylvania, to William Howell, a farmer, and surveyor, and Anne B. Evans, a teacher.[2] When Evans was five and six years old, she was taught at home by her parents and attended a one-room school house in Neath where she earned outstanding grades.[3] In 1886, Evans survived scarlet fever, as did her brother Morgan.[citation needed]

She attended the Susquehanna Collegiate Institute in Towanda, where she played on a women's basketball team and later became a teacher. In her memoirs, she writes that she became a teacher because it was the only profession open to women, but she found it boring.[4] After four years of teaching, she took free classes that were offered to rural teachers at Cornell University.[5] After receiving a scholarship, she earned a B.S. in bacteriology from Cornell University in 1909, and was the first woman to receive a bacteriology scholarship from the University of Wisconsin–Madison, where she earned her M.S. the following year.[1]

Work and discoveries[edit]

Evans was offered a federal position at the Dairy Division of the Bureau of Animal Industry at the United States Department of Agriculture. She accepted the offer in Madison, Wisconsin, and worked there for three years. She worked on refining the process of manufacturing cheese and butter for improved flavor and investigating the sources of bacterial contamination in milk products. She was the first woman scientist to hold a permanent position as a USDA bacteriologist[6] and as a civil servant was protected by law.[7]

Alice became interested in the disease brucellosis and its relationship to fresh, unpasteurized milk. Alice's investigation focused on the organism Bacillus abortus, known to cause miscarriages in animals. Alice learned that the microbe thrived in infected cows as well as animals that appeared healthy. The reports hypothesized that since the bacteria was found in cow's milk, a threat to human health was likely.[8]

Evans decided to investigate this; she wondered whether the disease in cows could be the cause of undulant fever in humans. She reported her findings to the Society of American Bacteriologists in 1917 and published her work in the Journal of Infectious Diseases in 1918.[9]

She was met with skepticism, particularly because she was a woman and did not have a Ph.D.[10] She warned that raw milk should be pasteurized to protect people from various diseases. During the 1920s, scientists around the world made the same findings, and eventually, Brucella was confirmed as the disease that caused what was then known as undulant fever and Malta fever. Her findings led to the pasteurization of milk in 1930. As a result, the incidence of brucellosis in the United States was significantly reduced.[1]

Evans joined the United States Public Health Service in 1918, where she contributed to the field of infectious illness, studying epidemic meningitis and influenza at the department's Hygienic Laboratories. There, she was infected with undulant fever in 1922, a then-incurable disease that impaired her health for twenty years.

Alice C. Evans, 1945

Evans donated a collection of her papers to the National Library of Medicine in 1969.[11]

Post-retirement and death[edit]

Evans officially retired in 1945 but continued working in the field.[12] Following her retirement, she became a popular speaker, especially with women's groups. She gave lectures to women about career development and pursuing scientific careers. Evans suffered a stroke at the age of 94 and died on September 5, 1975. Her tombstone reads, "The gentle hunter, having pursued and tamed her quarry, crossed over to a new home".[3]

Awards and honors[edit]

  • First female president of the Society of American Bacteriologists, elected in 1928 [13]
  • Awarded honorary degree in medicine from Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, 1934[14]
  • Awarded honorary doctorates of science from University of Wisconsin–Madison and Wilson College, 1936[14]
  • Honorary president, Inter-American Committee on Brucellosis, 1945–57[2]
  • Honorary member, American Society for Microbiology, 1975[14]
  • Inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame, 1993[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Colwell, R. R. (1999). "Alice C. Evans: breaking barriers". The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 72 (5): 349–356. ISSN 0044-0086. PMC 2579030. PMID 11049166.
  2. ^ a b Stevens, Marianne Fedunkiw (1999). "Evans, Alice Catherine". American National Biography (online ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/anb/9780198606697.article.1300503.
  3. ^ a b Zach, Kim (2002). Hidden from History: The Lives of Eight American Women Scientists. Avisson Pr Inc.
  4. ^ Evans, Alice C. "Memoirs" (PDF). NIH Office of History. National Institutes of Health Office of History. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
  5. ^ "Alice Evans" Education & Resources. National Women's History Museum, December 15, 2005. Web.
  6. ^ Windsor, Laura Lynn (2002). Women in Medicine: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781576073926.
  7. ^ Zach, Kim. Hidden from History: The Lives of Eight American Women Scientists.
  8. ^ Zach, Kim (2002). Hidden from History: The Lives of Eight American Women Scientists. p. 95.
  9. ^ Parascandola, John L. (2001). "Alice Catherine Evans (1881-1975)". Journal of Public Health Policy. 22 (1): 105–111. doi:10.2307/3343557. JSTOR 3343557. PMID 11382087.
  10. ^ Colwell, Rita (1999). "Alice C. Evans: Breaking Barriers". Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 72: 349–356.
  11. ^ "Alice C. Evans Papers 1923-1975". National Library of Medicine.
  12. ^ "Meet Alice Catherine Evans... She's Why Our Milk Is Safe To Drink". Women You Should Know®. March 4, 2014. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  13. ^ "Medicine: Bacteriologists". Time. January 9, 1928. Archived from the original on October 1, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2009.
  14. ^ a b c Wayne, Tiffany K. (2011). American Women of Science Since 1900. ABC-CLIO. p. 381. ISBN 978-1-59884-158-9.
  15. ^ "Alice Evans". National Women's Hall of Fame. Retrieved January 25, 2020.

Further reading[edit]

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