1878 and 1879 United States House of Representatives elections

1878 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1876 / 1877 June 3, 1878 – September 3, 1879 1880 →

All 293 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
147 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Samuel J. Randall - Brady-Handy.jpg James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg
Leader Samuel J. Randall James A. Garfield
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Pennsylvania 3rd Ohio 19th
Last election 157 seats[a] 136 seats
Seats won 148[1][b][c] 132[1][c]
Seat change Decrease 9 Decrease 4

  Third party
 
Party Greenback
Last election 0 seats
Seats won 13[1]
Seat change Increase 13

Speaker before election

Samuel Randall
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Samuel Randall
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1878 and 1879[d] for Representatives to the 46th United States Congress. These elections occurred in the middle of President Rutherford B. Hayes's term.

With a sour economy as the nation's pressing issue, both major parties lost seats to the new Greenback Party, which was established to promote the long-term use of paper money as a solution to stop enormous economic fluctuations. The Democratic Party remained the largest party, but lost its majority. However, it allied with several independent politicians and was able to remain in power. Notable freshmen included James B. Weaver, who would later run for president as the Greenback candidate in 1880 and the Populist candidate in 1892. This was the fourth and last recorded House election where both major parties lost seats at the same time.

Election summaries[edit]

141 7 13 132
Democratic Independent Democratic GB Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican Greenback Independent Democratic
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 7 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Arkansas District 4 4 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1
California District 4 1 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Colorado At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District 4 1 Decrease 2 3 Increase 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 1 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District 9 6 Decrease 2 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Increase 2
Illinois District 19 6 Decrease 2 12 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Indiana District 13 6 Increase 2 6 Decrease 3 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Iowa District 9 0 Steady 7 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Kansas District 3 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District 10 9 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
Louisiana District 6 6 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine District 5 0 Steady 3 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 5 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 11 1 Decrease 1 10 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 9 0 Decrease 1 9 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Minnesota District 3 1 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 13 11 Increase 2 0 Decrease 4 1 Increase 1 1 Increase 1
Nebraska At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District 3 0 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 7 3 Decrease 1 4 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York District 33 6 Decrease 9 25 Increase 7 0 Steady 2 Increase 2
North Carolina District 8 7 Steady 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Ohio District 20 11 Increase 3 9 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Oregon At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District 27 8 Decrease 2 17 Steady 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Rhode Island District 2 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 5 5 Increase 3 0 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 9 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Texas District 6 5 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Vermont District 3 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Virginia District 9 8 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
West Virginia District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 8 3 Steady 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total 293 141[1]
48.1%
Decrease 14 132[1]
45.1%
Decrease 5 13[1]
4.4%
Increase 13 7[1]
2.4%
Increase 5
House seats
Democratic
48.12%
Greenback
4.44%
Independent Democratic
2.39%
Republican
45.05%
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+ to 100% Democratic
  80+ to 100% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
  60+ to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
 
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Greenback gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Election dates[edit]

In 1845, Congress set a uniform nationwide date for choosing presidential electors.[2] This Act of Congress did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of state governments, but over time, the states moved their congressional elections to this date as well. In 1878–79, there were still 7 states with earlier election dates, and 1 state with a later election date:

California's elections were the last time a state held congressional general elections after November.

Alabama[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Alabama 1 James T. Jones Democratic 1876 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Alabama 2 Hilary A. Herbert Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 3 Jeremiah N. Williams Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Green tickY William J. Samford (Democratic) 88.43%
  • French Strange (Independent) 9.64%
  • William M. Russell (Republican) 1.93%
Alabama 4 Charles M. Shelley Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 5 Robert F. Ligon Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Alabama 6 Goldsmith W. Hewitt Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Alabama 7 William H. Forney Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 8 William W. Garth Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Greenback gain.

Arkansas[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Arkansas 1 Lucien C. Gause Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Arkansas 2 William F. Slemons Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Arkansas 3 Jordan E. Cravens Independent Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
as a Democrat
Democratic gain.
Arkansas 4 Thomas M. Gunter Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.

California[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 Horace Davis Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
California 3 John K. Luttrell Democratic 1872 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
California 4 Romualdo Pacheco Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.

Colorado[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Colorado at-large None New state.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

Patterson successfully contested the election and was seated March 4, 1877.

Connecticut[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Connecticut 1 George M. Landers Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Connecticut 2 James Phelps Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Connecticut 3 John T. Wait Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Connecticut 4 Levi Warner Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

Delaware[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Delaware at-large James Williams Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Florida 2 Horatio Bisbee, Jr. Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

In the 2nd district the difference between the two candidates, in the initial returns, was just 22 votes. Bisbee challenged Hull's election, and Bisbee challenged Hull's electionwas eventually awarded the seat on January 22, 1881.

Georgia[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Georgia 1 Julian Hartridge Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Georgia 2 William E. Smith Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Georgia 3 Philip Cook Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Georgia 4 Henry R. Harris Democratic 1872 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Independent Democratic gain.
Georgia 5 Milton A. Candler Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Georgia 6 James H. Blount Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Georgia 7 William H. Felton Independent Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Georgia 8 Alexander H. Stephens Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Georgia 9 Hiram P. Bell Democratic 1876 Lost re-nomination
Independent Democratic gain.

Illinois[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Illinois 1 William Aldrich Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 2 Carter Harrison, Sr. Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
to run for Mayor
Republican gain.
  • Green tickY George R. Davis (Republican) 49.59%
  • Miles Kehoe (Democratic) 29.29%
  • George A. Schilling (Socialist) 11.85%
  • James Felch (Greenback) 7.67%
  • J. H. Condon (Independent) 1.25%
  • John Sebolski (Independent) 0.35%
Illinois 3 Lorenzo Brentano Republican 1876 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Hiram Barber, Jr. (Republican) 53.06%
  • Lambert Tree (Democratic) 29.26%
  • Benjamin Sebley (Independent) 12.78%
  • A. B. Cornell (Greenback) 4.90%
Illinois 4 William Lathrop Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Illinois 5 Horatio C. Burchard Republican 1869 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold.
Illinois 6 Thomas J. Henderson Republican 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 7 Philip C. Hayes Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 8 Greenbury L. Fort Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 9 Thomas A. Boyd Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 10 Benjamin F. Marsh Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 11 Robert M. Knapp Democratic 1876 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold.
Illinois 12 William M. Springer Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 13 Thomas F. Tipton Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Illinois 14 Joseph G. Cannon Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 15 John R. Eden Democratic 1872 Lost re-nomination
Greenback gain.
Illinois 16 William A. J. Sparks Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 17 William R. Morrison Democratic 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 18 William Hartzell Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Illinois 19 Richard W. Townshend Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.

Indiana[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Indiana 1 Benoni S. Fuller Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Indiana 2 Thomas R. Cobb Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Indiana 3 George A. Bicknell Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Indiana 4 Leonidas Sexton Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Indiana 5 Thomas M. Browne Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Indiana 6 Milton S. Robinson Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Indiana 7 John Hanna Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Greenback gain.
Indiana 8 Morton C. Hunter Republican 1872 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Indiana 9 Michael D. White Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Indiana 10 William H. Calkins Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Indiana 11 James L. Evans Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Indiana 12 Andrew H. Hamilton Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Indiana 13 John H. Baker Republican 1874 Incumbent re-elected.

In the 7th district, Gilbert De La Matyr was also endorsed by the state Democratic Party.

Iowa[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Iowa 1 Joseph C. Stone Republican 1876 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold.
Iowa 2 Hiram Price Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Iowa 3 Theodore W. Burdick Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Iowa 4 Nathaniel C. Deering Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Iowa 5 Rush Clark Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Rush Clark (Republican) 52.78%
  • George Carter (Democratic) 44.63%
  • Timothy Brown (Greenback) 2.59%
Iowa 6 Ezekiel S. Sampson Republican 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Greenback gain.
Iowa 7 Henry J. B. Cummings Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Greenback gain.
Iowa 8 William F. Sapp Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Iowa 9 S. Addison Oliver Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

In the 6th district, James B. Weaver was also endorsed by the state Democratic Party.

In the 7th district, Edward H. Gillette was also endorsed by the state Democratic Party.

Kansas[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Kansas 1 William A. Phillips Republican 1872 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold.
Kansas 2 Dudley C. Haskell Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Kansas 3 Thomas Ryan Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.

Kentucky[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Kentucky 1 Andrew Boone Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Independent Democratic gain.
Kentucky 2 James A. McKenzie Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 3 John W. Caldwell Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 4 J. Proctor Knott Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 5 Albert S. Willis Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Albert S. Willis (Democratic) 40.51%
  • J. Watts Kearney (Democratic) 33.30%
  • Horace Scott (Republican) 24.48%
  • Blanton Duncan (Greenback) 1.70%
Kentucky 6 John G. Carlisle Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 7 Joseph C. S. Blackburn Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Joseph C. S. Blackburn (Democratic) 69.78%
  • George C. Drane (Republican) 28.68%
  • John L. Scott (Independent) 1.54%
Kentucky 8 Milton J. Durham Democratic 1872 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold.
Kentucky 9 Thomas Turner Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 10 John B. Clarke Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.

Louisiana[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Louisiana 1 Randall L. Gibson Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Louisiana 2 E. John Ellis Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Louisiana 3 Joseph H. Acklen Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Louisiana 4 Joseph B. Elam Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Louisiana 5 J. Smith Young Democratic 1878 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Green tickY J. Floyd King (Democratic) 77.87%
  • J. T. Ludling (Republican) 22.13%
Louisiana 6 Edward W. Robertson Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.

Maine[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maine 1 Thomas B. Reed Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Maine 2 William P. Frye Republican 1870 Incumbent re-elected.
Maine 3 Stephen Lindsey Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Maine 4 Llewellyn Powers Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Greenback gain.
Maine 5 Eugene Hale Republican 1868 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Greenback gain.

In the 4th district, George W. Ladd was also endorsed by the state Democratic Party.

Maryland[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maryland 1 Daniel M. Henry Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 2 Charles B. Roberts Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Maryland 3 William Kimmel Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 4 Thomas Swann Democratic 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Maryland 5 Eli J. Henkle Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 6 William Walsh Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

In the 4th district, William Quigley was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

Massachusetts[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Massachusetts 1 William W. Crapo Republican 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 2 Benjamin W. Harris Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 3 Benjamin Dean Democratic 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Massachusetts 4 Leopold Morse Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Leopold Morse (Democratic) 60.34%
  • Martin Brimmer (Democratic) 39.66%
Massachusetts 5 Nathaniel P. Banks Republican 1874 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold.
Massachusetts 6 George B. Loring Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 7 Benjamin Butler Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
to run for Governor
Republican hold.
Massachusetts 8 William Claflin Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 9 William W. Rice Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 10 Amasa Norcross Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 11 George D. Robinson Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY George D. Robinson (Republican) 51.75%
  • Edward H. Lathrop Butler Democratic 37.86%
  • Jarvis N. Dunham (Democratic) 9.80%
  • Albert C. Woodworth (Independent) 0.60%

In the 5th district, Nathan Clark was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

In the 11th district, Edward H. Lathrop was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

Michigan[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Michigan 1 Alpheus S. Williams Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Michigan 2 Edwin Willits Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Michigan 3 Jonas H. McGowan Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Michigan 4 Edwin W. Keightley Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Michigan 5 John W. Stone Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Michigan 6 Mark S. Brewer Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Michigan 7 Omar D. Conger Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Michigan 8 Charles C. Ellsworth Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Michigan 9 Jay A. Hubbell Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.

Minnesota[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Minnesota 1 Mark H. Dunnell Republican 1870 Incumbent re-elected.
Minnesota 2 Horace B. Strait Republican 1872 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Minnesota 3 Jacob H. Stewart Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

In the 1st district, William Meighan was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

In the 3rd district, Ignatius L. Donnelly was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

Mississippi[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Mississippi 1 Henry L. Muldrow Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 2 Van H. Manning Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Van H. Manning (Democratic) 52.02%
  • J. H. Amacker (Republican) 44.94%
  • C. H. Allen (Independent) 2.88%
  • Daniel B. Wright (Greenback) 0.16%
Mississippi 3 Hernando Money Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 4 Otho R. Singleton Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 5 Charles E. Hooker Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 6 James R. Chalmers Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.

Missouri[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Missouri 1 Anthony F. Ittner Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 2 Nathan Cole Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 3 Lyne Metcalfe Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 4 Robert A. Hatcher Democratic 1872 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Missouri 5 Richard P. Bland Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri 6 Charles H. Morgan Democratic 1874 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold.
Missouri 7 Thomas T. Crittenden Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Missouri 8 Benjamin J. Franklin Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Independent Democratic gain.
Missouri 9 David Rea Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Greenback gain.
Missouri 10 Henry M. Pollard Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 11 John B. Clark, Jr. Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri 12 John M. Glover Democratic 1872 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold.
Missouri 13 Aylett H. Buckner Democratic 1872 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold.

In the 13th district, T. J. Fagg was also endorsed by the state Republican Party.

Nebraska[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Nebraska at-large Frank Welch Republican 1876 Died September 4, 1878
Republican hold.

In the Xth district District, J. W. Davis was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

Nevada[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Nevada at-large Thomas Wren Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

New Hampshire[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Hampshire 1 Frank Jones Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New Hampshire 2 James F. Briggs Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New Hampshire 3 Henry W. Blair Republican 1874 Elected to the U.S. Senate
Republican hold.

New Jersey[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Jersey 1 Clement H. Sinnickson Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New Jersey 2 John H. Pugh Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
New Jersey 3 Miles Ross Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
New Jersey 4 Alvah A. Clark Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New Jersey 5 Augustus W. Cutler Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New Jersey 6 Thomas B. Peddie Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New Jersey 7 Augustus A. Hardenbergh Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

In the 2nd district, Hezekiah B. Smith was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

New York[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New York 1 James W. Covert Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 2 William D. Veeder Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Independent Democratic gain.
New York 3 Simeon B. Chittenden Republican 1874 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
New York 4 Archibald M. Bliss Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 5 Nicholas Muller Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 6 Samuel S. Cox Democratic 1873 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Samuel S. Cox (Tammany Hall Democratic) 62.44%
  • Maurice S. D'Vries (Republican) 36.22%
  • Isaac Bennett (Socialist) 1.34%
New York 7 Anthony Eickhoff Democratic 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New York 8 Anson G. McCook Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 9 Fernando Wood Democratic 1866 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Fernando Wood (Tammany Hall Democratic) 37.12%
  • John Hardy (Anti-Tammany Democratic) 33.05%
  • Wilson Berryman (Republican) 29.21%
  • Joseph Kunze (Greenback) 0.62%
New York 10 Abram Hewitt Democratic 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Independent Democratic gain.
  • Green tickY James O'Brien (Anti-Tammany Democratic) 54.16%
  • Orlando B. Potter (Tammany Hall Democratic) 43.29%
  • John G. Shuck (Independent) 1.54%
  • Garret Nagle (Independent) 1.01%
New York 11 Benjamin A. Willis Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New York 12 Clarkson Nott Potter Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New York 13 John H. Ketcham Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John H. Ketcham (Republican) 62.78%
  • Orlando D. Baker (Democratic) 33.39%
  • John V. Doty (Greenback) 2.73%
  • George Potter (Prohibition) 0.85%
  • Aaron J. Stevens (Independent) 0.26%
New York 14 George M. Beebe Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New York 15 Stephen L. Mayham Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
New York 16 Vacant Democratic incumbent Terence J. Quinn died June 18, 1878.
Republican gain'.
New York 17 Martin I. Townsend Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Walter A. Wood (Republican) 55.34%
  • Charles E. Patterson (Democratic) 31.86%
  • Richard H. Ferguson (Greenback) 12.80%
New York 18 Andrew Williams Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 19 Amaziah B. James Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 20 John H. Starin Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 21 Solomon Bundy Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 22 George A. Bagley Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 23 William J. Bacon Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 24 William H. Baker Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 25 Frank Hiscock Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 26 John H. Camp Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 27 Elbridge G. Lapham Republican 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 28 Jeremiah W. Dwight Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 29 John N. Hungerford Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 30 Elizur K. Hart Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New York 31 Charles B. Benedict Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Richard Crowley (Republican) 56.33%
  • Cyrus E. Davis (Democratic) 39.17%
  • Galen Miller (Greenback) 2.51%
  • Joseph W. Grosvenor (Prohibition) 1.03%
  • James F. Gordon (Independent) 0.96%
New York 32 Daniel N. Lockwood Democratic 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New York 33 George W. Patterson Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

In the 2nd district, Daniel O'Reilly was also endorsed by the state Republican Party.

In the 5th district, Thomas Burke was also endorsed by the "Anti-Tammany" faction of the state Democratic Party.

In the 6th district, Samuel S. Cox was endorsed by the state Greenback Party, and Maurice S. D'Vries was endorsed by the "Anti-Tammany" faction of the state Democratic Party.

In the 8th district, Lawrence Jerome was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

In the 10th district, James O'Brien was also endorsed by the state Republican Party. For the purposes of simplicity he is listed as having been elected an Independent Democrat.

In the 23rd district, John Spriggs was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

In the 25th district, John Weiting was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

In the 27th district, David Pierpont was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 Joseph Rainey Republican 1870 (special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
South Carolina 2 Richard H. Cain Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
South Carolina 3 D. Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 4 John H. Evins Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 5 Robert Smalls Republican 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

South Carolina was one state rampant with voter fraud, particularly through the use of tissue ballots, thin ballots hidden in the normal ballot, typically 10 to 20 at a time. The almost statewide exclusion of Republicans as Commissioners of Elections, and the ensuing appointment of nearly all Democratic Managers of Elections, allowed to Democratic Managers to perpetrate this scheme. When the votes were counted and more votes than voters were found, the Managers removed and destroyed the Republican ballots resulting in the complete takeover of the state.[3][4][5]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Included 2 Independent Democrats.
  2. ^ Includes 7 Independent Democrats.
  3. ^ a b Dubin (p. 249) counts 140 Democrats, 6 Independent Democrats, 130 Republicans (incl. 1 Independent Republican), and 11 Greenbacks at the start of the 46th United States Congress.
  4. ^ In 1879, California held its last regular Congressional election in an odd-numbered year.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Martis, pp. 132–133
  2. ^ Stat. 721
  3. ^ "NY Times Free Archive" (PDF). The New York Times. November 16, 1878.
  4. ^ "NY Times Free Archive" (PDF). The New York Times. February 5, 1879.
  5. ^ William Ralston Balch (1881). The Life of James Abram Garfield.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]