1882 United States House of Representatives elections

1882 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1880 November 7, 1882[a] 1884 →

All 325 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
163 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  John Griffin Carlisle, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1870-1880.jpg J. Warren Keifer - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader John G. Carlisle J. Warren Keifer
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Kentucky 6th Ohio 8th
Last election 128 seats 151 seats
Seats won 196[1][b] 117[1][b]
Seat change Increase 68 Decrease 34
Popular vote 3,968,021 3,376,726
Percentage 48.90% 41.61%
Swing Increase 1.22% Decrease 3.33%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Readjuster Greenback
Last election 2 seats[c] 10 seats
Seats won 4[1][d] 2[1]
Seat change Increase 2 Decrease 8
Popular vote 99,992 248,327
Percentage 1.23% 3.06%
Swing Increase 0.61% Decrease 2.49%

  Fifth party Sixth party
 
Party Liberal Independent
Last election New Party 1 seats[e]
Seats won 1[f] 3[g][h]
Seat change Increase 1 Increase 2
Popular vote 113,789 282,297
Percentage 1.40% 3.48%
Swing Pre-creation Increase 2.38%

House048ElectionMap.png
Elections results from the 1882 elections

Speaker before election

Joseph Keifer
Republican

Elected Speaker

John Carlisle
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1882 for the 48th Congress, during President Chester A. Arthur's term.

Arthur's Republican Party was badly defeated, losing its majority to the opposition Democratic Party after a campaign that focused on the resistance of Republican leaders to reforming the Spoils system under which government jobs were handed to supporters of winning candidates. After the election, Arthur agreed with the Democrats to pass the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, establishing a professional civil service. However, his actions were too late, as the image of the Republican Party as corrupt was already engrained in the minds of voters. This election also saw the decline of the pro-paper money Greenback Party, and the pick up of several Virginian seats by the Readjuster Party which promoted fiscal responsibility and shunned elitism, though the Virginia-based Readjuster Party all but disappeared following this election.

Election summaries[edit]

Following the 1880 Census, 32 new seats were apportioned.[2] Three States lost 1 seat each, 13 States had no change in apportionment, 14 States gained 1 seat each, 6 States gained 2 seats, 1 State gained 4 seats, and 1 State gained 5 seats. Several States that gained one or more seats did not redistrict immediately, electing the new members at-large, while one state (Maine) which lost a member also delayed redistricting, electing all of its members at-large for this Congress only.

196 12 117
Democratic [i] Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 Steady 7 Increase 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas District
+ at-large[j]
5 Increase 1 5 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District
+ 2 at-large[j]
6 Increase 2 6 Increase 4 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Colorado At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District 4 Steady 3 Increase 2 1 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 Steady 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District
+ at-large[j]
10 Increase 1 10 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District 20 Increase 1 9[k] Increase 3 11 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Indiana District 13 Steady 10 Increase 5 3 Decrease 5 0 Steady
Iowa[l] District 11 Increase 2 3 Increase 2 7 Decrease 1 1[m] Increase 1
Kansas District
+ 4 at-large[j]
7 Increase 4 0 Steady 7 Increase 4 0 Steady
Kentucky District 11 Increase 1 9[k] Steady 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Louisiana District 6 Steady 5 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Maine[l] At-large[n] 4 Decrease 1 0 Steady 4 Increase 1 0 Decrease 2[m]
Maryland District 6 Steady 4 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 12 Increase 1 3 Increase 2 9[g] Decrease 1 0 Steady
Michigan District 11 Increase 2 6 Increase 6 5 Decrease 4 0 Steady
Minnesota District 5 Increase 2 0 Steady 5 Increase 2 0 Steady
Mississippi District 7 Increase 1 5 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 1[o] Increase 1
Missouri District 14 Increase 1 14 Increase 6 0 Decrease 1 0 Decrease 4[m]
Nebraska District[p] 3 Increase 2 0 Steady 3 Increase 2 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
New Jersey District 7 Steady 3 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady
New York District
+ at-large[j]
34 Increase 1 21 Increase 1 13 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1[o]
North Carolina District
+ at-large[j]
9 Increase 1 7[k] Steady 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Ohio[l] District 21 Increase 1 15 Increase 10 6 Decrease 9 0 Steady
Oregon[l] At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District
+ at-large[j]
28 Increase 1 12 Increase 5 15 Decrease 3 1[m] Decrease 1
Rhode Island District 2 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 Increase 2 6 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 Steady 8 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Texas District 11 Increase 5 10 Increase 5 0 Steady 1[o] Steady[q]
Vermont[l] District 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Virginia District
+ at-large[j]
10 Increase 1 6 Decrease 1 0 Decrease 2 4[d] Increase 4[r]
West Virginia District 4 Increase 1 3 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 9 Increase 1 6 Steady 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
Total 325 Increase 32 199[1][s]
61.2%
Increase 59 118[1][g]
36.3%
Decrease 26 8[1]
2.8%
Decrease 2
House seats
Democratic
61.23%
Greenback
0.62%
Readjuster
1.23%
Republican
36.31%
Others
0.62%

There were 8 members elected from third parties, 4 from the Virginia-based Readjuster Party, 2 from the declining Greenback Party, and 2 Independents. The previous election of 1880 had had 10 Greenbacks and 1 Independent.

House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% Democratic
 
  80+% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
 
  60+ to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Readjuster
  Up to 60% Republican
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Readjuster gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Independent gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election dates[edit]

Five states, with 39 seats among them, held elections before the others:

Special elections[edit]

There were four special elections in 1882 during the 47th United States Congress.

Elections are listed by date and district.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri 2 Thomas Allen Democratic 1880 Incumbent died April 8, 1882.
New member elected November 7, 1882 and seated December 15, 1882.
Republican gain.
Winner lost election the same day to the next term in the redistricted 9th district, see below.[3]
Illinois 5 Robert M. A. Hawk Republican 1878 Incumbent died June 29, 1882.
New member elected November 7, 1882 and seated December 4, 1882.
Republican hold.
Utah Territory at-large George Q. Cannon Republican 1872 Incumbent disqualified on account of polygamy.[6][7]
New delegate elected November 7, 1882[8] and seated December 4, 1882.
Democratic gain.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
Georgia 8 Alexander H. Stephens Democratic 1842
1859 (Withdrew)
1872
Incumbent resigned November 4, 1882 to become Governor of Georgia.
New member elected November 8, 1882 and seated December 4, 1882.
Winner also elected to the next term.

California[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 William Rosecrans Democratic 1880 Incumbent re-elected.
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican 1872 Lost re-election
Democratic gain.
  • Green tickY James Budd (Democratic) 50.5%
  • Horace F. Page (Republican) 48.1%
  • J. L. Coles (Prohibition) 1.2%
  • F. J. Woodward (Greenback) 0.2%
California 3 Campbell P. Berry Democratic 1879 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
California 4 Romualdo Pacheco Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
California at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
None (New seat) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
None (New seat) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Robert H. M. Davidson (Democratic) 51.5%
  • Emory F. Skinner (Republican) 32.2%
  • D. L. McKinnon (Independent Republican) 16.3%
Florida 2 Horatio Bisbee Jr. Republican 1880[t] Incumbent re-elected.

Missouri[edit]

Missouri gained one seat in reapportionment. After redistricting and the new elections, the delegation went from 7 Democrats, 4 Greenbacks, and 2 Republicans, to a solid slate of 14 Democrats.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri 1 William H. Hatch
Redistricted from the 12th district
Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri 2 New district New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 3 Joseph H. Burrows
Redistricted from the 10th district
Greenback 1880 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 4 Nicholas Ford
Redistricted from the 9th district
Greenback 1878 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 5 Theron Moses Rice
Redistricted from the 7th district
Greenback 1880 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Robert T. Van Horn
Redistricted from the 8th district
Republican 1864
1870 (Retired)
1880
Incumbent retired.
Republican loss.
Missouri 6 New district New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 7 Aylett Hawes Buckner
Redistricted from the 13th district
Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri 8 Gustavus Sessinghaus Redistricted from the 3rd district Republican 1882 (Contested) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 9 Thomas Allen
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic 1880 Incumbent died April 8, 1882.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Winner was not elected to finish the current term in the old district.
Missouri 10 Martin L. Clardy
Redistricted from the 1st district
Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri 11 Richard P. Bland
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
John Bullock Clark Jr. Democratic 1872 Incumbent lost renomination.
Democratic loss.
Missouri 12 New district New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 13 Ira Sherwin Hazeltine
Redistricted from the 6th district
Greenback 1880 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 14 Lowndes Henry Davis
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.

North Carolina[edit]

The Liberal Anti-Prohibition Party was formed following the failure of the first statewide referendum on Prohibition in 1881. Throughout most of North Carolina, the moribund Republican Party merged into the new party and scored impressive gains in the 1882 elections. By early 1884, however, the LAP was dissolving, and they are listed here synonymously with the Republican Party.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1 Louis C. Latham Democratic 1880 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
North Carolina 2 Orlando Hubbs Republican 1880 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
North Carolina 3 John W. Shackelford Democratic 1880 Incumbent died January 18, 1883.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
North Carolina 4 William Ruffin Cox Democratic 1880 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 5 Alfred M. Scales Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 6 Clement Dowd Democratic 1880 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 7 Robert F. Armfield Democratic 1878 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
North Carolina 8 Robert B. Vance Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina at-large None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 John S. Richardson Democratic 1878 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Green tickY Samuel Dibble (Democratic) 56.9%
  • J. B. Campbell (Greenback/L) 43.1%
South Carolina 2 George D. Tillman
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 3 D. Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 4 John H. Evins Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John H. Evins (Democratic) 71.8%
  • D. R. Elkins (Greenback/L) 27.2%
South Carolina 5 None (open seat) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
South Carolina 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  • Green tickY George W. Dargan (Democratic) 64.7%
  • Edmund H. Deas (Republican) 21.7%
  • A. H. Bowen (Greenback/L) 13.6%
South Carolina 7 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

Non-voting delegates[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Arizona Territory at-large Granville H. Oury Democratic [data unknown/missing] Incumbent re-elected.
Dakota Territory at-large Richard F. Pettigrew Republican [data unknown/missing] Incumbent lost re-election.
New delegate elected.
Republican hold.
Idaho Territory at-large George Ainslie Democratic [data unknown/missing] Incumbent lost re-election.
New delegate elected.
Republican gain.
Montana Territory at-large Martin Maginnis Democratic [data unknown/missing] Incumbent re-elected.
New Mexico Territory at-large Tranqulino Luna Republican [data unknown/missing] Incumbent re-elected.
Utah Territory at-large George Q. Cannon Republican 1872 Incumbent disqualified on account of polygamy.[6][7]
New delegate elected.[8]
Democratic gain.
Winner also elected to finish the current term, see above.
Washington Territory at-large Thomas H. Brents Republican [data unknown/missing] Incumbent re-elected.
Wyoming Territory at-large Morton E. Post Democratic [data unknown/missing] Incumbent re-elected.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Five states held early elections between June 5 and October 10.
  2. ^ a b Dubin (p. 263) counts 192 Democrats, 5 Readjusters, 2 Independent Democrats, 119 Republicans, 1 Liberal, 2 Greenbacks and 2 Independents (along with 2 vacancies) at the start of the 48th United States Congress.
  3. ^ There were two "Readjuster Democrats" elected to the previous congress in 1880.
  4. ^ a b Includes 4 Readjusters elected to Virginia's 2nd district, Virginia's 4th district, Virginia's 9th district, and Virginia's at-large seat.
  5. ^ Included 1 Independent Democrat.
  6. ^ Tyre York, elected to North Carolina's 7th district.
  7. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Republican, Theodore Lyman, elected to Massachusetts's 9th district.
  8. ^ Includes 3 Independent Democrats elected to Illinois's 2nd district and Kentucky's 1st district.
  9. ^ Readjusters had 4 seats, Independent Democrats had 3, Greenbacks had 2, Independents had 2, and Independent Republicans had 1.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h New seat or seats added without immediate redistricting.
  11. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Democrat.
  12. ^ a b c d e Elections held early.
  13. ^ a b c d Greenback Party
  14. ^ Changed from districts.
  15. ^ a b c Independent
  16. ^ Changed from at-large.
  17. ^ Previous election had 1 Greenback.
  18. ^ Previous election saw 2 "Readjuster Democrats" elected to Virginia's 7th district and Virginia's 9th district.
  19. ^ Includes 3 Independent Democrats elected to Illinois's 2nd district, Kentucky's 1st district, and North Carolina's 7th district.
  20. ^ Seated after successful electoral challenge.
  21. ^ a b Full name unknown
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i As "Liberal Anti-Prohibition"

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Martis, pp. 136–137.
  2. ^ 22 Stat. 5
  3. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - MO District 2 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  4. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 2 - Special Election Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  5. ^ "Our Campaigns - IL District 05 - Special Election Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  6. ^ a b "How the Plot Was Spoiled". Deseret News. Salt Lake City. July 6, 1881. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
  7. ^ a b "The Polygamous Delegate". Lewiston Evening Journal. April 20, 1882. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
  8. ^ a b "Favorable Report on the Utah Delegate". Deseret News. Salt Lake City. December 21, 1882. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - UT Territorial Delegate - Special Election Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  10. ^ "Our Campaigns - GA District 08 - Special Election Race - Nov 08, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  11. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 1 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  12. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 3 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  13. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 4 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  14. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 5 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  15. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 7 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  16. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 8 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  17. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 9 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  18. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 10 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  19. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 12 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  20. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 13 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  21. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC - District 01 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  22. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC District 02 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  23. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC District 03 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  24. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC - District 04 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  25. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC District 05 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  26. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC - District 06 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  27. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC - District 07 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  28. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC - District 08 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  29. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC - District At Large Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  30. ^ "Our Campaigns - UT Territorial Delegate Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]