|116th United States Congress|
United States Capitol (2018)
|January 3, 2019 – January 3, 2021|
|Senate President||Mike Pence (R)|
|Senate President pro tem||Chuck Grassley (R)|
|House Speaker||Nancy Pelosi (D)|
435 members of the House
6 non-voting delegates
|1st: January 3, 2019 – January 3, 2020|
2nd: January 3, 2020 – present
The One Hundred Sixteenth United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D.C., on January 3, 2019, and will end on January 3, 2021, during the third and fourth years of the Presidency of Donald Trump. Senators elected to regular terms in 2014 are finishing their terms in this Congress and House seats were apportioned based on the 2010 Census.
In the November 2018 midterm elections, the Democratic Party won a new majority in the House, while the Republican Party increased its majority in the Senate. Consequently, this is the first split Congress since the 113th Congress of 2013–2015, and the first Republican Senate/Democratic House split since the 99th Congress of 1985–1987. This Congress is the youngest incoming class by mean age in the past three cycles.
- December 22, 2018 – January 25, 2019: 2018–19 United States federal government shutdown
- February 5, 2019: 2019 State of the Union Address was delayed from January 29 due to the partial government shutdown.
- February 15, 2019: President Trump declared a National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States.
- February 27, 2019: Former Trump lawyer Michael Cohen testified before the House Oversight and Reform Committee.
- March 24, 2019: Special Counsel investigation: U.S. Attorney general William Barr issued a summary letter of special counsel Robert Mueller's report to congress on the investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election.
- July 24, 2019: Special Counsel investigation: Special counsel Robert Mueller testified before the House Judiciary and Intelligence committees.
- September 24, 2019: Impeachment of Donald Trump: House opened an Impeachment inquiry after a whistleblower alleged the President abused his power in a phone call with the President of Ukraine.
- December 13, 2019: Impeachment of Donald Trump: The House Judiciary Committee sent two articles of impeachment to the house floor for a vote.
- December 18, 2019: Impeachment of Donald Trump: The House impeached President Trump.
- January 16, 2020 – February 5, 2020: Impeachment of Donald Trump: Trial in the Senate
- February 4, 2020: 2020 State of the Union Address
- February 15, 2019: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2019, Pub.L. 116–6, H.J.Res. 31
- March 12, 2019: John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation, Management, and Recreation Act, Pub.L. 116–9, S. 47
- July 29, 2019: Never Forget the Heroes: James Zadroga, Ray Pfeifer, and Luis Alvarez Permanent Authorization of the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund Act, Pub.L. 116–34, H.R. 1327
- November 27, 2019: Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act, Pub.L. 116–76, S. 1838
- December 20, 2019: Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act as part of the Further Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2020, Pub.L. 116–94, S. 1865
- January 29, 2020: United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement Implementation Act, Pub.L. 116–113, H.R. 5430
- Coronavirus relief acts:
- March 6, 2020: Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2020, Pub.L. 116–123, H.R. 6074
- March 18, 2020: Families First Coronavirus Response Act, Pub.L. 116–127, H.R. 6201
- March 27, 2020: Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act), Pub.L. 116–136, H.R. 748
- House Bills
- House Joint Resolutions
(With official titles)
- March 15, 2019: H.J.Res. 46: Relating to a national emergency declared by the President on February 15, 2019.
- April 16, 2019: S.J.Res. 7: A joint resolution to direct the removal of United States Armed Forces from hostilities in the Republic of Yemen that have not been authorized by Congress.
- October 31, 2019: Formally commencing an impeachment inquiry against Donald Trump, H.Res. 660
- December 18, 2019: "Impeaching Donald John Trump, President of the United States, for high crimes and misdemeanors", H.Res. 755
- Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section below.
(shading indicates majority caucus)
|End of previous Congress||47||2||50||99||1|
|Begin (January 3, 2019)||45||2||52||99||1|
|January 8, 2019 [a]||53||100||0|
|December 31, 2019[b]||52||99||1|
|January 6, 2020[b]||53||100||0|
|Latest voting share||47.0%||53.0%|
House of Representatives
(shading indicates majority caucus)
|End of previous Congress||196||0||236||432||3|
|Begin (January 3, 2019)[c]||235||0||199||434||1|
|January 23, 2019[d]||198||433||2|
|February 10, 2019[e]||197||432||3|
|May 21, 2019[d]||198||433||2|
|July 4, 2019[f]||1||197|
|September 10, 2019[c][e]||199||435||0|
|September 23, 2019[g]||198||434||1|
|October 1, 2019[h]||197||433||2|
|October 17, 2019[i]||234||432||3|
|November 3, 2019[j]||233||431||4|
|December 19, 2019[k]||232||198|
|January 13, 2020[l]||197||430||5|
|Latest voting share||54.1%||0.2%||45.9%|
- President: Mike Pence (R)
- President pro tempore: Chuck Grassley (R)
- President pro tempore emeritus: Patrick Leahy (D)
Majority (Republican) Leadership
- Majority Leader: Mitch McConnell
- Majority Whip: John Thune
- Conference Chair: John Barrasso
- Conference Vice Chair: Joni Ernst
- Policy Committee Chair: Roy Blunt
- Campaign Committee Chair: Todd Young
- Steering Committee Chair: Mike Lee
- Chief Deputy Whip: Mike Crapo
- Deputy Whips: Roy Blunt, Shelley Moore Capito, John Cornyn, Cory Gardner, James Lankford, Martha McSally, Rob Portman, Mitt Romney, Tim Scott, Thom Tillis, Todd Young
Minority (Democratic) Leadership
- Minority Leader/Caucus Chair: Chuck Schumer
- Minority Whip: Dick Durbin
- Assistant Leader: Patty Murray
- Policy Committee Chair: Debbie Stabenow
- Caucus Vice Chairs: Mark Warner, Elizabeth Warren
- Steering Committee Chair: Amy Klobuchar
- Outreach Chair: Bernie Sanders
- Policy Committee Vice Chair: Joe Manchin
- Caucus Secretary: Tammy Baldwin
- Campaign Committee Chair: Catherine Cortez Masto
- Chief Deputy Whip: Cory Booker, Jeff Merkley, Brian Schatz
House of Representatives
Majority (Democratic) Leadership
- Majority Leader: Steny Hoyer
- Majority Whip: Jim Clyburn
- Assistant Leader: Ben Ray Luján
- Caucus Chair: Hakeem Jeffries
- Caucus Vice Chair: Katherine Clark
- Campaign Committee Chair: Cheri Bustos
- Policy and Communications Committee Chair: David Cicilline
- Policy and Communications Committee Co-Chairs: Matt Cartwright, Debbie Dingell, Ted Lieu
- Steering and Policy Committee Co-Chairs: Rosa DeLauro, Barbara Lee, Eric Swalwell
- Assistant to the Majority Whip: Cedric Richmond
- Senior Chief Deputy Whips: John Lewis, Jan Schakowsky
- Chief Deputy Whips: Pete Aguilar, G. K. Butterfield, Henry Cuellar, Dan Kildee, Sheila Jackson Lee, Debbie Wasserman Schultz, Terri Sewell, Peter Welch
Minority (Republican) Leadership
- Minority Leader: Kevin McCarthy
- Minority Whip: Steve Scalise
- Conference Chair: Liz Cheney
- Conference Vice Chair: Mark Walker
- Conference Secretary: Jason Smith
- Policy Committee Chair: Gary Palmer
- Campaign Committee Chair: Tom Emmer
- Chief Deputy Whip: Drew Ferguson
Most members of this Congress are Christian (88.2%), with approximately half being Protestant and 30.5% being Catholic. Jewish membership is 6.4%. Other religions represented include Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism. One senator says that she is religiously unaffiliated, while the number of members refusing to specify their religious affiliation increased.
The Senate includes 75 men and 25 women — the most women to date. In 6 states, both senators are women; 13 states are represented by 1 man and 1 woman; and 31 states are represented by 2 men. There are 91 non-Hispanic white, 4 Hispanic, 2 Black, 2 Asian, and 1 multiracial senators. Additionally, 2 senators identify as LGBTQ+.
House of Representatives
There are 101 women in the House, the largest number in history. There are 313 non-Hispanic whites, 56 black, 44 Hispanic, 15 Asian, and 4 Native American. Eight identify as LGBTQ+. Two Democrats — Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Donna Shalala — are the youngest (30) and oldest (78) freshmen women in history. Freshmen Rashida Tlaib (D-MI) and Ilhan Omar (DFL-MN) are the first two Muslim women and freshmen Sharice Davids (D-KS) and Deb Haaland (D-NM) are the first two female Native American members.
With the election of Carolyn Maloney as the first woman to chair the House Oversight Committee, women now chair a record six House committees in a single Congress (out of 26 women to ever chair House committees in the history of Congress), including representatives Maxine Waters (Financial Services), Nita Lowey (Appropriations), Zoe Lofgren (Administration), Eddie Bernice Johnson (Science, Space and Technology) and Nydia Velázquez (Small Business), as well as Kathy Castor who chairs the Select Committee on the Climate Crisis. In addition, women chair a record 39 House subcommittees. Lowey and Kay Granger are also the first women to serve as chair and ranking member of the same committee in the same Congress since the defunct Select Committee on the House Beauty Shop, which was chaired and populated entirely by congresswomen during its existence from 1967 to 1977.
The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All class 1 seats were contested in the November 2018 elections. In this Congress, class 1 means their term commenced in the current Congress, requiring re-election in 2024; class 2 means their term ends with this Congress, requiring re-election in 2020; and class 3 means their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 2022.
House of Representatives
Changes in membership
|Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|Vacant||Senator-elect chose to wait until finishing term as Governor of Florida.||Rick Scott |
|January 8, 2019|
|Johnny Isakson |
|Incumbent resigned December 31, 2019. |
A successor was appointed the same day[m] to continue the term until the November 3, 2020 special election.
|Kelly Loeffler |
|January 6, 2020|
House of Representatives
|District||Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|North Carolina 9||Vacant||Vacant from the start of the term as allegations of fraud in the 2018 general election prevented the results from being certified. |
A special election was held September 10, 2019.
|Dan Bishop |
|September 17, 2019|
|Pennsylvania 12||Tom Marino |
|Resigned January 23, 2019, to take job in private sector. |
A special election was held May 21, 2019.
|Fred Keller |
|June 3, 2019|
|North Carolina 3||Walter B. Jones Jr. |
|Died February 10, 2019. |
A special election was held September 10, 2019.
|Greg Murphy |
|September 17, 2019|
|Michigan 3||Justin Amash |
|Changed party July 4, 2019.||Justin Amash |
|July 4, 2019|
|Wisconsin 7||Sean Duffy |
|Resigned September 23, 2019. |
A special election is scheduled for May 12, 2020.
|New York 27||Chris Collins |
|Resigned October 1, 2019. |
A special election was originally to be held on April 28, 2020, but postponed to June 23, 2020 due to the coronavirus pandemic. 
|Maryland 7||Elijah Cummings |
|Died October 17, 2019. |
A special election is scheduled for April 28, 2020.
|California 25||Katie Hill |
|Resigned November 3, 2019, due to allegations of improper relationships with staffer. |
A special election was held on March 3, 2020. No candidate received a majority, so a runoff is scheduled on May 12, 2020.
|New Jersey 2||Jeff Van Drew |
|Changed party December 19, 2019.||Jeff Van Drew (R)||December 19, 2019|
|California 50||Duncan D. Hunter |
|Resigned January 13, 2020. |
Seat will remain vacant until determined by general election.
|Vacant until the next Congress|
|North Carolina 11||Mark Meadows |
|Resigned March 30, 2020. to become White House Chief of Staff. |
It is unknown if a special election will be held, which might be concurrent with November general election.
Listed by chamber and then alphabetically by committee name, including chair and ranking member.
House of Representatives
|Committee||Chair||Vice Chair||Ranking Member||Vice Ranking Member|
|Economic||Mike Lee (R-UT)||Carolyn Maloney (D-NY)||David Schweikert (R-AZ)||Martin Heinrich (D-NM)|
|Library||Roy Blunt (R-MO)||Zoe Lofgren (D-CA)||Rodney Davis (R-IL)||Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)|
|Printing||Zoe Lofgren (D-CA)||Roy Blunt (R-MO)||Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)||Rodney Davis (R-IL)|
|Taxation[s]||Richard Neal (D-MA)||Chuck Grassley (R-IA)||Ron Wyden (D-OR)||Kevin Brady (R-TX)|
Employees and legislative agency directors
Also called "elected" or "appointed" officials, there are many employees of the House and Senate whose leaders are included here.
- Chaplain: Barry C. Black
- Parliamentarian: Elizabeth MacDonough
- Secretary: Julie E. Adams
- Sergeant at Arms: Michael C. Stenger
- Secretary for the Majority: Laura Dove
- Secretary for the Minority: Gary B. Myrick
House of Representatives
- Chaplain: Patrick J. Conroy
- Chief Administrative Officer: Phil Kiko
- Clerk: Cheryl L. Johnson
- Historian: Matthew Wasniewski
- Parliamentarian: Thomas J. Wickham Jr.
- Sergeant at Arms: Paul D. Irving
Legislative branch agency directors
- Architect of the Capitol: J. Brett Blanton
- Comptroller General of the United States: Eugene Louis Dodaro
- Director of the Congressional Budget Office: Phill Swagel
- Librarian of Congress: Carla Diane Hayden
- Director of the U.S. Government Publishing Office: Vacant
- Counselor of the Office of the Law Revision Counsel: Ralph V. Seep
- Counselor of the Office of House Legislative Counsel: Ernest Wade Ballou Jr.
- 2018 United States elections (elections leading to this Congress)
- 2019 United States elections (elections during this Congress)
- 2020 United States elections (elections during this Congress, leading to the next Congress)
- 2010s in United States political history
- In Florida, Rick Scott (R) assumed office late.
- In Georgia, Senator Johnny Isakson (R) resigned December 31, 2019. Kelly Loeffler (R) was appointed January 6, 2020, to continue the term.
- In North Carolina's 9th district: the November 2018 election results were not certified due to a dispute over voting irregularities. Dan Bishop (R) was later elected.
- In Pennsylvania's 12th district: Tom Marino (R) resigned and Fred Keller (R) was elected.
- In North Carolina's 3rd district: Walter Jones (R) died and Greg Murphy (R) was elected.
- In Michigan's 3rd district: Justin Amash changed parties from Republican to Independent.
- In Wisconsin's 7th district: Sean Duffy (R) resigned.
- In New York's 27th district: Chris Collins (R) resigned.
- In Maryland's 7th district: Elijah Cummings (D) died.
- In California's 25th district: Katie Hill (D) resigned.
- In New Jersey's 2nd district: Jeff Van Drew changed parties from Democratic to Republican.
- In California's 50th district: Duncan D. Hunter (R) resigned.
- Loeffler's appointment was "effective December 31, 2019."
- The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) is the Minnesota affiliate of the U.S. Democratic Party and its members are counted as Democrats.
- Although Sanders is running for President in the Democratic primary and will claim to be a "bona fide Democrat" in accordance to DNC rules, he is currently and officially an Independent senator.
- In Michigan's 3rd district: Justin Amash changed from Republican to Independent, July 4, 2019.
- In New Jersey's 2nd district: Jeff Van Drew changed from Democratic to Republican, December 19, 2019.
- This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.
- The Joint Taxation Committee leadership rotate the chair and vice chair and the ranking members between the House and Senate at the start of each session (calendar year) in the middle of the congressional term. The first session leadership is shown here.
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- Videos of House of Representatives Sessions for the 116th Congress from C-SPAN
- Videos of Senate Sessions for the 116th Congress from C-SPAN
- Videos of Committees from the House and Senate for the 116th Congress C-SPAN
- Congressional Pictorial Directory for the 116th Congress