Aikanã language

Aikanã
Tubarão, Huari
Native toBrazil
RegionRondônia
Native speakers
200 (2007)[1]
Dialects
  • Masaká
Language codes
ISO 639-3tba
Glottologaika1237[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Aikanã (sometimes called Tubarão,[3] Corumbiara/Kolumbiara, or Huari/Uari/Wari) is an endangered language isolate[1] spoken by about 200 Aikanã people in Rondônia,[4] Brazil. It is morphologically complex and has SOV word order.[5] Aikanã uses the Latin script. The people live with speakers of Koaia (Kwaza).

Varieties[edit]

Varieties listed by Loukotka (1968):[6]

  • Huari (Corumbiara) - spoken between the Corumbiara River and Guarajú River, Rondônia
  • Masaca (Aicana) - spoken on the left bank of the Corumbiara River
  • Aboba - extinct language once spoken on the Guarajú River
  • Maba - extinct language once spoken on the Guajejú River (unattested)
  • Puxacaze - once spoken on the Guajejú River, Brazil (unattested)
  • Guajejú - once spoken at the sources of the Jamarí River and Candeia River (unattested)

Phonology[edit]

Phonological inventory:[7]

Vowels[edit]

Oral vowels
Front Central Back
Close i y u
Mid ɛ ø a~ə
Open
Nasal vowels
Front Central Back
Close ĩ ũ
Mid ɛ̃
Open ã

Consonants[edit]

Consonants
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ñ /ɲ/
Stop p /p/
b /b/
t /t/
d /d/
k /k/ /ʔ/
Fricative s /s/
th /ð/
j/h /h/
Affricates ts /t͡s~t͡ʃ/
Trills r /r/
Approximant w /w/ l /l/ y /j~ʒ/

Vocabulary[edit]

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items for Huari and Masaca, as well as Capixana.[6]

gloss Huari Masaca Capixana
one amemeeː amäme pátairä
two arukai atuka kãerá
three ümaitü piakaúkä
head chimé tinupá i-kutá
ear ka-niyú ka-nĩgó i-tẽyõ
tooth múi mõiː i-pé
hand iné iné i-so
woman chikichíki dätiá míaʔä
water hané hánä kuni
fire íne íné iní
stone huahuá urorä akí
maize atití ákí atití
tapir arimé alümä itsá

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hein van der Voort (2007). "Theoretical and social implications of language documentation and description on the eve of destruction in Rondônia" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-05-10.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Aikanã". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Hein van der Voort (2004). A Grammar of Kwaza. Walter de Gruyter. p. 9. ISBN 3-11-017869-9.
  4. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code:tba". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
  5. ^ "Aikana Language and the Aikanã Indian Tribe". Native Languages of the Americas website. 2008. Archived from the original on 10 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
  6. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  7. ^ "Aikana Pronunciation Guide". Native Languages of the Americas website. 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
  • Alain Fabre, 2005, Diccionario etnolingüístico y guía bibliográfica de los pueblos indígenas sudamericanos: AIKANA[1]