The 18-point agreement, or the 18-point memorandum, was a list of 18 points drawn up by Sarawak, proposing terms to form Malaysia, during negotiations prior to the creation of the new federation in 1963.
A Commission of Enquiry, headed by Lord Cameron Cobbold, and The Lansdowne Committee, an inter-governmental committee, were appointed to aid in the drafting of the Malaysia Agreement. Lord Lansdowne served for Britain and Tun Abdul Razak, Deputy Prime Minister of the Federation of Malaya, served for Malaya. The 18 points were based on the Nine Cardinal Principles of the rule of the English Rajah. A similar memorandum, known as the 20-point agreement, was prepared and submitted by North Borneo. The 18-point agreement often serves as a focal point amongst those who argue that Sarawak's rights within the Federation have been eroded over time like Sabah.
The agreements, which can be found in the Proclamation of Malaysia and also the Cobbold Commission reports, stated the conditions and rights that were meant to safeguard the autonomy and the special interest of the people of Sabah and Sarawak, protecting, among others, these regions’ rights on religion, language, education, administration, economy and culture.
Some of the points were incorporated into the Constitution of Malaysia while the rest of Sarawak’s 18 points are outlined as follows:
- Religion Point
- Language Point
- Constitution Point
- Head of the federation Point
- Name of the federation Point
- Immigration Point
- Right to secession Point
- Borneanisation Point
- British Officers Point
- Citizenship Point
- Tariffs and Finance Point
- Special position of indigenous races Point
- State Government Point
- Transitional period Point
- Education Point
- Constitutional safeguards Point
- Representation in Federal Parliament Point
- Name of Head of State
- Allen, J. de V.; Stockwell, Anthony J. (1980). Wright., Leigh R. (ed.). A collection of treaties and other documents affecting the states of Malaysia 1761-1963. Oceana Pubns. ISBN 978-0379007817.
- An Agreement Forged and Forgotten, Borneo Post
- The 18 Point Agreement Revisited, Borneo Post