1852 and 1853 United States House of Representatives elections

1852 and 1853 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1850 / 51 August 2, 1852 – November 8, 1853 1854 / 55 →

All 234 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
118 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  LinnBoyd.jpg JosephRipleyChandler.png
Leader Linn Boyd Joseph R. Chandler
Party Democratic Whig
Leader's seat Kentucky 1st Pennsylvania 2nd
Last election 130 seats 86 seats
Seats won 158[a] 71
Seat change Increase 28 Decrease 15

  Third party
 
Party Free Soil
Last election 4 seats
Seats won 4
Seat change Steady

House033ElectionMap.png

Speaker before election

Linn Boyd
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Linn Boyd
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 33rd Congress were held at various dates in different states from August 1852 to November 1853.

Democrats increased their House majority while electing Franklin Pierce to the Presidency. Though sectionalism remained a problem, the parties unified around the presidential campaign. Two small parties, the Constitutional Unionists and States' Rights parties, collapsed prior to this election, while the anti-slavery Free Soil Party retained four seats. One Independent, Caleb Lyon, was elected from New York.

Election summaries[edit]

Following the 1850 Census, the House was reapportioned. In the initial apportionment bill, the number of seats was unchanged at 233,[1] but later one seat was added to California's delegation, increasing the total apportionment to 234, due to returns from California being determined to be incomplete.[2]

158 4 1 71
Democratic FS I Whig
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic Free Soil Whig Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Iowa Districts August 2, 1852 2 Steady 1 Decrease1 0 Steady 1 Increase1 0 Steady
Missouri Districts August 2, 1852 7 Increase2 3 Increase1 0 Steady 4 Increase1 0 Steady
Vermont Districts September 7, 1852 3 Decrease1 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
Maine Districts September 13, 1852 6 Decrease1 3 Decrease2 0 Steady 3 Increase1 0 Steady
Florida At-large October 5, 1852 1 Steady 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Decrease1 0 Steady
Indiana Districts October 12, 1852 11 Increase1 10 Increase2 0 Steady 1 Decrease1 0 Steady
Ohio Districts October 12, 1852 21 Steady 12 Increase1 2 Increase1 7 Decrease2 0 Steady
Pennsylvania Districts October 12, 1852 25 Increase1 16 Increase1 0 Steady 9 Steady 0 Steady
California At-large November 2, 1852
(Election Day)[b]
2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois Districts 9 Increase2 5[a] Decrease1 0 Steady 4 Increase3 0 Steady
Michigan Districts 4 Increase1 4 Increase3 0 Steady 0 Decrease2 0 Steady
New Jersey Districts 5 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
New York Districts 33 Decrease1 21 Increase4 1 Increase1 10 Decrease7 1[c] Increase1
Wisconsin Districts 3 Steady 3 Increase1 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 8, 1852 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts Districts November 8, 1852 11 Increase1 1 Steady 1 Decrease1 9 Increase2 0 Steady
South Carolina Districts February 28–March 1, 1853 6 Decrease1 6 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Late elections (after the March 4, 1853 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire Districts March 8, 1853 3 Decrease1 3 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Decrease2 0 Steady
Connecticut Districts April 4, 1853 4 Steady 4 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Decrease1 0 Steady
Rhode Island Districts April 6, 1853 2 Steady 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Decrease1 0 Steady
Virginia Districts May 26, 1853 13 Decrease2 13 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease2 0 Steady
Arkansas Districts August 1, 1853 2 Increase1 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky Districts August 1, 1853 10 Steady 5 Steady 0 Steady 5 Steady 0 Steady
Texas Districts August 1, 1853 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina Districts August 4, 1853 8 Decrease1 5 Increase2 0 Steady 3 Decrease3 0 Steady
Tennessee Districts August 4, 1853 10 Decrease1 5 Decrease2 0 Steady 5 Increase1 0 Steady
Alabama Districts August 8, 1853 7 Steady 6 Increase2 0 Steady 1 Decrease1 0 Decrease1[d]
Georgia Districts October 3, 1853 8 Steady 6 Increase6 0 Steady 2 Increase2 0 Decrease8[e]
Louisiana Districts November 1, 1853 4 Steady 3 Increase1 0 Steady 1 Decrease1 0 Steady
Maryland Districts November 2, 1853 6 Steady 4 Increase2 0 Steady 2 Decrease2 0 Steady
Mississippi District + 1 at-large November 7–8, 1853 5 Increase1 5 Increase5 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease4[f]
Total 234 Increase1 158[a]
67.5%
Increase28 4
1.7%
Steady 71
30.3%
Decrease15 1
0.4%
Decrease12
House seats
Democratic
67.52%
Free Soil
1.71%
Whig
30.34%
Others
0.43%

California[edit]

Note: From statehood to 1864, California's representatives were elected at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858; in 1860 when California gained a seat in the House the top three vote-getters were elected.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California at-large
2 seats elected on a general ticket
Edward C. Marshall Democratic 1851 (Late) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Joseph W. McCorkle Democratic 1851 (Late) Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.

Florida[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida at-large Edward C. Cabell Whig 1846 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Democrat, William Henry Bissell, elected to IL-08.
  2. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing presidential electors (see: Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721). Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections as well.
  3. ^ Caleb Lyon was elected to NY-23 as an Independent.
  4. ^ Previous election had 1 Constitutional Union member.
  5. ^ Previous election had 6 Constitutional Union and 2 States' Rights.
  6. ^ Previous election had 3 Constitutional Union and 1 States' Rights.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stat. 432
  2. ^ 10 Stat. 25

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]