Alanson B. Houghton
|United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom|
April 27, 1925 – March 28, 1929
|Preceded by||Frank B. Kellogg|
|Succeeded by||Charles G. Dawes|
|United States Ambassador to Germany|
April 22, 1922 – February 21, 1925
|President||Warren G. Harding|
|Preceded by||Ellis Loring Dresel (as Chargé d'Affaires)|
|Succeeded by||Jacob Gould Schurman|
|U.S. Representative, New York 37th District|
March 4, 1919 – February 28, 1922
|Preceded by||Harry H. Pratt|
|Succeeded by||Lewis Henry|
Alanson Bigelow Houghton
October 10, 1863
Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts
|Died||September 15, 1941 (aged 77)|
Dartmouth, Dartmouth, Massachusetts
|Residence||Corning, Steuben County, New York|
Alanson Bigelow Houghton (October 10, 1863 – September 15, 1941) was an American businessman, politician, and diplomat who served as a Congressman and Ambassador. He was a member of the Republican Party.
Early life and business career
Alanson B. Houghton was born on October 10, 1863, in Cambridge, Middlesex County, Massachusetts. His father, Amory Houghton, Jr. (1837–1909), would later be President of the Corning Glass Works, the company founded by Alanson's grandfather Amory Houghton, Sr. in 1851.
In 1868, his family moved to Corning, New York. He attended the Corning Free Academy in Corning and St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire. Houghton graduated from Harvard University in 1886 and then pursued postgraduate courses in Europe. He attended graduate school in Göttingen, Berlin, and Paris until 1889.
Upon his return to Corning in 1889, Houghton began work for his family's business, Corning Glass Works. He served as Vice President of the company from 1902 to 1910, and as the company's president from 1910 to 1918. Under Houghton's leadership, the company tripled in size to become one of the largest producers of glass products in the United States. The company manufactured 40% of incandescent light bulbs and 75% of the railway signal glass used in the U.S.
In 1918, Alanson B. Houghton defeated incumbent Congressman Harry H. Pratt in the Republican primary. He went on to win the general election and joined the Sixty-sixth Congress, representing New York's 37th Congressional District. In 1920, Houghton garnered 68% of the vote to win reelection over Democrat Charles R. Durham and Socialist Francis Toomey. Houghton took office on March 4, 1919. During his two terms in the House, Houghton served on the Foreign Affairs and Ways and Means committees.
Houghton, having studied in prewar Germany, admired German culture and understood German politics. His appointment was approved by the U.S. Senate and well received by the Weimar Republic. On February 28, 1922, Houghton resigned his House seat to accept appointment from President Warren G. Harding as the U.S. Ambassador to Germany. Houghton believed that world peace, European stability, and American prosperity depended upon a reconstruction Of Europe's economy and political system. He saw his role as promoting American political engagement with Europe. He overcame domestic opposition, and disinterest in Washington. He quickly realized that the central issues of the day were all entangled in economics, especially war debts owed by the Allies to the United States, reparations owed by Germany to the Allies, worldwide inflation, and international trade and investment. Solutions, he believed, required new policies by Washington and close cooperation with Britain and Germany. He was a leading promoter of the Dawes Plan.
On February 24, 1925, President Calvin Coolidge appointed Houghton as the U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain. Houghton assumed the post on April 6, 1925, and served until April 27, 1929. Houghton's service in both Germany and England gave him a unique ability to address the issue of the war reparations Germany owed to its World War I opponents, England being one of them. Houghton laid some of the groundwork for the Dawes Plan, named after then U.S. Vice President Charles G. Dawes, who would be Houghton's successor as Ambassador to Great Britain.
Death and legacy
After his loss in the 1928 Senate race, Houghton returned to managing the Corning Glass Works. He was Chairman, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton University. From 1941 until his death he was an original standing committee member of the Foundation for the Study of Cycles. He also served as vice president of the American Peace Society, which publishes World Affairs, the oldest U.S. journal on international relations.
Houghton's son, Amory Houghton (1899–1981), served as the United States Ambassador to France (1957–1961) under President Dwight D. Eisenhower. His grandson, Amo Houghton, was a U.S. Congressman from New York from 1987 until 2005.
- ELECTORS FORGET THE LAW in The New York Times on November 27, 1916
- Jeffrey J. Matthews, Alanson B. Houghton: ambassador of the new era (2004) pp 48-49.
- Williams, Greg H. (25 July 2014). The Liberty Ships of World War II: A Record of the 2,710 Vessels and Their Builders, Operators and Namesakes, with a History of the Jeremiah O'Brien. McFarland. ISBN 1476617546. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alanson B. Houghton.|
- Matthews, Jeffrey J. Alanson B. Houghton: Ambassador in the New Era . Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources Inc., 2004.
- United States Congress. "Alanson B. Houghton (id: H000813)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2008-02-15
- Kestenbaum, Lawrence. The Political Graveyard.
- Harvard Business School. Leadership database.
- Newspaper clippings about Alanson B. Houghton in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW)
|U.S. House of Representatives|
|Preceded by |
Harry H. Pratt
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives |
from New York's 37th congressional district
|Preceded by |
Ellis Loring Dresel
| United States Ambassador to Germany |
Jacob Gould Schurman
|Preceded by |
Frank B. Kellogg
| United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom |
Charles G. Dawes
|Party political offices|
|Preceded by |
William M. Calder
| Republican Nominee for U.S. Senate from New York (Class 1) |
E. Harold Cluett