1804 and 1805 United States Senate elections

United States Senate elections, 1804 and 1805

← 1802/03 Dates vary by state 1806/07 →

11 of the 34 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
18 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 22 seats 9 seats
Seats before 25 9
Seats won 9 2
Seats after 27 7
Seat change Increase 2 Decrease 2
Seats up 7 4

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1804 and 1805 were elections that expanded the Democratic-Republican Party's overwhelming control over the United States Senate. The Federalists went into the elections with such a small share of Senate seats (9 out of 34, or 27%) that even if they had won every election, they would have still remained a minority caucus.

As these elections were prior to the ratification of the seventeenth amendment, senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 9th Congress (1805–1807)

  • Majority Party: Democratic-Republican (27)
  • Minority Party: Federalist (7)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Total Seats: 34

Change in composition[edit]

Only reflects results of general elections.

Before the general elections[edit]

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
F8
N.J.
Ran
F9
N.H.
Unknown
DR25
Tenn.
Retired
DR24
Va.
Ran
DR23
S.C.
Ran
DR22
R.I.
Ran
DR21
N.C.
Ran
DR20
Ky.
Ran
DR19
Ga.
Ran
F7
Mass.
Ran
F6
Del.
Ran
F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Result of the general elections[edit]

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
DR27
N.J.
Gain
DR26
N.H.
Gain
DR25
Tenn.
Hold
DR24
R.I.
Hold
DR23
N.C.
Hold
DR22
Ky.
Hold
DR21
Va.
Re-elected
DR20
S.C.
Re-elected
DR19
Ga.
Re-elected
F7
Mass.
Re-elected
F6
Del.
Re-elected
F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Except if/when noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

Special elections during the 8th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated during 1804 or before March 4, 1805; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New York
(Class 3)
John Armstrong Jr. Democratic-Republican 1800 (Special)
1801
1802 (Resigned)
1803 (Appointed)
Interim appointee resigned December 3, 1804 to become U.S. Senator from Class 1 seat.
New senator elected February 23, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York
(Class 1)
Theodorus Bailey Democratic-Republican 1803 Resigned January 16, 1804 to become Postmaster of New York City.
New senator elected February 25, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
Samuel J. Potter Democratic-Republican 1802 Died October 14, 1804.
New senator elected October 29, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Delaware
(Class 2)
William H. Wells Federalist 1799 (Special)
1799
Resigned November 6, 1804.
New senator elected November 13, 1804.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
Federalist hold.
New York
(Class 1)
John Armstrong Jr. Democratic-Republican 1804 (Special) Resigned to become U.S. Minister to France.
New senator elected November 23, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Virginia
(Class 1)
Andrew Moore Democratic-Republican 1804 (Appointed) Interim appointee resigned December 3, 1804 to become U.S. Senator from Class 1 seat.
New senator elected December 4, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Virginia
(Class 2)
William B. Giles Democratic-Republican 1804 (Appointed) Interim appointee resigned December 3, 1804 to become U.S. Senator from Class 2 seat.
New senator elected December 4, 1804.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Andrew Moore (Democratic-Republican)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Pierce Butler Democratic-Republican 1802 (Special) Resigned November 21, 1804.
New senator elected December 6, 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Races leading to the 9th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1805; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Delaware James A. Bayard Federalist 1804 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 24, 1805.
Georgia Abraham Baldwin Democratic-
Republican
1799 Incumbent re-elected November 14, 1804.
Kentucky John Brown Democratic-
Republican
1792 (New seat)
1792
1798
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1804 on the seventh ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Massachusetts Timothy Pickering Federalist 1803 (Special) Incumbent re-elected February 6, 1805 on the third ballot.
New Hampshire Simeon Olcott Federalist 1801 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected November 28, 1804.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New Jersey Jonathan Dayton Federalist 1798 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1804.
Democratic-Republican gain.
North Carolina Jesse Franklin Democratic-
Republican
1798 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1804 on the fifth ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner would later reject his election and never take the seat.
A new election was held the next year, see below.
Rhode Island Christopher Ellery Democratic-
Republican
1801 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1804.
Democratic-Republican hold.
South Carolina Thomas Sumter Democratic-
Republican
1801 Incumbent elected December 6, 1804.
Tennessee William Cocke Democratic-
Republican
1799 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected early September 23, 1803.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Virginia William B. Giles Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Appointed)
1804 (Resigned)
1804 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected December 7, 1804.

Special elections during the 9th Congress[edit]

In this special election, the winner was seated in 1805 after March 4.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Kentucky
(Class 3)
John Breckinridge Democratic-Republican 1800 Resigned August 7, 1805 to become U.S. Attorney General.
New senator elected November 8, 1805.
Democratic-Republican hold.
North Carolina
(Class 2)
Vacant Montfort Stokes (DR) had been elected in 1804, see above, but rejected the position.
New senator elected December 22, 1805.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Delaware[edit]

Delaware (Special)[edit]

Georgia[edit]

Kentucky[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

New Hampshire[edit]

New Jersey[edit]

New York (Special)[edit]

In February 1804 two senators were elected to finish vacant terms. The winner of the class 1 seat later resigned, leading to a November special election.

Theodorus Bailey had been elected to the Class 1 seat (term 1803-1809) but resigned on January 16, 1804, after his appointment as Postmaster of New York City.

John Armstrong had been re-elected to the class 3 seat to the term that would end March 3, 1807. He resigned February 5, 1802 and DeWitt Clinton was elected February 9, 1802 to finish the term.

Clinton then resigned on November 4, 1803, after his appointment as Mayor of New York City, and Governor George Clinton appointed Armstrong to his old seat to continue the term temporarily until another special election.

Armstrong was then elected to the Class 1 seat and so resigned from the Class 3 seat.

New York (February: Special Classes 1 and 3)[edit]

The first special election was held February 3, 1804, by the New York State Legislature to elect both senators. The class 1 term ended March 3, 1809 and the class 3 term ended March 3, 1813.

U.S. Senator (Class 1) Incumbent: Theodorus Bailey

House Democratic-Republican Federalist Federalist
State Senate
(32 members)
Green tickY John Armstrong
State Assembly
(99 members)
Green tickY John Armstrong 83 Jacob Radcliff 4 Egbert Benson 3

U.S. Senator (Class 3) Incumbent: John Armstrong

House Democratic-Republican Federalist Federalist
State Senate
(32 members)
Green tickY John Smith
State Assembly
(99 members)
Green tickY John Smith Smith was nominated unanimously by the Assembly, but the exact number of votes given is unclear.

John Smith was seated February 23, 1804. John Armstrong was seated February 25, 1804.

New York (November: Special class 1)[edit]

Once again, John Armstrong resigned from the Senate on June 30, 1804 (a third time in three years) when appointed U.S. Minister to France. To fill the vacancy, the legislature held a special election November 9, 1804, and elected Samuel L. Mitchill.

House Democratic-Republican Federalist Democratic-Republican
State Senate
(30 members)
Green tickY Samuel L. Mitchill    
State Assembly
(100 members)
Green tickY Samuel L. Mitchill 75 Rufus King 14 David Thomas 1

Mitchill was seated November 23, 1804.

North Carolina[edit]

Rhode Island[edit]

Rhode Island (Special)[edit]

South Carolina[edit]

South Carolina (Special)[edit]

Tennessee[edit]

Virginia[edit]

Virginia (Special)[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "New York 1804 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018., citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1804. 35. Journal of the New York State Senate, 1804. 10.
  2. ^ "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  3. ^ "New York 1804 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018., citing The Albany Register (Albany, NY). February 7, 1804.
  4. ^ "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  5. ^ "Rhode Island 1804 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 10, 2018., citing The True American and Commercial Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). November 19, 1804.
  6. ^ "Delaware 1804 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018., citing Journal of the Delaware House of Representatives, 1804. 9.
  7. ^ "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  8. ^ "Delaware 1805 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018., citing Journal of the Delaware State Senate, 1805. 41.
  9. ^ "Georgia 1804 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018., citing The Enquirer (Richmond, VA). December 6, 1804.
  10. ^ "Kentucky 1804 U.S. Senate, Ballot 7". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018., citing Kentucky Gazette and General Advertiser (Lexington, KY). November 27, 1804.
  11. ^ "Massachusetts 1805 U.S. Senate, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 29, 2018., citing The Providence Phoenix (Providence, RI). February 9, 1805.
  12. ^ "New Hampshire 1804 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018., citing Oracle Post (Portsmouth, NH). December 11, 1804.
  13. ^ "New Jersey 1804 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018., citing The Centinel of Freedom (Newark, NJ). November 13, 1804.
  14. ^ "North Carolina 1804 U.S. Senate, Ballot 5". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 9, 2018., citing Raleigh Register, and North-Carolina State Gazette (Raleigh, NC). December 3, 1804.
  15. ^ "Rhode Island 1804 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 10, 2018., citing The True American and Commercial Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). November 19, 1804.
  16. ^ "South Carolina 1804 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 10, 2018., citing Original Election Returns. South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia.
  17. ^ "Tennessee 1803 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing Journal of the Tennessee House of Representatives, 1803. 27. Gazette of the United States (Philadelphia, PA). October 18, 1803. White, Robert Hiram. Messages of the Governors of Tennessee, 1796-1821. Vol. 1. Nashville: The Tennessee Historical Commission, 1952.
  18. ^ "Virginia 1804 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 10, 2018., citing The Enquirer (Richmond, VA). December 15, 1804.
  19. ^ "Kentucky 1805 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 8, 2018., citing The Enquirer (Richmond, VA). December 6, 1805.
  20. ^ "North Carolina 1805 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 9, 2018., citing Legislative Papers. State Archives of North Carolina, Raleigh.

References[edit]