1792 and 1793 United States House of Representatives elections

1792 and 1793 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1790 / 1791 August 27, 1792 – September 6, 1793 1794 / 1795 →

All 105 seats in the U.S House of Representatives
53 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Frederick Muhlenberg.jpg TheodoreSedgwick.jpg
Leader Frederick Muhlenberg[1] Theodore Sedgwick
Party Anti-Administration Pro-Administration
Leader's seat Pennsylvania at-large Massachusetts 2nd
Last election 30 seats 39 seats
Seats won 54 51
Seat change Increase 24 Increase 12

3rdHouse.svg
Results:      Pro-Administration (F) majority
     Anti-Administration (DR) majority
     Even split

Speaker before election

Jonathan Trumbull
Pro-Administration

Elected Speaker

Frederick Muhlenberg
Anti-Administration

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 3rd Congress were held in 1792 and 1793, coinciding with the re-election of George Washington as President. While Washington ran for president as an independent, his followers (more specifically, the supporters of Alexander Hamilton) formed the nation's first organized political party, the Federalist Party, whose members and sympathizers are identified as pro-Administration on this page. In response, followers of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison created the opposition Democratic-Republican Party, who are identified as anti-Administration on this page. The Federalists promoted urbanization, industrialization, mercantilism, centralized government, and a broad interpretation of the United States Constitution. In contrast, Democratic-Republicans supported the ideal of an agrarian republic made up of self-sufficient farmers and small, localized governments with limited power.

Despite nearly unanimous support for Washington as a presidential candidate, Jeffersonian ideas edged out Hamiltonian principles at the ballot box for congressional candidates, with the Democratic-Republicans taking 24 seats more than they had prior to the organization of their political movement. Most of the increase was due to the addition of new seats in Western regions as a result of the United States census of 1790. Dominated by agrarian culture, these Western territories offered strong support to Democratic-Republican congressional candidates. As a result, they secured a thin majority in the legislature.

Election summaries[edit]

In this period, each state fixed its own date for a congressional general election, as early as August 1792 (in New Hampshire and Rhode Island) and as late as September 1793 (in Kentucky). In some states, the congressional delegation was not elected until after the legal start of the Congress (on the 4th day of March in the odd-numbered year), but as the first session of Congress typically began in November or December, the elections took place before Congress actually met. The 3rd Congress first met on December 2, 1793.

These were the first elections held after reapportionment following the first census. Thirty-six new seats were added,[2] with 1 state losing 1 seat, 3 states having no change, and the remaining 11 states gaining between 1 and 9 seats. This was the first apportionment based on actual census data, the apportionment for the 1st and 2nd Congresses being set by the Constitution using estimated populations.

54 51
Anti-Administration Pro-Administration
State Type ↑ Date Total
seats
Anti-
Administration
Pro-Administration
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
General elections
New Hampshire At-large August 27, 1792 4 Increase1 1 Increase1 3 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 28, 1792 2 Increase1 0 Increase1 2 Steady
Connecticut At-large September 17, 1792 7 Increase2 0 Steady 7 Increase2
Georgia At-large October 1, 1792 2 Decrease1 2 Decrease1 0 Steady
Maryland Districts October 1, 1792 8 Increase2 4 Increase1 4 Increase1
Delaware At-large October 2, 1792 1 Steady 1 Increase1 0 Decrease1
New Jersey At-large October 9, 1792 5 Increase1 0 Steady 5 Increase1
Pennsylvania At-large October 9, 1792 13 Increase5 8 Increase4 5 Increase1
Massachusetts Mixed November 2, 1792[a] 14 Increase6 3 Increase2 11 Increase4
New York Districts January 2, 1793 10 Increase4 3 Increase1 7 Increase3
Vermont Districts January 7, 1793[b] 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina Districts February 5, 1793 6 Increase1 5 Increase3 1 Decrease2
North Carolina Districts February 15, 1793 10 Increase5 9 Increase6 1 Decrease1
Late elections (after the March 4, 1793 beginning of the 3rd Congress)
Virginia Districts March 18, 1793 19 Increase9 15 Increase7 4 Increase2
Kentucky Districts September 6, 1793 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Total 105 Increase 36 54
51.4%
Increase 24 51
48.6%
Increase 12
House seats
Anti-Administration
51.43%
Pro-Administration
48.57%

House composition[edit]

End of the 2nd Congress[edit]

With new seats, due to reapportionment, outlined.

 
 
A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A V P P P
Majority→ P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P
 
 

Result of the elections[edit]

A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
Majority→ A
P P P P P P P P A A
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P
Key:
A = Anti-Administration
P = Pro-Administration
V = Vacant

Special elections[edit]

There were special elections in 1792 and 1793 during the 2nd United States Congress and 3rd United States Congress.

Elections are sorted here by state then district.

2nd Congress[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1
"Southern District"
Kentucky admitted June 1, 1792. New member elected September 7, 1792.
Anti-Administration gain.
Winner seated November 9, 1792.[3]
Winner was later re-elected to the next term, see below.
Christopher Greenup (Anti-Administration)[c]
Robert Brackenridge
Kentucky 2
"Northern District"
Kentucky admitted June 1, 1792. New member elected September 7, 1792.
Anti-Administration gain.
Winner seated November 8, 1792.[3]
Winner was later re-elected to the next term, see below.
Alexander D. Orr (Anti-Administration)[c]
Hubbard Taylor
Georgia 1 Anthony Wayne Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent disqualified March 21, 1792.
New member elected July 9, 1792.
Anti-Administration hold.
Winner later lost re-election to the next term, see below.
Green tickY John Milledge (Anti-Administration) 55.2%
Matthew MacAllister (Pro-Administration) 44.8%
John Glen 0.2%[4]
Maryland 2 Joshua Seney Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent resigned December 6, 1792 to become Chief Justice of Maryland's 3rd Judicial District.
New member elected January 7–10, 1793.
Pro-Administration gain.
Winner was already elected to the next term, see below.
Green tickY William Hindman (Pro-Administration) 63.2%
Thomas Whittington 36.8%[5]

3rd Congress[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut at-large Jonathan Sturges Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent resigned to become Associate Justice of the Connecticut Supreme Court.
New member elected April 8, 1793.[d]
Pro-Administration hold.
Green tickY Uriah Tracy (Pro-Administration) 49.8%
Zephaniah Swift (Pro-Administration) 18.5%
Asher Miller[e] 16.1%
Jonathan Ingersoll (Pro-Administration) 9.9%
Tapping Reeve[e] 5.7%
Connecticut at-large Benjamin Huntington Pro-Administration 1788 Representative-elect resigned.
New member elected September 16, 1793.
Pro-Administration hold.
Green tickY Jonathan Ingersoll (Pro-Administration)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Connecticut at-large Jonathan Ingersoll Pro-Administration 1793 (Special) Representative-elect Ingersoll declined the seat and Representative-elect Mitchell resigned to become U.S. Senator.
Two new members elected on a general ticket November 11, 1793.
Two Pro-Administration holds.
Green tickY Joshua Coit (Pro-Administration) 35.7%
Green tickY Zephaniah Swift (Pro-Administration) 24.2%
James Davenport (Pro-Administration) 17.2%
Roger Griswold (Pro-Administration) 12.6%
Chauncey Goodrich (Pro-Administration) 5.1%
Nathaniel Smith (Pro-Administration) 3.1%
Samuel W. Dana (Pro-Administration) 2.1%
Connecticut at-large Stephen M. Mitchell Pro-Administration 1792

Connecticut[edit]

Connecticut gained two seats in reapportionment following the 1790 census.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Connecticut at-large
7 seats on a general ticket
James Hillhouse Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. (Pro-Admin) 14.1%
Green tickY James Hillhouse (Pro-Admin) 13.0%
Green tickY Jonathan Sturges (Pro-Admin) 11.5%
Green tickY Benjamin Huntington (Pro-Admin) 10.6%
Green tickY Jeremiah Wadsworth (Pro-Admin) 10.4%
Green tickY Amasa Learned (Pro-Admin) 9.5%
Green tickY Stephen Mix Mitchell (Pro-Admin) 7.8%
Uriah Tracy (Pro-Admin) 6.3%
Jonathan Ingersoll 5.4%
Asher Miller 4.3%
Zephaniah Swift (Pro-Admin) 4.3%
Tapping Reeve 3.0%
Amasa Learned Pro-Administration 1791 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Jonathan Sturges Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Jeremiah Wadsworth Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.

Three special elections followed the 1792 elections in Connecticut after Representatives-elect Sturges and Huntington resigned before the start of Congress and Mitchell was elected to the Senate.

Delaware[edit]

Delaware's apportionment did not change following the 1790 census. As in the 1st and 2nd Congresses, each voter cast votes for two separate candidates, at least one of whom had to be from a different county as the voter.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Delaware at-large John M. Vining Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
Election was later challenged and overturned.[1]
Green tickY John Patten (Anti-Admin) 38.8%
Henry Latimer (Pro-Admin) 38.3%
Francis Many 11.7%
Edward Roche 7.9%
Andrew Barrett 3.3%

Georgia[edit]

Following the 1790 census, Georgia's apportionment was decreased from 3 seats to 2 (the only state whose representation decreased after the census). Georgia switched from separate districts to at-large seats.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Georgia at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
John Milledge
Redistricted from the 1st district
Anti-Administration 1792 (special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
Green tickY Abraham Baldwin (Anti-Admin) 44.5%
Green tickY Thomas P. Carnes (Anti-Admin) 29.5%
George Mathews 10.8%
John Milledge (Anti-Admin) 8.1%
Scattering 7.0%
Francis Willis (Anti-Admin) 0.3%
Abraham Baldwin
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Francis Willis
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration loss

Kentucky[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Kentucky 1
"Southern District"
Christopher Greenup Anti-Administration 1792 (New state) Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Christopher Greenup[c] (Anti-Admin)
Kentucky 2
"Northern district"
Alexander D. Orr Anti-Administration 1792 (New state) Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Alexander D. Orr[c] (Anti-Admin)

Maryland[edit]

Maryland increased from 6 to 8 representatives after the 1790 census. The previous mixed district/at-large system was replaced with a conventional district system.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maryland 1 Philip Key Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Green tickY George Dent (Pro-Admin) 44.7%
John Parnham (Pro-Admin) 29.8%
Philip Key (Pro-Admin) 25.5%
Maryland 2 John Francis Mercer
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1791 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY John Francis Mercer (Anti-Admin) 57.0%
John Thomas (Pro-Admin) 42.1%
Richard A. Contee 0.9%
Maryland 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Green tickY Uriah Forrest (Pro-Admin) 71.8%
William Dorsey (Anti-Admin) 28.1%
Others 0.1%
Maryland 4 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Thomas Sprigg (Anti-Admin) 100%
Maryland 5 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Samuel Smith (Anti-Admin) 61.1%
Charles Ridgely (Anti-Admin) 38.9%
Maryland 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Gabriel Christie (Anti-Admin) 63.6%
William Matthews (Pro-Admin) 36.4%
Maryland 7 Joshua Seney
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Incumbent then resigned December 6, 1792 to become Chief Justice of Maryland's 3rd Judicial District.
Winner was then also elected to finish the term, see above.
Green tickY William Hindman (Pro-Admin) 51.7%
James Tilghman (Anti-Admin) 48.3%[7]
Maryland 8 William V. Murray
Redistricted from the 5th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY William V. Murray (Pro-Admin) 93.8%
Littleton Dennis (Pro-Admin) 5.4%
Others 0.9%

Massachusetts[edit]

Following the 1790 Census, Massachusetts's representation increased from eight to fourteen Representatives and was redistricted into four plural districts, plus a single at-large district. The 4th district covered the District of Maine (the modern-day State of Maine). The plural districts were concurrent tickets rather than a single general ticket, though the 1st and Massachusetts 2s appear to have also had a general ticket alongside the more specific tickets.

As before, a majority was required for election, in those districts where a majority was not achieved, additional ballots were required.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Massachusetts 1 (4 seats)
Seat A: At-large
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
First ballot (November 2, 1792):
Jonathan Jones 39.8%
William Heath 31.0%
James Bowdoin 23.2%
Theophilus Parsons 6.0%

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):
Jonathan Jones 29.3%
Samuel Holten (Anti-Admin) 25.6%
James Bowdoin 17.1%
Samuel Sewall (Pro-Admin) 13.1%
William Heath 8.3%
Joseph Bradley Varnum (Anti-Admin) 3.8%
Elbridge Gerry (Anti-Admin) 2.8%

Third ballot (April 1, 1793):
Green tickY Samuel Holten (Anti-Admin) 69.9%
Benjamin Austin 30.1%
Massachusetts 1 (4 seats)
Seat B: Essex County
Benjamin Goodhue
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Benjamin Goodhue (Pro-Admin) 100%
Massachusetts 1 (4 seats)
Seat C: Middlesex County
Elbridge Gerry
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Green tickY Samuel Dexter (Pro-Admin) 61.4%
Joseph Bradley Varnum (Anti-Admin) 26.2%
Elbridge Gerry (Anti-Admin) 12.4%
Massachusetts 1 (4 seats)
Seat D: Suffolk County
Fisher Ames Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Fisher Ames (Pro-Admin) 62.4%
Benjamin Austin 37.6%
Massachusetts 2 (4 seats)
Seat A: At-large
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
First ballot (November 2, 1792):
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Admin) 41.3%
Theodore Sedgwick (Pro-Admin) 37.9%
William Lyman (Anti-Admin) 6.7%
Samuel Moorhaus 6.2%
Simson Strong 4.%
Dwight Foster (Pro-Admin) 3.5%

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Admin) 35.4%
Dwight Foster (Pro-Admin) 25.1%
Thomson J. Skinner (Anti-Admin) 19.6%
William Lyman (Anti-Admin) 12.1%
Jonathan Grout (Anti-Admin) 4.0%
William Shepard (Pro-Admin) 3.8%

Third ballot (April 1, 1793):
Green tickY Dwight Foster (Pro-Admin) 55.3%
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Admin) 44.7%
Massachusetts 2 (4 seats)
Seat B: Berkshire County
Theodore Sedgwick
Redistricted from the 4th district
Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Theodore Sedgwick (Pro-Admin) 63.8%
Thomson J. Skinner (Anti-Admin) 29.1%
John Bacon (Anti-Admin) 7.1%
Massachusetts 2 (4 seats)
Seat C: Hampshire County
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
First ballot (November 2, 1792):
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Admin) 37.4%
William Lyman (Anti-Admin) 32.3%
Thomas Dwight (Pro-Admin) 16.8%
Samuel Hinshaur 6.7%
John Williams 3.6%
Dwight Foster (Pro-Admin) 3.1%

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):
William Lyman (Anti-Admin) 38.0%
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Admin) 31.3%
William Shepard (Pro-Admin) 18.0%
Thomas Dwight (Pro-Admin) 12.7%

Third ballot (April 1, 1793):
Green tickY William Lyman (Anti-Admin) 53.1%
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Admin) 46.9%
Massachusetts 2 (4 seats)
Seat D: Worcester County
Artemas Ward
Redistricted from the 7th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Artemas Ward (Pro-Admin) 59.5%
Jonathan Grout (Anti-Admin) 36.8%
Dwight Foster (Pro-Admin) 3.8%
Massachusetts 3 (2 seats)
Seat A: Barnstable, Dukes, & Nantucket Counties
George Leonard
Redistricted from the 6th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Green tickY Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Admin) 52.6%
George Leonard (Pro-Admin) 34.3%
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Admin) 13.1%
Massachusetts 3 (2 seats)
Seat B: Bristol & Plymouth Counties
Shearjashub Bourne
Redistricted from the 5th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. First ballot (November 2, 1792):
John Davis 49.2%
Shearjashub Bourne (Pro-Admin) 26.1%
James Warren 24.8%

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):
Green tickY Shearjashub Bourne (Pro-Admin) 53.0%
John Davis 40.6%
James Warren 6.4%
Massachusetts 4 (3 seats)
District of Maine Seat A: Cumberland County
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
First ballot (November 2, 1792):
Daniel Davis 40.0%
Peleg Wadsworth (Pro-Admin) 38.6%
Robert Southgate 11.7%
Josiah Thacker 9.8%

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):
Peleg Wadsworth (Pro-Admin) 48.4%
Daniel Davis 42.2%
Robert Southgate 9.4%

Third ballot (April 1, 1793):
Green tickY Peleg Wadsworth (Pro-Admin) 58.0%
Daniel Davis 42.0%
Massachusetts 4 (3 seats)
District of Maine Seat B: Lincoln, Hancock, & Washington Counties
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
First ballot (November 2, 1792):
William Lithgow 49.98%
Henry Dearborn (Anti-Admin) 32.2%
Daniel Coney 11.8%
Alan Campbell 6.0%

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):
Green tickY Henry Dearborn (Anti-Admin) 60.9%
William Lithgow 39.1%
Massachusetts 4 (3 seats)
District of Maine Seat C: York County
George Thatcher
Redistricted from the 8th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY George Thatcher (Pro-Admin) 57.7%
Nathaniel Wells 35.4%
Tristan Jordan 6.9%
Massachusetts at-large None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Green tickY David Cobb (Pro-Admin) 52.6%
Charles Jarvis 9.6%
William Heath 6.9%
Theodore Sedgwick (Pro-Admin) 4.9%
Elbridge Gerry (Anti-Admin) 2.1%
Jonathan Jones 1.9%
Fisher Ames (Pro-Admin) 1.7%
James Sullivan (Anti-Admin) 1.5%
Samuel Horton 1.3%
Scattering 17.4%

New Hampshire[edit]

New Hampshire increased from 3 seats to 4 seats after the 1790 census.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Hampshire at-large
4 seats on a general ticket
Jeremiah Smith Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Jeremiah Smith (Pro-Admin) 24.1%
Green tickY Nicholas Gilman (Pro-Admin) 16.3%
Green tickY John Samuel Sherburne (Anti-Admin) 14.2%
Green tickY Paine Wingate (Pro-Admin) 12.2%
Abiel Foster (Pro-Admin) 8.9%
James Sheafe (Pro-Admin) 8.2%
Nathaniel Peabody 7.7%
Timothy Walker 4.0%
William Page 2.3%
Joshua Atherton 2.3%
Samuel Livermore Pro-Administration 1789 Retired
Anti-Administration gain.
Nicholas Gilman Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.

New Jersey[edit]

Following the 1790 census, New Jersey's apportionment increased from 4 to 5 seats.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[f]
New Jersey at-large
5 seats on a general ticket
Elias Boudinot Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY John Beatty (Pro-Admin) 16.4%
Green tickY Jonathan Dayton (Pro-Admin) 13.4%
Green tickY Abraham Clark (Pro-Admin) 11.8%
Green tickY Elias Boudinot (Pro-Admin) 10.8%
Green tickY Lambert Cadwalader (Pro-Admin) 10.1%
Thomas Sinnickson (Pro-Admin) 48.7%
Aaron Kitchell (Pro-Admin) 8.6%
James Linn 5.2%
Jonathan Elmer (Pro-Admin) 4.4%
Samuel Dick 4.1%
Thomas Henderson 2.9%
Abraham Clark Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
Jonathan Dayton Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
Aaron Kitchell Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.

New York[edit]

Due to re-apportionment following the 1790 census, New York's congressional delegation grew from 6 to 10. Three incumbents ran for re-election, two of whom won, and the other three incumbents retired. With the increase following re-apportionment, this left seven open seats.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New York 1 Thomas Tredwell Anti-Administration 1791 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Thomas Tredwell (Anti-Admin) 50.1%
Joshua Sands (Pro-Admin) 26.6%
Harry Peters (Pro-Admin) 23.3%
New York 2 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Green tickY John Watts (Pro-Admin) 72.6%
William S. Livingston (Anti-Admin) 27.3%
New York 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Philip Van Cortlandt (Anti-Admin) 55.5%
Richard Hatfield (Pro-Admin) 44.5%
New York 4 Cornelius C. Schoonmaker Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Green tickY Peter Van Gaasbeck (Pro-Admin) 47.3%
John Hathorn (Anti-Admin) 46.8%
John Carpenter (Anti-Admin) 2.3%
Cornelius C. Schoonmaker (Anti-Admin) 1.7%
William Thompson (Anti-Admin) 1.3%
Jesse Woodhull (Anti-Admin) 0.6%
New York 5 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Theodorus Bailey (Anti-Admin) 53.6%
James Kent (Pro-Admin) 46.4%
New York 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Green tickY Ezekiel Gilbert (Pro-Admin) 35.1%
Peter R. Livingston (Anti-Admin) 34.1%
Peter Van Ness (Anti-Admin) 30.8%
New York 7 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Green tickY John Evert Van Alen (Pro-Admin) 56.9%
Henry K. Van Rensselaer (Anti-Admin) 42.5%
Thomas Sickles (Anti-Admin) 0.6%
New York 8 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Green tickY Henry Glen (Pro-Admin) 63.8%
Jeremiah Van Rensselaer (Anti-Admin) 36.2%
New York 9 James Gordon
Redistricted from the 6th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY James Gordon (Pro-Admin) 46.0%
John Williams (Anti-Admin) 41.2%
John M. Thompson (Anti-Admin) 12.8%
New York 10 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Green tickY Silas Talbot (Pro-Admin) 34.1%
William Cooper (Pro-Admin) 26.6%
John Winn (Anti-Admin) 25.7%
Andrew Fink (Anti-Admin) 11.3%
Josiah Crane (Anti-Admin) 2.4%

North Carolina[edit]

Following the 1790 census, North Carolina's apportionment increased from 5 to 10 seats.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
North Carolina 1 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Joseph McDowell (Anti-Admin)[c]
North Carolina 2 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Matthew Locke (Anti-Admin)[c]
Alexander[g](Pro-Admin)
Montford Stokes
North Carolina 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Joseph Winston (Anti-Admin)[c]
Jesse Franklin (Anti-Admin)
John Williams (Anti-Admin)
James Martin
Clarke[g]
North Carolina 4 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Alexander Mebane (Anti-Admin) 44.8%
Stephen Moore (Pro-Admin) 39.0%
Ambrose Ramsay 16.2%
North Carolina 5 Nathaniel Macon
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Nathaniel Macon (Anti-Admin)[c]
North Carolina 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY James Gillespie (Anti-Admin)[c]
William Henry Hill (Pro-Admin)
Benjamin Smith
North Carolina 7 William B. Grove
Redistricted from the 5th district
Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY William B. Grove (Pro-Admin) 100%[c]
North Carolina 8 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY William J. Dawson (Anti-Admin) 63.8%
Stephen Cabarrus (Anti-Admin) 36.1%
William Cumming 0.2%
North Carolina 9 John B. Ashe
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
Green tickY Thomas Blount (Anti-Admin)[c]
John B. Ashe (Anti-Admin)
John Leigh (Pro-Admin)
North Carolina 10 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Benjamin Williams (Anti-Admin)[c]
William Maclure (Anti-Admin)

Pennsylvania[edit]

Pennsylvania switched from using districts to electing its representatives on an at-large basis for the 3rd Congress, just as it had done for the 1st Congress. This would be the last time that Pennsylvania would elect all of its Representatives at-large. Due to re-apportionment following the 1790 census, Pennsylvania's delegation increased from 8 representatives to 13.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[8]
Pennsylvania at-large
13 seats on a general ticket
Thomas Fitzsimons
Redistricted from the 1st district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY William Findley (Anti-Admin) 8.21%
Green tickY Frederick Muhlenberg (Anti-Admin) 8.01%
Green tickY Daniel Hiester (Anti-Admin) 7.96%
Green tickY William Irvine (Anti-Admin) 7.67%
Green tickY John W. Kittera (Pro-Admin) 7.39%
Green tickY Thomas Hartley (Pro-Admin) 7.06%
Green tickY Peter Muhlenberg (Anti-Admin) 5.40%
Green tickY Thomas Fitzsimons (Pro-Admin) 4.46%
Green tickY Andrew Gregg (Anti-Admin) 4.30%
Green tickY James Armstrong (Pro-Admin) 4.29%
Green tickY William Montgomery (Anti-Admin) 4.22%
Green tickY John Smilie (Anti-Admin) 4.15%
Green tickY Thomas Scott (Pro-Admin) 4.13%
Samuel Sitgreaves (Pro-Admin) 3.86%
Jonathan D. Sergeant (Anti-Admin) 3.74%
John Barclay (Anti-Admin) 3.70%
Charles Thomson (Anti-Admin) 3.68%
William Bingham (Pro-Admin) 3.59%
Henry Wynkoop (Pro-Admin) 3.55%
Israel Jacobs (Pro-Admin) 0.65%
Frederick Muhlenberg
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Israel Jacobs
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Daniel Hiester
Redistricted from the 4th district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
John W. Kittera
Redistricted from the 5th district
Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
Andrew Gregg
Redistricted from the 6th district
Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
Thomas Hartley
Redistricted from the 7th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
William Findley
Redistricted from the 8th district
Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.

Rhode Island[edit]

Rhode Island gained a second representative from the results of the 1790 census. Rhode Island did not divide itself into districts, but elected two at-large representatives.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Rhode Island at-large
2 seats elected at-large on a general ticket
Benjamin Bourne Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.

South Carolina[edit]

South Carolina gained one representative as a result of the 1790 census, increasing from 5 to 6.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 William L. Smith Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY William L. Smith (Pro-Admin) 61.5%
Thomas Tudor Tucker (Anti-Admin) 22.2%
Jacob Read (Pro-Admin) 16.4%
Thomas Tudor Tucker
Redistricted from the 5th district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
Anti-Administration loss.
South Carolina 2 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY John Hunter (Anti-Admin)[c]
South Carolina 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Lemuel Benton (Anti-Admin)[c]
South Carolina 4 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Richard Winn (Anti-Admin)[c]
South Carolina 5 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Alexander Gillon (Anti-Admin)[c]
South Carolina 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Andrew Pickens (Anti-Admin)[c]

Vermont[edit]

Vermont had no apportionment in the House of Representatives before 1790 census because it was not admitted to the Union until 1791. Vermont's election laws at the time required a majority to win election to the House of Representatives. If no candidate won a majority, a runoff election was held, which happened in the 1st district.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[f]
Vermont 1
"Western district"
Israel Smith Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected. First ballot: January 7, 1793
Israel Smith (Anti-Admin) 44.2%
Matthew Lyon (Anti-Admin) 33.8%
Isaac Tichenor (Pro-Admin) 17.8%
Samuel Hitchcock 4.2%

Second ballot: March 20, 1793
Green tickY Israel Smith (Anti-Admin) 51.0%
Matthew Lyon (Anti-Admin) 44.0%
Isaac Tichenor (Pro-Admin) 4.3%
Samuel Hitchcock 0.6%
Others[i] 0.1%
Vermont 2
"Eastern district"
Nathaniel Niles Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Nathaniel Niles (Anti-Admin) 60.3%
Elijah Paine (Pro-Admin) 14.0%
Stephen Jacob 7.7%
Paul Brigham (Anti-Admin) 4.4%
Samuel Cutler 3.9%
Daniel Buck (Pro-Admin) 3.5%
Isaac Tichenor (Pro-Admin) 2.2%
Others 4.0%

Virginia[edit]

Virginia gained nine representatives from the 1790 census, and in addition, the old 2nd district was lost after its territory became the new State of Kentucky. There were, therefore, ten new districts created for the 3rd Congress.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Virginia 1 Alexander White Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Robert Rutherford (Anti-Admin) 56.6%
John Smith (Anti-Admin) 25.8%
Alexander White (Pro-Admin) 17.6%
Virginia 2 Andrew Moore
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Andrew Moore (Anti-Admin)[c]
Virginia 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Joseph Neville (Anti-Admin)[c]
George Jackson (Anti-Admin)
Jeremiah Jacobs
William MacCleery
Virginia 4 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Results subsequently challenged but upheld.
Green tickY Francis Preston (Anti-Admin)
Abraham Trigg
Virginia 5 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Green tickY George Hancock (Pro-Admin) 60.5%
Charles Clay 34.0%
Calohill Minnis 5.5%
Virginia 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Isaac Coles (Anti-Admin)[c]
Virginia 7 Abraham B. Venable
Redistricted from the 6th district
Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Abraham B. Venable (Anti-Admin)[c]
Joseph Wyatt
Thomas Scott (Pro-Admin)
Tarlton Woodson (Pro-Admin)
Virginia 8 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Thomas Claiborne (Anti-Admin)[c]
Richard Kennon
Jesse Brown
J. Nicholson
Virginia 9 William B. Giles Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY William B. Giles (Anti-Admin)[c]
Robert Bolling
Virginia 10 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Carter B. Harrison (Anti-Admin)[c]
John H. Briggs
Virginia 11 Josiah Parker
Redistricted from the 8th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
as Pro-Administration
Green tickY Josiah Parker (Pro-Administration)[j][c]
John Neirson
Virginia 12 John Page
Redistricted from the 7th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY John Page (Anti-Admin)[c]
Virginia 13 Samuel Griffin
Redistricted from the 10th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
as Pro-Administration
Green tickY Samuel Griffin (Pro-Administration)[j][c]
Virginia 14 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Francis Walker (Anti-Admin)[c]
Virginia 15 James Madison, Jr.
Redistricted from the 5th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY James Madison, Jr. (Anti-Admin)[c]
Virginia 16 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY Anthony New (Anti-Admin)[c]
John Roane (Anti-Admin)
Francis Corbin
Virginia 17 Richard Bland Lee
Redistricted from the 4th district
Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Richard Bland Lee (Pro-Admin)[c]
Virginia 18 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY John Nicholas (Anti-Admin)[c]
William Pickett
Virginia 19 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Green tickY John Heath (Anti-Admin)[c]
Walter Jones (Anti-Admin)
Francis L. Lee

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Massachusetts required a majority for election, which led to additional ballots on January 14, 1793 and April 1, 1793.
  2. ^ Vermont required a majority for election, which led to an additional ballot on March 20, 1793.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Source does not give numbers of votes or has incomplete data.
  4. ^ Date given for the start of the term, of the person elected at the special election.[6] In some cases this is clearly wrong as the date of the legal start of the Congress is given, even though the member was elected at a later date.
  5. ^ a b Party affiliation not given in source
  6. ^ a b Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed.
  7. ^ a b Source does not give full name.
  8. ^ Numbers of votes missing or incomplete in source.
  9. ^ Four individuals received 1 vote each.
  10. ^ a b Had been Anti-Administration in the previous election.

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]