1830 and 1831 United States House of Representatives elections

1830 and 1831 U.S. House of Representatives elections

← 1828 / 1829 July 5, 1830 – October 3, 1831 1832 / 1833 →

All 213 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
107 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  AndrewStevenson.jpg JohnWTaylor.jpg
Leader Andrew Stevenson John W. Taylor
Party Jacksonian Anti-Jacksonian
Leader's seat Virginia 9th New York 17th
Last election 136 seats 72 seats
Seats won 126 66
Seat change Decrease 10 Decrease 6

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Anti-Masonic Nullifier
Last election 5 seats 0 seats
Seats won 17 4
Seat change Increase 12 Increase 4

House022ElectionsMap.png

Speaker before election

Andrew Stevenson
Jacksonian

Elected Speaker

Andrew Stevenson
Jacksonian

In the United States House of Representatives elections of 1830 the supporters of President Andrew Jackson lost ten seats during his first term, but managed to maintain control of the chamber amidst the growth of two new opposition movements.

The brash style of Congress during the administration of Andrew Jackson caused a number of Americans to become dissatisfied with the government and both of the major parties. Anger over the Tariff of 1828 also provided a major issue, particularly in the agricultural South. The Jacksonians remained firmly in control of the House, but lost several seats, as did the minority Anti-Jacksonians. The Anti-Masonic Party, an aspiring third party which was based on a single issue (distrust of Freemasonry), was actually able to gain a dozen seats, and four South Carolina Congressman who called themselves Nullifiers (based on the principle of states' rights) were also elected. Thus, this was the first election in the House where both major parties lost seats at the same time; this would not occur again until the 1854 elections.

Election summaries[edit]

Not including special elections.

66 17 126 4
Anti-Jacksonian AM Jacksonian N
State Type Date Total
seats
Anti-Jacksonian Anti-Masonic Jacksonian Nullifier
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Louisiana Districts July 5–7, 1830 3 2 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large August 2–3, 1830 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont Districts September 6, 1830[a] 5 3 Decrease1 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine Districts September 13, 1830 7 1 Decrease2 0 Steady 6 Increase2 0 Steady
Georgia At-large October 4, 1830 7 0 Steady 0 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio Districts October 12, 1830 14 8 Increase2 0 Steady 6 Decrease2 0 Steady
Pennsylvania Districts October 12, 1830 26 2 Increase1 7 Increase6 17 Decrease7 0 Steady
South Carolina Districts October 11–12, 1830 9 0 Steady 0 Steady 5 Decrease4 4 Increase4
Massachusetts Districts November 1, 1830 13 13 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York Districts November 1–3, 1830 34 3 Decrease8 8 Increase5 23 Increase3 0 Steady
New Jersey At-large November 6, 1830 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 13, 1830 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Late elections (after the March 4, 1831 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire At-large March 8, 1831 6 0 Steady 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut At-large April 14, 1831 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia Districts April 1831 22 5 Decrease1 0 Steady 17 Increase1 0 Steady
Alabama Districts August 1, 1831 3 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois At-large August 1, 1831 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky Districts August 1, 1831 12 4 Increase2 0 Steady 8 Decrease2 0 Steady
Missouri At-large August 2, 1831 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana Districts August 5, 1831 3 0 Decrease2 0 Steady 3 Increase2 0 Steady
Tennessee Districts August 4–5, 1831 9 1 Steady 0 Steady 8 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina Districts August 11, 1831 13 2 Decrease1 0 Steady 11 Increase1 0 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 23, 1831 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland Districts October 3, 1831 9 5 Increase2 0 Steady 4 Decrease2 0 Steady
Total 213 66
31.0%
Decrease6 17
8.0%
Increase12 126
59.2%
Decrease10 4
1.9%
Increase4
House seats
Anti-Jacksonian
30.1%
Anti-Masonic
8.0%
Jacksonian
59.2%
Nullifier
1.9%

Special elections[edit]

21st Congress[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Ohio 11 New member elected October 11, 1830.
Maine 5 New member elected December 6, 1830.

22nd Congress[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont 2 Rollin C. Mallary Anti-Jacksonian 1820 (Contested) Incumbent died April 15, 1831.
New member elected November 1, 1831 on the third ballot.
Anti-Masonic gain.
First ballot (July 5, 1831):

Second ballot (September 6, 1831):

Third ballot (November 1, 1831):
Pennsylvania 11 William Ramsey Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent died September 29, 1831 before the new Congress convened.
New member elected November 22, 1831.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 5, 1831.[4]

Alabama[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Alabama 1
"Northern District"
Clement C. Clay Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 2
"Middle District"
Robert E. B. Baylor Jacksonian 1825 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Alabama 3
"Southern District"
Dixon Hall Lewis Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.

Connecticut[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Ralph I. Ingersoll Anti-Jacksonian 1825 Incumbent re-elected.
Noyes Barber Anti-Jacksonian 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
Ebenezer Young Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.
Jabez W. Huntington Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.
William L. Storrs Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.
William W. Ellsworth Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.

Delaware[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large Kensey Johns Anti-Jacksonian 1827 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.

Georgia[edit]

Illinois[edit]

Indiana[edit]

Kentucky[edit]

Louisiana[edit]

Maine[edit]

Maryland[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

Former U.S. President John Quincy Adams was elected from Massachusetts's 11th district, becoming the first former president to re-enter public life after leaving the presidency.

Mississippi[edit]

Missouri[edit]

New Hampshire[edit]

New Jersey[edit]

New York[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

Ohio[edit]

Pennsylvania[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[6][b]
Pennsylvania 1 Joel B. Sutherland Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 2 Joseph Hemphill Jacksonian 1800
1802 (Lost)
1818
1826 (Resigned)
1828
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
  • Green tickY Henry Horn (Jacksonian) 55.6%
  • Daniel W. Coxe (Anti-Jacksonian) 44.4%
Pennsylvania 3 Daniel H. Miller Jacksonian 1822 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 3 seats
James Buchanan Jacksonian 1820 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Joshua Evans Jr. Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
George G. Leiper Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Pennsylvania 5 John B. Sterigere Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
  • Green tickY Joel K. Mann (Jacksonian) 56.4%
  • John Freedly (Anti-Masonic) 43.6%
Pennsylvania 6 Innis Green Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
  • Green tickY John C. Bucher (Jacksonian) 54.4%
  • Valentine Hummel (Anti-Jacksonian) 45.6%
Pennsylvania 7
Plural district with 2 seats
Joseph Fry Jr. Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Henry A. P. Muhlenberg Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 8
Plural district with 2 seats
Peter Ihrie Jr. Jacksonian 1829 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Samuel A. Smith Jacksonian 1829 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 9
Plural district with 3 seats
Philander Stephens Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
James Ford Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
Alem Marr Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Pennsylvania 10 Adam King Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Adam King (Jacksonian) 58.6%
  • William McIlvine (Anti-Jacksonian) 41.4%
Pennsylvania 11
Plural district with 2 seats
Thomas H. Crawford Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
William Ramsey Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent re-elected.
Incumbent died September 29, 1831, before the new Congress convened, leading to a November 22, 1831 special election[7]
Pennsylvania 12 John Scott Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Pennsylvania 13 Chauncey Forward Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
  • Green tickY George Burd (Anti-Jacksonian) 50.2%
  • David Mann (Anti-Masonic) 48.5%
  • Reynolds[d] 1.3%
Pennsylvania 14 Thomas Irwin Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Pennsylvania 15 William McCreery Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Pennsylvania 16
Plural district with 2 seats
Harmar Denny Anti-Masonic 1829 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
John Gilmore Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 17 Richard Coulter Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 18 Thomas H. Sill Anti-Jacksonian 1826 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
  • Green tickY John Banks (Anti-Masonic) 57.1%
  • Thomas S. Cunningham (Jacksonian) 42.9%

Rhode Island[edit]

South Carolina[edit]

Tennessee[edit]

Vermont[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont 1
Vermont 2
Vermont 3
Vermont 4 Benjamin Swift Anti-Jacksonian 1827 New member elected late on the eleventh ballot.[8]
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Eleventh ballot (June 6, 1832):
Vermont 5

Virginia[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In 4th district, the election wasn't completed until 1832.
  2. ^ For plural districts, percent is based on assumption that each voter cast as many votes as there are seats.
  3. ^ Ran on joint Jacksonian/Anti-Jacksonian ticket.
  4. ^ Source did not give full name

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]