1802 and 1803 United States Senate elections

1802 and 1803 United States Senate elections

← 1800/01 Dates vary by state 1804/05 →

11 of the 32 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
17 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Seats before 17 15
Seats after 22 9
Seat change Increase 5 Decrease 6
Seats up 2 9
Races won 7 3

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1802 and 1803 were elections for the United States Senate which had the Democratic-Republican Party assume an overwhelming control thereof.

As these election were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Change in composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

Accounting for the 1802 special elections in New York, Rhode Island, and South Carolina.

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2
S.C. (sp)
Hold
DR1
N.Y. (sp)
Hold
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16
Va.
Ran
Majority → DR17
Tenn.
Unknown
F7
Conn.
Ran
F8
Del.
Ran
F9
Md.
Ran
F10
N.J.
Ran
F11
N.Y.
Ran
F12
Vt.
Ran
F13
R.I.
Retired
F14
Pa.
Retired
F15
Mass.
Retired
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
R.I. (sp)
Hold

Result of the general elections[edit]

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16
Md.
Re-elected
Majority → DR17
N.Y.
Gain
F7
Conn.
Re-elected
F8
Del.
Re-elected
F9
Mass.
Hold
V1
N.J.
Fed loss
V2
Tenn.
DR loss
DR21
Va.
Gain
DR20
Vt.
Gain
DR19
R.I.
Gain
DR18
Pa.
Gain
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Beginning of the first session, October 17, 1803[edit]

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
F8 F9 DR25
Ohio
New state
DR24
Ohio
New state
DR23
N.J.
Appointee elected
DR22
Tenn.
Re-elected
DR21 DR20 DR19
F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Unless noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

Special elections during the 7th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1803; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New York
(Class 3)
John Armstrong, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1801 (Special) Incumbent resigned February 5, 1802.
Winner elected February 11, 1802.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
James Sheafe Federalist 1800 Incumbent resigned June 14, 1802.
Winner elected June 17, 1802.
Federalist hold.
South Carolina
(Class 3)
John E. Colhoun Democratic-Republican 1800 Incumbent died October 26, 1802.
Winner elected November 4, 1802.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Races leading to the 8th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1803; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut James Hillhouse Federalist 1796 Incumbent re-elected October 27, 1802.
Delaware Samuel White Federalist 1801 (Appointed) Incumbent re-elected January 11, 1803.
Maryland John E. Howard Federalist 1796 (Special)
1796
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected November 17, 1802.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Massachusetts Jonathan Mason Federalist 1800 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected February 7, 1803 on the fourth ballot.
Federalist hold.
New Jersey Aaron Ogden Federalist 1801 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Federalist loss.
Joseph Bloomfield (Democratic-Republican) 26
Aaron Ogden (Federalist) 26[8]
New York Gouverneur Morris Federalist 1800 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected February 1, 1803 on the 2nd ballot.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Pennsylvania James Ross Federalist 1794 (Special)
1797
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected December 14, 1802.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Rhode Island Theodore Foster Federalist 1796 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1802.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Tennessee Joseph Anderson Democratic-
Republican
1799 (Special) Legislature did not elect until September 22, 1803, after the term began, see below.[citation needed]
Democratic-Republican loss.
None.
Vermont Nathaniel Chipman Federalist 1797 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1802.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Virginia Stevens Mason Democratic-
Republican
1794 (Special)
1796
Incumbent re-elected in 1803.

Special elections during the 8th Congress[edit]

In this special election, the winner was seated in 1803 after March 4.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Ohio
(Class 1)
New seat Ohio joined the Union in 1803.
Winner elected April 1, 1803.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Ohio
(Class 3)
New seat Ohio joined the Union in 1803.
Winner elected April 1, 1803.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Tennessee
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.[citation needed]
Predecessor re-elected late September 22, 1803 on the 4th ballot.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New Jersey
(Class 1)
John Condit Democratic-Republican 1803 (Appointed) Legislature had failed to elect.
Condit was then appointed September 1, 1803 to continue the term.
He was then elected November 3, 1803.
Virginia
(Class 1)
John Taylor Democratic-Republican 1792 (Special)
1793
Predecessor Stevens T. Mason (DR) had died May 10, 1803, having just begun the new term.
Interim appointee served from June 4, 1803, and did not seek election to finish the term.
Winner elected December 7, 1803.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Early race leading to the Congress-after-next[edit]

In this general election, the winner was seated on March 4, 1805; ordered by state.

This election involved a Class 2 seat.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Tennessee William Cocke Democratic-
Republican
1799 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected early September 23, 1803.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Connecticut[edit]

Delaware[edit]

Maryland[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

New Hampshire (Special)[edit]

New Jersey[edit]

New Jersey (Special)[edit]

The New Jersey legislature had failed to elect by March 4, 1803. The governor appointed John Condit (DR) September 1, 1803 to continue the term. Condit was then unanimously elected November 3, 1803 to finish the term. No vote totals were recorded.[17]

New York[edit]

New York (Special)[edit]

Ohio[edit]

Ohio joined the Union in 1803. New Democratic-Republican senators were elected April 1, 1803. Official records indicate that John Smith and Thomas Worthington were elected, and that Smith received the "long" term, while Worthington received the "short" one. They do not indicate if there were other candidates, or what the vote totals were.[18]

Pennsylvania[edit]

Rhode Island[edit]

South Carolina (Special)[edit]

Tennessee[edit]

Vermont[edit]

Federalist Senator Nathaniel Chipman lost re-election to Democratic-Republican Israel Smith. Smith received 102 votes in the Vermont House of Representatives and 9 from the Governor and Council.[11] Spencer received 75 votes from the House and 4 from the Governor and Council.[11]

Virginia[edit]

Two-term Democratic-Republican incumbent Stevens Mason was re-elected in 1803.

Virginia (Special)[edit]

Democratic-Republican Senator Stevens T. Mason died May 10, 1803, having just begun the new term. John Taylor (DR) was appointed but chose not to run to finish the term. Abraham B. Venable (DR) was elected December 7, 1803 as the unanimous choice of the Virginia General Assembly. No vote totals were recorded.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "New York 1802 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing The Poughkeepsie Journal (Poughkeepsie, NY). February 16, 1802.
  2. ^ "New Hampshire 1802 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing Courier of New Hampshire (Concord, NH). June 24, 1802. The Providence Gazette (Providence, RI). July 3, 1802.
  3. ^ "South Carolina 1802 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing Original Election Returns. South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia. The Carolina Gazette (Charleston, SC). December 16, 1802. National Intelligencer and Washington Advertiser (Washington, DC). December 22, 1802.
  4. ^ "Connecticut 1802 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing American Mercury (Hartford, CT). November 4, 1802.
  5. ^ "Delaware 1803 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing Journal of the Delaware State Senate, 1803. 13-14.
  6. ^ "Maryland 1802 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing Votes and Proceedings of the Maryland State Senate, 1802. 10.
  7. ^ "Massachusetts 1803 U.S. Senate, Ballot 4". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing Columbian Centinel. Massachusetts Federalist (Boston, MA). February 5, 1803. The Independent Chronicle (Boston, MA). February 7, 1803. Columbian Centinel. Massachusetts Federalist (Boston, MA). February 9, 1803. Hampshire Gazette (Northampton, MA). February 9, 1803. Boston Gazette (Boston, MA). February 10, 1803. Republican Star or Eastern Shore General Advertiser (Easton, MD). March 1, 1803. Frederick-Town Herald (Fredericktown, MD). March 5, 1803.
  8. ^ "New Jersey 1802 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing Middlebury Mercury (Middlebury, VT). December 15, 1802.
  9. ^ "New York 1803 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1803. 39-40.
  10. ^ "Rhode Island 1802 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 31, 2018., citing The Providence Phoenix (Providence, RI). November 2, 1802.
  11. ^ a b c "Bennington: October 25, 1802". City Gazette. Charleston, South Carolina. November 20, 1802. p. 2 – via GenealogyBank.com.
  12. ^ "Tennessee 1803 U.S. Senate, Ballot 4". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 1, 2018., citing Journal of the Tennessee House of Representatives, 1803. 21-22.
  13. ^ "New Jersey 1803 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing The Centinel of Freedom (Newark, NJ). November 8, 1803.
  14. ^ "Our Campaigns - Candidate - John Condit". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved October 5, 2019."Our Campaigns - Candidate - John Condit". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved October 5, 2019.
  15. ^ a b "Richmond: December 10, 1803". Wilmington, North Carolina: Wilmington Gazette. December 27, 1803. p. 4. Mr. Taylor having declined to serve longer, Abraham B. Venable, esq., was on Wednesday last unanimously elected by the General Assembly in the room of Mr. Taylor.
  16. ^ "Tennessee 1803 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing Journal of the Tennessee House of Representatives, 1803. 27. Gazette of the United States (Philadelphia, PA). October 18, 1803. White, Robert Hiram. Messages of the Governors of Tennessee, 1796-1821. Vol. 1. Nashville: The Tennessee Historical Commission, 1952.
  17. ^ New Jersey Legislature (1804). Minutes and Proceedings of the Joint Meeting, November 3, 1803. Trenton, NJ: Sherman, Mershon & Thomas. p. 44.
  18. ^ Taylor, William A. (1900). Ohio in Congress from 1803 to 1901. Columbus, Ohio: Century Publishing Co. p. 96 – via Internet Archive.

Sources[edit]