2020 United States presidential election

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2020 United States presidential election

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538 members of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win

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About this image
The electoral map for the 2020 election, based on populations from the 2010 Census.

Incumbent President

Donald Trump
Republican



The 2020 United States presidential election, scheduled for Tuesday, November 3, 2020, will be the 59th quadrennial U.S. presidential election. Voters will select presidential electors who in turn will either elect a new president and vice president through the United States Electoral College or re-elect the incumbents. The series of presidential primary elections and caucuses are likely to be held during the first six months of 2020. This nominating process is also an indirect election, where voters cast ballots selecting a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who then in turn elect their party's presidential nominee.

President Donald Trump of the Republican Party, who was elected in 2016, is seeking reelection to a second term. The winner of the 2020 presidential election is scheduled to be inaugurated on January 20, 2021.

Background

Procedure

Article Two of the United States Constitution states that for a person to serve as President of the United States the individual must be a natural-born citizen of the United States, at least 35 years old and a United States resident for at least 14 years. Candidates for the presidency typically seek the nomination of one of the various political parties of the United States, in which case each party develops a method (such as a primary election) to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. The primary elections are usually indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate. The party's delegates then officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The nominee then personally chooses a vice presidential running mate to form that party's presidential ticket (with the exception of the Libertarian Party, which nominates its vice presidential candidate by delegate vote regardless of the nominee's preference). The general election in November is also an indirect election, in which voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College; these electors then directly elect the President and Vice President.[1]

In August 2018, the Democratic National Committee voted to disallow superdelegates from voting on the first ballot of the nominating process, beginning with the 2020 election. This would require a candidate to win a majority of pledged delegates from the assorted primary elections in order to win the party's nomination. The last time this did not occur was the nomination of Adlai Stevenson II at the 1952 Democratic National Convention.[2]

The Twenty-second Amendment to the Constitution states that an individual can not be elected to the presidency more than twice. This prohibits former Presidents Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama from being elected president again. Former president Jimmy Carter, having served a single term as president, is not constitutionally prohibited from being elected to another term in the 2020 election.

Demographic trends

The age group of what will then be people in the 18- to 45-year-old bracket is expected to represent just under 40 percent of the United States' eligible voters in 2020. It is expected that more than 30 percent of eligible American voters will be nonwhite.[3]

A bipartisan report indicates that changes in voter demographics since the 2016 election could impact the results of the 2020 election. African Americans, Hispanics, Asians and other ethnic minorities, as well as "whites with a college degree" are expected to all increase their percentage of national eligible voters by 2020, while "whites without a college degree" will decrease. This shift is potentially an advantage for the Democratic nominee; however, due to geographical differences, this could still lead to President Trump (or a different Republican nominee) winning the Electoral College while still losing the popular vote, possibly by an even larger margin than in 2016.[4]

Additionally, Washington, D.C. may lower its voting age from 18 to 16. Legislation was introduced by City Councilman Charles Allen in April 2018, with a public hearing in June, and a vote by the end of the year. Unlike other cities with a voting age of 16 such as Berkeley, California, this would allow 16- and 17-year-olds to vote for President of the United States for the first time in 2020. Allen said that he was inspired by the high school students that participated in the March for Our Lives, which occurred at the capital in March.[5]

Simultaneous elections

The presidential election will occur at the same time as elections to the Senate and the House of Representatives. Several states will also hold state gubernatorial and state legislative elections. Following the election, the United States House will redistribute the seats among the 50 states based on the results of the 2020 United States Census, and the states will conduct a redistricting of Congressional and state legislative districts. In most states, the governor and the state legislature conduct the redistricting (although some states have redistricting commissions), and often a party that wins a presidential election experiences a coattail effect that also helps other candidates of that party win elections.[6] Therefore, the party that wins the 2020 presidential election could also win a significant advantage in the drawing of new Congressional and state legislative districts that would stay in effect until the 2032 elections.[7]

General election polling

Nominations

Republican Party

Donald Trump is eligible to run for re-election and has signaled his intention to do so.[8] His reelection campaign has been ongoing since his victory in 2016, leading pundits to describe his tactic of holding rallies continuously throughout his presidency as a "never-ending campaign".[9] On January 20, 2017, at 5:11 p.m., he submitted a letter as a substitute of FEC Form 2, by which he reached the legal threshold for filing, in compliance with the Federal Election Campaign Act.[10]

Beginning in August 2017, reports arose that members of the Republican Party were preparing a "shadow campaign" against Trump, particularly from the moderate or establishment wings of the party. Then-Arizona Senator John McCain said that "[Republicans] see weakness in this president."[11] Maine Senator Susan Collins, Kentucky Senator Rand Paul, and former New Jersey Governor Chris Christie all expressed doubts in 2017 that Trump would be the 2020 nominee, with Collins stating "it's too difficult to say."[12][13] Senator Jeff Flake claimed in 2017 that Trump was "inviting" a primary challenger by the way he was governing.[14] Longtime political strategist Roger Stone, however, predicted in May 2018 that Trump might not seek a second term were he to succeed in keeping all of his campaign promises and "mak[ing] America great again".[15]

On January 25, 2019, the Republican National Committee unofficially endorsed Trump, and began coordinating with the campaign organization.

Declared major candidates and exploratory committees

  Formed exploratory committee but has not officially declared candidacy
Name Born Experience State Campaign
Announcement date
Ref
Donald Trump official portrait (cropped).jpg
Donald Trump
June 14, 1946
(age 72)
Queens, New York
Incumbent

Reform candidate for President in 2000

President of The Trump Organization

Flag of New York.svg
New York

TrumpPence20logo.svg
(Campaign)
Announced campaign:
February 17, 2017

FEC filing[16]
[17]
Bill Weld campaign portrait.jpg
Bill Weld
July 31, 1945
(age 73)
Smithtown, New York
Governor of Massachusetts (1991–1997)

Libertarian nominee for Vice President in 2016

Flag of Massachusetts.svg
Massachusetts

Weld 2020.png
(Campaign)
Exploratory committee:
February 15, 2019
[18]

Individuals who have publicly expressed interest

Individuals in this section have expressed an interest in running for president within the last six months.

Endorsements

Donald Trump
Bill Weld
Individuals

Democratic Party

After Hillary Clinton's loss in the previous election, the Democratic Party was seen largely as leaderless[26] and fractured between the centrist Clinton wing and the more progressive Sanders wing of the party, echoing the rift brought up in the 2016 primary election.[27][28]

This divide between the establishment and progressive wings of the party has been reflected in several elections leading up to the 2020 primaries, most notably in 2017 with the election for DNC Chair between Tom Perez and Sanders-backed progressive Keith Ellison:[29] Perez was elected Chairman, but Ellison was appointed the Deputy Chair, a largely ceremonial role. In 2018, several U.S. House districts that Democrats hoped to gain from the Republican majority had contentious primary elections. These clashes were described by Politico's Elena Schneider as a "Democratic civil war".[30] Meanwhile, there has been a general shift to the left in regards to college tuition, healthcare, and immigration among Democrats in the Senate, likely to build up credentials for the upcoming primary election.[31][32]

Perez has commented that the 2020 primary field will likely go into double-digits, rivaling the size of the 2016 GOP primary, which consisted of 17 major candidates.[33] In the wake of the Me Too movement, several female candidates are expected to enter the race, increasing the likelihood of the Democrats nominating a woman for the second time in a row.[34] Speculation also mounted that Democrats' best bet to defeat President Trump would be to nominate their own celebrity or businessperson with no government experience, most notably Oprah Winfrey after her memorable speech at the 75th Golden Globe Awards.[35]

The topic of age has been brought up among the most likely front-runners: former Vice President Joe Biden, Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren, and Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders, who will be 78, 71, and 79 respectively on inauguration day. Former Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid (who will be 81 on inauguration day) described the trio as "an old folks' home", expressing a need for fresh faces to step up and lead the party.[36]

Declared major candidates and exploratory committees

  Formed exploratory committee but has not officially declared candidacy
Name Born Experience State Campaign
Announcement date
Ref.
Cory Booker, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg
Cory Booker
April 27, 1969
(age 49)
Washington, D.C.
U.S. Senator from New Jersey (2013–present)
Mayor of Newark, New Jersey (2006–2013)
Flag of New Jersey.svg
New Jersey
Cory Booker 2020 Logo.svg
(Campaign)
Campaign: February 1, 2019
FEC filing[37]
[38]
Pete Buttigieg in February 2019.jpg
Pete Buttigieg
January 19, 1982
(age 37)
South Bend, Indiana
Mayor of South Bend, Indiana (2012–present) Flag of Indiana.svg
Indiana
Pete Buttigieg 2020 logo.svg
(Campaign)
Exploratory committee:
January 23, 2019

FEC filing[39]
[40]
Julián Castro's Official HUD Portrait (cropped).jpg
Julian Castro
September 16, 1974
(age 44)
San Antonio, Texas
U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (2014–2017)
Mayor of San Antonio, Texas (2009–2014)
Flag of Texas.svg
Texas
Julian Castro 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
(Campaign)
Exploratory committee:
December 12, 2018
Campaign: January 12, 2019

FEC filing[41]
[42]
John Delaney 113th Congress official photo (cropped) 2.jpg
John Delaney
April 16, 1963
(age 55)
Wood-Ridge, New Jersey
U.S. Representative from MD-06 (2013–2019) Flag of Maryland.svg
Maryland
John Delaney 2020 logo.svg
(Campaign)
Campaign: July 28, 2017
FEC filing[43]
[44]
Tulsi Gabbard, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped 3).jpg
Tulsi Gabbard
April 12, 1981
(age 37)
Leloaloa, American Samoa
U.S. Representative from HI-02 (2013–present) Flag of Hawaii.svg
Hawaii
Tulsi Gabbard 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
(Campaign)
Campaign: January 11, 2019
FEC filing[45]
[46]
Kirsten Gillibrand, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg
Kirsten Gillibrand
December 9, 1966
(age 52)
Albany, New York
U.S. Senator from New York (2009–present)
U.S. Representative from NY-20 (2007–2009)
Flag of New York.svg
New York
Gillibrand2020Logo.png
(Campaign)
Exploratory committee:
January 15, 2019
Campaign: March 17, 2019

FEC filing[47]
[48][49]
Kamala Harris official photo (cropped).jpg
Kamala Harris
October 20, 1964
(age 54)
Oakland, California
U.S. Senator from California (2017–present)
Attorney General of California (2011–2017)
Flag of California.svg
California
Kamala Harris 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
(Campaign)
Campaign: January 21, 2019
FEC filing[50]
[51]
Governor John Hickenlooper 2015.jpg
John Hickenlooper
February 7, 1952
(age 67)
Narberth, Pennsylvania
Governor of Colorado (2011–2019)
Mayor of Denver, Colorado (2003–2011)
Flag of Colorado.svg
Colorado
John Hickenlooper 2020 presidential campaign logo.png
(Campaign)
Campaign: March 4, 2019
FEC filing[52]
[53]
Jay Inslee official portrait crop.jpg
Jay Inslee
February 9, 1951
(age 68)
Seattle, Washington
Governor of Washington (2013–present)
U.S. Representative from WA-01 (1999–2012)
U.S. Representative from WA-04 (1993–1995)
Flag of Washington.svg
Washington
Jay Inslee 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
(Campaign)
Campaign: March 1, 2019
FEC filing[54]
[55]
Amy Klobuchar, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped 2).jpg
Amy Klobuchar
May 25, 1960
(age 58)
Plymouth, Minnesota
U.S. Senator from Minnesota (2007–present) Flag of Minnesota.svg
Minnesota
Amy Klobuchar 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
(Campaign)
Campaign: February 10, 2019
FEC filing[56]
[57]
Mayor Messam.jpg
Wayne Messam
June 7, 1974
(age 44)
South Bay, Florida
Mayor of Miramar, Florida (2015–present) Flag of Florida.svg
Florida
Wayne Messam 2020 presidential campaign logo.png
(Campaign)
Exploratory committee:
March 13, 2019

FEC filing[58]
Scheduled announcement:
March 30, 2019
[59]
[60]
Beto O'Rourke crop.jpg
Beto O'Rourke
September 26, 1972
(age 46)
El Paso, Texas
U.S. Representative from TX-16 (2013–2019)
Democratic nominee for U.S. Senate from Texas in 2018
Flag of Texas.svg
Texas
Beto O'Rourke 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
(Campaign)
Campaign: March 14, 2019
FEC filing[61]
[62]
Bernie Sanders.jpg
Bernie Sanders
September 8, 1941
(age 77)
Brooklyn, New York
U.S. Senator from Vermont (2007–present)
U.S. Representative from VT-AL (1991–2007)
Mayor of Burlington, Vermont (1981–1989)
Democratic candidate for President in 2016
Flag of Vermont.svg
Vermont
Bernie Sanders 2020 logo.svg
(Campaign)
Campaign: February 19, 2019
FEC filing[63]
[64]
Elizabeth Warren, official portrait, 114th Congress (cropped)(2).jpg
Elizabeth Warren
June 22, 1949
(age 69)
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
U.S. Senator from Massachusetts (2013–present)
Flag of Massachusetts.svg
Massachusetts
Elizabeth Warren 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
(Campaign)
Exploratory committee:
December 31, 2018
Campaign: February 9, 2019

FEC filing[65]
[66]
Marianne Williamson (cropped).jpg
Marianne Williamson
July 8, 1952
(age 66)
Houston, Texas
Spiritual teacher, author, lecturer, entrepreneur, and activist
Independent candidate for U.S. Representative from CA-33 in 2014
Flag of California.svg
California
Marianne 2020 logo 51007580.jpg
(Campaign)
Exploratory committee:
November 15, 2018
Campaign: January 28, 2019

FEC filing[67]
[68]
Andrew Yang talking about urban entrepreneurship at Techonomy Conference 2015 in Detroit, MI (cropped).jpg
Andrew Yang
January 13, 1975
(age 44)
Schenectady, New York
Entrepreneur and founder of Venture for America Flag of New York.svg
New York
Andrew Yang 2020 logo.png
(Campaign)
Campaign: November 6, 2017
FEC filing[69]
[70]

Withdrawn candidates

Candidate Born Experience State Campaign Ref
MAJ Richard Ojeda.jpg
Richard Ojeda
September 25, 1970
(age 48)
Rochester, Minnesota
West Virginia State Senator (2016–2019)
Democratic nominee for U.S. Representative from WV-03 in 2018
Flag of West Virginia.svg
West Virginia

Campaign
Announced: November 11, 2018
Suspended: January 25, 2019

[71][72]

Individuals who have publicly expressed interest

Individuals in this section have expressed an interest in running for president within the last six months, as of March 2019. Some already have leadership PACs that function as campaign committees.[73]

Endorsements

Cory Booker
U.S. Executive Branch officials
U.S. Senators
U.S. Representatives
Governors
Statewide officials
State legislators
Local officials
Party officials
Individuals
Pete Buttigieg
Individuals
Julian Castro
U.S. Executive Branch officials
U.S. Representatives
State legislators
Local officials
Judicial officials
Individuals
John Delaney
U.S. Representatives
Tulsi Gabbard
State legislators
Local officials
Individuals
Kirsten Gillibrand
U.S. Representatives
Individuals
Kamala Harris
U.S. Executive Branch officials
U.S. Representatives
Governors
Statewide officials
State legislators
Local officials
Individuals
John Hickenlooper
State legislators
Local officials
Individuals
Jay Inslee
U.S. Representatives
Governors
Statewide officials
Local officials
Individuals
Amy Klobuchar
U.S. Vice Presidents
U.S. Executive Branch officials
U.S. Senators
U.S. Representatives
Other federal officials
Governors
Statewide officials
State legislators
Local officials
Judicial officials
Party officials
Individuals
Beto O'Rourke
U.S. Executive Branch officials
U.S. Representatives
Governors
State legislators
Individuals
Bernie Sanders
U.S. Senators
U.S. Representatives
Statewide officials
Current State legislators
Former State Legislators
Mayors
Local officials
Former Local Officials
Foreign Heads Of State
Members of national and supranational parliaments
Former Members of national and supranational parliaments
Ambassadors, regional ministers, legislators, and party leaders
Former Ambassadors, regional ministers, legislators, and party leaders
Individuals
Celebrities
Organizations
Newspapers and other media
Elizabeth Warren
U.S. Senators
U.S. Representatives
State legislators
Local officials
Individuals
Organizations
Marianne Williamson
U.S. Representatives
State legislators
Individuals
Andrew Yang
Individuals
Richard Ojeda (withdrawn)
Individuals

Libertarian Party

Declared candidates

These candidates have established campaign websites.

  Formed exploratory committee but has not officially declared candidacy
Name Born Current or previous positions State Announced Ref
Kokesh2013.jpg
Adam Kokesh
February 1, 1982
(age 37)
San Francisco, California
Libertarian and anti-war political activist
Candidate for U.S. Senate in 2018
Candidate for U.S. Representative from New Mexico in 2010
Flag of Arizona.svg
Arizona
July 18, 2013
AdamKokesh2020CampaignLogo.png
FEC Filing[395]
[396]
John McAfee by Gage Skidmore.jpg
John McAfee
September 18, 1945
(age 73)
Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire,
England
Founder and CEO of McAfee, Inc. 1987–1994
Candidate for President in 2016
Flag of Tennessee.svg
Tennessee
June 3, 2018
McAfee 2020 logo.png
(Campaign)
[397]
Lozwp DSC00677.jpg
Vermin Supreme
June 1961
(age 57)
Rockport, Massachusetts
Performance artist and activist
Candidate for President in 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, and 2016
Candidate for Mayor of Detroit, Michigan in 1989
Candidate for Mayor of Baltimore, Maryland in 1987
Flag of Kansas.svg
Kansas
May 28, 2018
Vermin Supreme A Dictator You Can Trust.jpg
[398]
Arvin Vohra on The Tatiana Show.jpg
Arvin Vohra
May 9, 1979
(age 39)
Silver Spring, Maryland
Vice Chair of the LNC 2014–2018
Libertarian nominee for U.S. Senate from Maryland in 2018
Libertarian nominee for U.S. Representative in 2012 and 2014
Candidate for U.S. Senate in 2016
Flag of Maryland.svg
Maryland
July 3, 2018
framless
[399]

The following candidate has established an exploratory committee, but does not have a campaign website:

Withdrawn candidates

Candidate Born Experience State Campaign Ref
Zoltan Istvan public profile photo.jpg
Zoltan Istvan
March 30, 1973
(aged 45)
Los Angeles, California
Transhumanist activist and futurist
Transhumanist nominee for President in 2016
Candidate for Governor of California in 2018
Flag of California.svg
California
Announced campaign:
November 25, 2017

Suspended campaign:
January 11, 2019 (publicly revealed)

[401][402]

Publicly expressed interest

Individuals in this section have expressed an interest in running for president within the last six months.

Green Party

  Formed exploratory committee but has not officially declared their candidacy

Declared major candidates and exploratory committees

Name Born Experience State Announced Ref
Dario Hunter YCSD (cropped).jpg
Dario Hunter
1983
(age 36)
New Jersey
Youngstown Board of Education (2016–present) Flag of Ohio.svg
Ohio
Dario Hunter 2020 presidential campaign logo.png
Exploratory committee:
January 21, 2019

Announced campaign: February 18, 2019
FEC Filing[405]
[406]

Individuals who have publicly expressed interest

Individuals in this section have expressed an interest in running for president within the last six months.

American Solidarity Party

Declared candidates

Name Born Experience State Announced Ref

Joe Schriner
1955
(age 64)
Ohio
Political activist and journalist
Candidate for President in 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 and 2016 as Independent
Flag of Ohio.svg
Ohio
October 13, 2017 [410][411]

Independent or unaffiliated

Declared candidates

Name Born Current or previous positions State Announced Ref

Ronnie Kroell
February 1, 1983
(age 36)
Chicago, Illinois
Activist, model, actor and singer Flag of Illinois.svg
Illinois
Ronnie Kroell presidential campaign logo.jpg
February 12, 2019
[412]

Notable people who have announced that they are running for President in 2020 as independent candidates but have not established campaign websites are:

Individuals who have publicly expressed interest

Individuals in this section have expressed an interest in running for president within the last six months.

Party conventions

Map of United States showing Milwaukee, Charlotte, and Austin
Milwaukee
Milwaukee
Charlotte
Charlotte
Austin
Austin
  Democratic Party
  Republican Party
  Libertarian Party

The 2020 Democratic National Convention is scheduled from July 13–16 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.[421][422] Houston, Texas, and Miami Beach, Florida, were also considered to host the convention.[423]

The 2020 Republican National Convention is planned to be held in Charlotte, North Carolina, on August 24–27.[424]

This will be the first time since 2004 that the two major party conventions will be held at least one month apart with the 2020 Summer Olympic Games in between[425] (in 2008 and 2012, the Democratic and Republican conventions were held in back-to-back weeks following the Summer Olympics, while in 2016 both were held before the Rio Games).

The 2020 Libertarian National Convention will be held in Austin, Texas, over Memorial Day weekend, May 22–25.[426][427]

The date and location of the 2020 Green National Convention will be decided at the 2019 annual national meeting this year in Salem, Massachusetts.[428] In a similar fashion, the 2016 convention site was announced following the party's 2015 annual national meeting.[429]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b This individual is not a Libertarian Party member, but has been the subject of speculation and/or expressed interest in running under this party.

References

  1. ^ "US Election guide: how does the election work?". The Daily Telegraph. November 6, 2012. Archived from the original on November 10, 2015. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  2. ^ Levy, Adam (August 25, 2018). "DNC changes superdelegate rules in presidential nomination process". CNN. Archived from the original on August 26, 2018. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
  3. ^ Weeks, Linton (January 25, 2013). "Forget 2016. The Pivotal Year In Politics May Be 2020". NPR. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
  4. ^ Chinni, Dante (April 22, 2018). "Demographic shifts show 2020 presidential race could be close". NBC News. Archived from the original on April 23, 2018. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  5. ^ Fox, Peggy (April 17, 2018). "Washington, D.C., may allow 16-year-olds to vote for president in the 2020 election". USA Today. Archived from the original on April 20, 2018. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  6. ^ Campbell, James E. (March 1986). "Presidential Coattails and Midterm Losses in State Legislative Elections". The American Political Science Review. 80 (1): 45. JSTOR 1957083.
  7. ^ Sarlin, Benjy (August 26, 2014). "Forget 2016: Democrats already have a plan for 2020". MSNBC. Archived from the original on October 28, 2015.
  8. ^ Westwood, Sarah (January 22, 2017). "Trump hints at re-election bid, vowing 'eight years' of 'great things'". Washington Examiner. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
  9. ^ Bixby, Scott (February 18, 2017). "The Road to 2020: Donald Trump's Never-Ending Campaign". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
  10. ^ Morehouse, Lee (January 30, 2017). "Trump breaks precedent, files as candidate for re-election on first day". KTVK. Archived from the original on January 30, 2017. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
  11. ^ Martin, Jonathan; Burns, Alexander (August 5, 2017). "Republican Shadow Campaign for 2020 Takes Shape as Trump Doubts Grow". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 21, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
  12. ^ "Sen. Susan Collins not sure Trump will be 2020 GOP nominee". CBS News. August 21, 2017. Archived from the original on October 23, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
  13. ^ Goodkind, Nicole (October 30, 2017). "TRUMP MAY NOT SEEK RE-ELECTION: RAND PAUL, CHRIS CHRISTIE". Newsweek. Archived from the original on November 4, 2017. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  14. ^ Kaczynski, Andrew (August 24, 2017). "Sen. Jeff Flake: Trump 'inviting' 2020 primary challenge by how he's governing". CNN. Archived from the original on October 23, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
  15. ^ Chaitin, Daniel (May 19, 2018). "Roger Stone says Trump may not run in 2020, pledges to line up challenger to Pence-Haley ticket". Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
  16. ^ "DONALD J. TRUMP FOR PRESIDENT, INC" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  17. ^ Suebsaeng, Asawin (November 30, 2018). "Trump 2020 Campaign Has a New D.C.-Area Home". The Daily Beast. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  18. ^ Landrigan, Kevin (February 14, 2019). "Weld forms 2020 exploratory committee, defends GOP credentials". New Hampshire Union Leader. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  19. ^ Mattise, Jonathan (December 20, 2018). "Trump foil, retiring GOP Sen. Corker: 'no idea' what's next". Associated Press. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
  20. ^ Isenstadt, Alex. "Larry Hogan stokes speculation he'll primary Trump in 2020". POLITICO. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  21. ^ a b Holly Ramer; Steve Peoples; Bob Salsberg (February 15, 2019). "Ex-Massachusetts Gov. Weld to challenge Trump for GOP nod". Associated Press. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  22. ^ "Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan isn't ruling out a primary challenge to Trump". CBS News. February 20, 2019. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
  23. ^ Schneider, Kris (November 25, 2018). "Ohioans eyeing 2020? Kasich, Brown 'very seriously' consider runs against Trump". ABC News. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
  24. ^ Liz Mair (February 19, 2019). "Has Republican Resistance to Trump Collapsed?". The New York Times. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  25. ^ Dibble, Madison (February 26, 2019). "Never Trump Republicans Don't Seem Too Impressed with Trump's First Potential Challenger So Far". Independent Journal Review. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  26. ^ Easley, Jonathan (March 31, 2017). "For Democrats, no clear leader". The Hill. Archived from the original on January 29, 2018. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
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  214. ^ Howard, Mike [@mikehowardmn] (February 10, 2019). "I've been to two presidential campaign kick-offs- @BarackObama's in Springfield on a cold day in February and this one today. Just sayin. Proud to be a Minnesotan and grateful for @amyklobuchar's partnership with @NSmithholt12 to fight for affordable prescription drugs" (Tweet). Retrieved February 10, 2019 – via Twitter.
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  223. ^ Grant, Michael [@MichaelGrantBks] (February 6, 2019). "If @amyklobuchar gets in, she's my top choice. I'll support any D to stop T, but Klobuchar reads to me as a person of integrity. Integrity is my top value this cycle. I want someone real. Someone smart. Someone who tells the truth. #AmyForAmerica #AmyK4POTUS" (Tweet). Retrieved March 8, 2019 – via Twitter.
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  226. ^ Schwartz, Brian (March 14, 2019). "Former Obama bundler reaching out to top Democratic Party donors to gain support for Beto O'Rourke's 2020 candidacy". CNBC. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  227. ^ Murphy, Stephanie [@SMurphyCongress] (March 14, 2019). "I proudly endorse my friend & former colleague @BetoORourke for President. Our party will benefit from his ideas, energy & pragmatism. Our country would benefit from his compassion, authenticity & unifying vision. He's the candidate I trust with our nation's future. Count me in!" (Tweet). Retrieved March 14, 2019 – via Twitter.
  228. ^ Rice, Kathleen [@KathleenRice] (March 14, 2019). ""I'm proud to endorse my friend @BetoORourke for President! He's honest, authentic and has the courage of his convictions and a bold vision for our future. Most importantly, he'll build a movement that will rise above the toxic division in our politics and unite this country" (Tweet). Retrieved March 14, 2019 – via Twitter.
  229. ^ Maloney, Sean Patrick [@MaloneyforNY] (March 14, 2019). ".@BetoORourke has a heart the size of Texas, real experience, and a vision of that strong, united and youthful America that once led the world — and that can again inspire and motivate millions. That's why I'm proud to support him as the next president of the USA 🇺🇸" (Tweet). Retrieved March 15, 2019 – via Twitter.
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  231. ^ Strauss, Daniel (March 19, 2019). "Where in the world is Tulsi Gabbard?". Politico. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  232. ^ O'Malley, Martin (January 3, 2019). "Martin O'Malley: Here's who I'd like to see run for president. (Hint: It's not me)". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  233. ^ Moody, Joe [@moodyforelpaso] (March 14, 2019). "Hmmm...what to wear today...got some good options here. #BetoForAmerica #BetoForPresident @BetoORourke" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  234. ^ Alazraqui, Carlos [@carlosalazraqui] (March 14, 2019). "Sadly, @realDonaldTrump reserves his "hand movements" for porn stars and violated pageant contestants and never for his so called, "wife" #Sad #Beto2020" (Tweet). Retrieved March 15, 2019 – via Twitter.
  235. ^ David Michael Barrett [@DavidMBarrett] (March 14, 2019). "BETO!!! #BetoForAmerica @BetoForAmerica2020 @BetoORourke" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
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  300. ^ Swearengin, Paula Jean [@paulajean2020] (February 20, 2019). ".@SenSanders was the ONLY incumbent that listened to me after my years of activism and me begging ANYONE that would listen to me trying to help my state! He has my FULL support! #Bernie2020 #UniteOurFight #WVPride #WV4Bernie #WVLovesBernie #HeCares #HeWonAll55CountiesIn2016" (Tweet). Retrieved February 20, 2019 – via Twitter.
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