A regular 120-gon
|Edges and vertices||120|
|Schläfli symbol||, t, tt, ttt|
|Symmetry group||Dihedral (D120), order 2×120|
|Internal angle (degrees)||177°|
|Properties||Convex, cyclic, equilateral, isogonal, isotoxal|
Alternative names include dodecacontagon and hecatonicosagon.
Regular 120-gon properties
One interior angle in a regular 120-gon is 177°, meaning that one exterior angle would be 3°.
The area of a regular 120-gon is (with t = edge length)
and its inradius is
The circumradius of a regular 120-gon is
This means that the trigonometric functions of π/120 can be expressed in radicals.
The regular 120-gon has Dih120 dihedral symmetry, order 240, represented by 120 lines of reflection. Dih120 has 15 dihedral subgroups: (Dih60, Dih30, Dih15), (Dih40, Dih20, Dih10, Dih5), (Dih24, Dih12, Dih6, Dih3), and (Dih8, Dih4, Dih2, Dih1). And 16 more cyclic symmetries: (Z120, Z60, Z30, Z15), (Z40, Z20, Z10, Z5), (Z24, Z12, Z6, Z3), and (Z8, Z4, Z2,Z1), with Zn representing π/n radian rotational symmetry.
These 32 symmetries are related to 44 distinct symmetries on the 120-gon. John Conway labels these lower symmetries with a letter and order of the symmetry follows the letter. He gives d (diagonal) with mirror lines through vertices, p with mirror lines through edges (perpendicular), i with mirror lines through both vertices and edges, and g for rotational symmetry. a1 labels no symmetry.
These lower symmetries allows degrees of freedom in defining irregular 120-gons. Only the g120 symmetry has no degrees of freedom but can seen as directed edges.
Coxeter states that every zonogon (a 2m-gon whose opposite sides are parallel and of equal length) can be dissected into m(m-1)/2 parallelograms. In particular this is true for regular polygons with evenly many sides, in which case the parallelograms are all rhombi. For the regular 120-gon, m=60, and it can be divided into 1770: 30 squares and 29 sets of 60 rhombs. This decomposition is based on a Petrie polygon projection of a 60-cube.
- Norman Johnson, Geometries and Transformations (2018), Chapter 11, section 11.5 Spherical Coxeter groups, 11.5 full polychoric groups
- Constructible Polygon
- John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strauss, (2008) The Symmetries of Things, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 (Chapter 20, Generalized Schaefli symbols, Types of symmetry of a polygon pp. 275-278)
- Coxeter, Mathematical recreations and Essays, Thirteenth edition, p.141