1810 and 1811 United States Senate elections

1810 and 1811 United States Senate elections

← 1808/09 Dates vary by state 1812/13 →

11 of the 34 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
18 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Seats before 26 8
Seats after 26 7
Seat change Steady Decrease 1
Seats up 8 2
Races won 8 1

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1810 and 1811 were elections that had the Democratic-Republican Party maintain their majority in the United States Senate. The minority Federalists had gone into the elections with such a small share of Senate seats (8 out of 34, or 23.5%) that, had they won all of the elections, they would still not have reached a majority.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Change in composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

Composition after June 1810 special election in New Hampshire.

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
S.C.
Retired
F8
Mass.
Ran
DR26
Va.
Ran
DR25
Tenn.
Ran
DR24
N.C.
Ran
DR23
N.J.
Ran
DR22
N.H.
Ran
DR21
Ga.
Ran
DR20
R.I.
Unknown
DR19
Ky.
Retired
F7
Del.
Ran
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Result of the general elections[edit]

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
S.C.
Hold
V1
Mass.
F Loss
DR26
Va.
Re-elected
DR25
Tenn.
Re-elected
DR24
N.C.
Re-elected
DR23
N.J.
Re-elected
DR22
N.H.
Re-elected
DR21
Ga.
Re-elected
DR20
R.I.
Hold
DR19
Ky.
Hold
F7
Del.
Re-elected
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Except if/when noted, number following candidates is whole number votes.

Special elections during the 11th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1810 or before March 4, 1811; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Delaware
(Class 1)
Samuel White Federalist 1796 (Special)
1801 (Appointed)
1803
1809
Incumbent died November 4, 1809.
New senator elected January 12, 1810.
Federalist hold.
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Nahum Parker Democratic-Republican 1807 Incumbent resigned June 1, 1810.
New senator elected June 21, 1810.
Federalist gain.
Connecticut
(Class 1)
James Hillhouse Federalist 1796 (Special)
1797
1803
1809
Incumbent resigned June 10, 1810.
New senator elected December 4, 1810.
Federalist hold.
Ohio
(Class 1)
Return J. Meigs, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1808 (Special)
1808
Incumbent resigned December 8, 1810 to become Governor of Ohio.
New senator elected December 15, 1810 on the sixth ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Thomas Sumter Democratic-Republican 1801 (Special)
1809
Incumbent resigned December 16, 1810.
New senator elected December 18, 1810 on the third ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.

Races leading to the 12th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1811 (except where noted due to late election); ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Delaware James A. Bayard Federalist 1804 (Special)
1805
Incumbent re-elected January 8, 1811.
Georgia William H. Crawford Democratic-Republican 1807 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1810 or 1811.
Kentucky Henry Clay Democratic-Republican 1810 (Appointed) Appointee retired to run for U.S. House of Representatives.
New senator elected January 8, 1811.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Massachusetts Timothy Pickering Federalist 1803 (Special)
1805
Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect due to partisan deadlock in the Massachusetts Senate.
Federalist loss.
Timothy Pickering (Federalist)
Joseph B. Varnum (Democratic-Republican)
William King
Richard Cutts
Perez Morton
Josiah Quincy (Federalist)
Joseph Sprague[9][10]
New Hampshire Nicholas Gilman Democratic-Republican 1804 Incumbent re-elected June 21, 1810 on the fourth ballot.
New Jersey John Condit Democratic-Republican 1803 (Appointed)
1803 (Special)
1809 (Lost)
1809 (Appointed)
1809 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected November 5, 1810.
North Carolina James Turner Democratic-Republican 1804 Incumbent re-elected November 26, 1810 on the third vote.
Rhode Island Elisha Mathewson Democratic-Republican 1807 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected November 2, 1810.
Democratic-Republican hold.
South Carolina Thomas Sumter Democratic-Republican 1801 (Special)
1809
Incumbent resigned December 16, 1810.
New senator elected December 18, 1810 on the third ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner also elected to finish the current term, see above.


Tennessee Jenkin Whiteside Democratic-Republican 1809 (Special) Incumbent re-elected early October 28, 1809.
Virginia William B. Giles Democratic-Republican 1804 (Appointed)
1804 (Special)
1804
Incumbent re-elected January 2, 1811.

Special elections during the 12th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated in 1811 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect, see above.
New senator elected late June 6, 1811 on the second ballot.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Jenkin Whiteside Democratic-Republican 1809 (Special) Incumbent resigned October 8, 1811.
New senator elected October 1, 1811.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
Christopher G. Champlin Federalist 1809 (Special) Incumbent resigned October 12, 1811.
New senator elected October 28, 1811.
Federalist hold.


Connecticut (Special)[edit]

Delaware[edit]

Delaware (Special)[edit]

Georgia[edit]

Kentucky[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

Massachusetts (Special)[edit]

New Hampshire[edit]

New Hampshire (Special)[edit]

New Jersey[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

Ohio (Special)[edit]

Rhode Island[edit]

Rhode Island (Special)[edit]

South Carolina[edit]

South Carolina (Special)[edit]

Tennessee[edit]

Tennessee (Special)[edit]

Virginia[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Charles Cutts (NH) has conflicting accounts of whether he was a Democratic-Republican or a Federalist.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Delaware 1810 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 25, 2018., citing Journal of the Delaware House of Representatives, 1810. 26.
  2. ^ "New Hampshire 1810 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 25, 2018., citing Concord Gazette (Concord, NH). June 26, 1810.
  3. ^ "Connecticut 1810 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 26, 2018., citing Connecticut Mirror (Hartford, CT). June 4, 1810.
  4. ^ Taylor, William A. (1900). Ohio in Congress from 1803 to 1901 with Notes nad Sketches of Senators and Representatives and Other Historical Data and Incidents. Columbus, Ohio: The XX. Century Publishing Co. – via Google Books.
  5. ^ "Ohio 1810 U.S. Senate, Special, Ballot 6". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 26, 2018., citing Muskingum Messenger (Zanesville, OH). December 8, 1810. Liberty Hall (Cincinnati, OH). December 24, 1810. The Western Spy (Cincinnati, OH). December 29, 1810. Taylor, William A. Ohio Statesmen and Annals of Progress: From the year 1788 to the year 1900. Columbus, OH: Press of the Westbote, 1899. 68.
  6. ^ a b "South Carolina 1810 U.S. Senate, Special, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 29, 2018., citing The Spirit of 'Seventy-Six (Washington, DC). January 1, 1811.
  7. ^ "Delaware 1811 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 25, 2018., citing American Watchman; and Delaware Republican (Wilmington, DE). January 12, 1811.
  8. ^ "Kentucky 1811 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 29, 2018., citing The Reporter (Lexington, KY). January 12, 1811.
  9. ^ "Massachusetts 1810 U.S. Senate, House of Representatives Vote". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 29, 2018., citing Columbian Centinel. Massachusetts Federalist (Boston, MA). June 9, 1810.
  10. ^ "Massachusetts 1810 U.S. Senate, State Senate Vote, Ballot 4". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 29, 2018., citing Columbian Centinel. Massachusetts Federalist (Boston, MA). June 16, 1810.
  11. ^ "New Hampshire 1810 U.S. Senate, Ballot 4". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 25, 2018., citing Concord Gazette (Concord, NH). June 26, 1810. Farmer's Museum (Walpole, NH). July 2, 1810.
  12. ^ "New Jersey 1810 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 22, 2018., citing The True American and Commercial Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). November 9, 1810.
  13. ^ "North Carolina 1810 U.S. Senate, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 22, 2018., citing The True Republican, and Newbern Weekly Advertiser (New Bern, NC). December 5, 1810.
  14. ^ "Rhode Island 1810 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 19, 2018., citing The Columbian Phenix (Providence, RI). November 3, 1810.
  15. ^ "Tennessee 1809 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 29, 2018., citing Journal of the Tennessee House of Representatives, 1809. 115.
  16. ^ "Virginia 1811 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 22, 2018., citing Independent American (Georgetown, DC). January 8, 1811.
  17. ^ "Massachusetts 1811 U.S. Senate, State Senate Vote, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 29, 2018., citing American Watchman; and Delaware Republican (Wilmington, DE). June 15, 1811. Norfolk Gazette and Publick Ledger (Norfolk, VA). June 17, 1811. Republican Star or Eastern Shore General Advertiser (Easton, MD). June 18, 1811.
  18. ^ "Tennessee 1811 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 29, 2018., citing Wilson's Knoxville Gazette (Knoxville, TN). October 7, 1811.
  19. ^ "Rhode Island 1811 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 19, 2018., citing The True American and Commercial Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). November 8, 1811.

External links[edit]